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main-en-Laye; it was the residence of the Empress Josephine after her divorce in 1809. Here she died in 1814, and was interred in the small church of Rueil, in which a monument was erected to her memory by her children Eugène Beauharnais (d. 1824), and Queen Hortense (d. 1837), mother of Napoleon III.

1. 10. la pourpre, 'purple'; names of colours are all masc.; here pourpre, Lat. purpura, is the imperial purple-bordered toga.

1. 15. enrégimentait..., arranged according to their order and species'.

1. 29. des grèves inondées, 'flooded strands'; grève is derived from Old Fr. grave which has given gravier, gravel.

1. 34. frontières vitrées, 'glass partitions'.

1. 36. l'hortensia, a kind of hydrangea, named after Josephine's daughter Hortense Beauharnais.

PAGE 110. 1. 8. à elle, her very own'. For a similar use of a disjunctive to emphasise a conjunctive pronoun, cp: p. 22, 1. 8.

1. 11. de la Martinique ; Josephine (Marie Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie) was born at the Martinique, and was married there at the early age of 15 to Viscount Beauharnais.

1. 15. ses premières amours, 'her first love'; amour is masc. in the sing. but it was fem. in the middle ages and has retained that gender in the plural ; when however it means parental or friendly love it remains masc., so also in the sense of Cupid.

1. 21. Ses jours de captivité; Josephine was imprisoned after the death on the scaffold of her first husband Viscount Beauharnais; she was restored to liberty by Tailien.

PAGE 111. 1. 6. qu'il achevait sa revue par elle, 'that with her he ended his military review'.

1. 16. fourbus, 'footsore'; participle of the Old Fr. verb forboire, to drink hard'. It was believed that the foot disease in horses was caused by giving them too much water after a long journey.

1. 19. en qualité d'Autrichiens, “acting the part of Austrians'.

1. 28. pour empêcher que la petite guerre ne devînt ; 'to prevent this sham fight becoming'. This ne after verbs of fearing and hindering is not the negation; que ne=

=Lat. quin or ne. 1. 34. on mit le tout sur le compte de, 'they put it all down to'.

1. 35. rasades, 'bumpers '; rasade is derived from raser, to shave, to graze (the liquor grazes the top of the full glass); the suffix ade expresses à repetition of actions or things of the same kind, as in promenade, embrassade; colonnade, balustrade.

PAGE 112. 1. 3. croix d'honneur, 'crosses of the Legion of Honour'. This order of knighthood was founded by Bonaparte in 1802 to reward mili

tary and civil services. Every Légionnaire has a right to wear an enamelled cross or a bit of red ribbon in one of the left button-holes of his coat; the officers wear a golden cross or a red rosette instead of the simple ribbon.

i. 5. Cisalpine, the Cisalpine republic (Northern Italy) founded by Bonaparte in 1797 lasted till 1805.

1. 20. s'accouda des deux bras, "leaned with both elbows'; accouder is derived from coude, elbow (Lat. cubitus).

PAGE 113. 1. 3. te va, 'suits you'; te is dat. Cp. p. 93, 1. 13.

1. 19. ne le fît tomber, 'should lead him into'. Que ne after craindre in an affirmative principal clause='lest'. See p. 111, 1. 28.

1. 33. j'en doute, "I doubt it'; douter requires a gen., hence en ; cp. Eng. 'I have a doubt of it'; se douter is to suspect.

PAGE 114. 1. 4. à grand peine, with great difficulty'. Adjectives which in Latin had the same termination for the masc. and fem. had but one also in Old Fr.; this has survived in the case of grand (Lat. grandis) in the combinations grand mère, grand' peur, grand messe, where the apostrophe has really no raison d'être.

1. 7. qu'est-ce à dire ? what do you mean?' c'est à dire='that is to say'.

l. 11. nonchalance de Créole, West Indian nonchalance'. The word Créole applies to all who are born in the West Indies ; nonchalance is der. from nonchalant, cool, careless; Lat. non calens.

VI.

1. 27. s'anioncelaient, crowded on one another'.

PAGE 115. 1.7. sanglots, .sobs'; sanglot is a verbal subst. from sangloter, from Lat. singultare.

1. 9. voile, masc. a veil ; from Lat. velum, whose plural vela, taken as if it were fem. sing., has given the subst. fem. voile, a sail ; compare corne (cornua), pomme (poma).

1. 22. bourru, 'peevish,''crabbed'; connected with bourrer, to cram (with insults).

1. 23. fumant à pleine pipe, puffing away vigorously'.

1. 24. lui en vouloir de son malheur, 'to be angry with him for being unhappy'; en vouloir, lit. to wish of it (en, sc. some evil).

1. 31. ainsi en agissent, 'thus deal '; cp. p. 29, 1. 29.

1. 34. plutôt que de chercher, rather than seek’; when the comparison is between two infinitives que de is generally used instead of que.

PAGE 116.

1. 18. que faisait ressortir encore. Obs. that que is acc.

1. 40. faites-vous-en de la tisane, 'make some diet-drink out of it'; vous='for yourself'.

PAGE 117. 1. 3. à la bonne heure, 'very well,' all right'; de bonne heure= early'.

1. 9. gourmander vertement, 'to rebuke sharply'..
1. 11. O che frascheria! (Ital.), what nonsense!'
1. 21. tant il y a, 'the fact is’; lit. 'so much is there'.

1. 34. d'en finir d'un coup, 'to settle it at once,' lit. "to finish with it at one stroke'.

PAGE 118. 1. 3. bénie sois-tu. Observe that the partic. of bénir is here béni, blessed, not bénit, consecrated; see p. 88, 1. 26.

VII.

1. 20. un reste de poudre, still a little hair-powder'.

1. 30. accès d'emportement, 'fits of temper'. Compare s'emporter, to fly into a passion, p. 96, l. 17.

1. 31. consonnances fâcheuses, 'clumsy expressions,' lit. "unpleasant concords'.

1. 33. arrondissait le geste en saluant, 'made flourishes when saluting'.

PAGE 119. 1. 4. en avait mal usé, had dealt unhandsomely'; user, v. a. is to consume, to use out; user, v. n. is to use, to make use of, and requires the gen. ; accordingly, in the absence of a complement with de, the pronoun en must be used; en user envers quelqu'un='to deal by some one'.

1. 22. vous avez failli me compromettre, 'you have all but compromised me'. Cp. p. 28, 1. 21.

1. 32. au secret, 'in solitary confinement '.

PAGE 120. 1. 7. que voici, 'here present,' lit. 'whom behold here'; voici= vois-ici.

1. 17. Se mirent en devoir, 'set about’; lit. put themselves in duty'.

1. 22. carreau, 'flag-stone'. See p. 98, 1. 30.

1. 26. Latude. Henri Mazers de Latude, born in 1725, was for 35 years a state prisoner. He tried several times to escape from the Bastille, and from Vincennes, and once got away as far as Amsterdam when he was again arrested. (See Wonderful Escapes by Whiteing.)

1. 27. Bastille ; the Bastille of Paris was a fortified castle built in the reign of Charles V. for the defence of the gate St Antoine. It was for a long while used as a state prison and was seized by the people and demolished in 1789.

1. 34. depuis ?96, ever since 1796'.

1. 36. faisaient le guet, ‘were keeping watch '; guet der. from guetter which is of German origin=wachten.

PAGE 121.

1. 3. se mit à promener en mesure ses doigts sur la viire, 'began drumming with his fingers on the window pane'. See p. 90, 1. 5.

1. 35. acte est pris (law phrase)='note is taken'.

PAGE 122. 1. 2. pièces de procédure, 'materials for law proceedings,' or articles of evidence'.

VIII. 1. 16. distractions, absent moods'.

1. 17. le matin même, 'that very morning'; même after a subst. has the ineaning of himself, herself, itself; before the subst. it signifies same; when used as an adv. it means also, even.

1. 22. un jacobin botaniste ? "a Jacobin (who has become) a botanist?' The name of Jacobin was given to the members of a revolutionary society which held its meetings in a convent of Dominicans, Rue St Jacques (Lat. Jacobus).

1. 23. Marat, a conspicuous character among the terrorists, was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, in 1793.

1. 24. Couthon, another violent terrorist, perished on the scaffold in 1794.'

1. 35. mater et amener à merci, “to checkmate and bring to sue for mercy'. Mater is derived from Pers. mat, dead; the Persian phrase schach-mat (='the king is dead') has given our word checkmate, and the French verb mater.

Page 123. 1. 11. les Brutus, the Brutuses,' i.e. men like M. Junius Brutus, the stern, uncompromising democrat, who carried his principles to such length as to outrage the common law of morals and of society, and who stabbed Cæsar publicly in the Senate House at Rome, 15 March, B.C. 44: Obs. that proper names do not take the plural, except (1) when they are common to great families or dynasties; (2) when they are used as common nouns. Cp. p. 38, l. 4.

1. 24. sornettes, 'nonsense'; sornette is a dim. of sorn, probably of Celtic origin, Kymr. swrn, a trifle.

1. 38. il devait d'avoir reçu, "he was indebted for having received'.

Page 124. 1. 1. donjons, “turrets'; donjon from mediæval Lat. domnionem= dominionem, a tower which dominates.

1. 10. acolytes, 'attendants'. Acolyte is properly the attendant on the officiating priest.

1. 23. faisant graviter, 'moving'.

PAGE 125. 1. 1. comme s'il se fût retrempé..., 'as if he had imbibed fresh energy from the wrath of his superior'; tremper=to dip, to temper (steel).

1. 17. l'axe qui faisait rayonner sa pensée, 'the focus from which his thoughts radiated'.

1. 23. plus de, 'no longer any,' or no more'. Obs. that, without a verb, the negatives stand without ne; e.g. 'pas moi'='ce n'est pas moi'; 'plus de projets'='il n'y a plus de projets’; non plus (=neither) requires the full negation ne pas before it, as: 'Je ne le veux pas non plus' (=neither do I wish it).

1. 28. ce rameau sibyllin, 'this sibylline (i.e. prophetic) bough'.

1. 31. vivre de son ancienne vie, lead his former life'. For the difference between ancien and vieux, nouveau and neuf see p. 63, 1. 14.

1. 32. plutôt mourir que de rentrer ; cp. p. 115, 1. 34.

PAGE 126. 1. 11. les seules qu'il elt jamais répandues; cp. p. 36, 1. 20. 1. 17. les deux sóires, the two officers of justice (Ital. sbirri).

PAGE 127. 1. 17. il en crut sentir, for il crut en sentir ; this inversion is very common with verbs used as auxiliaries with an infinitive.

1. 25. blafardes, 'pallid'; of Germ. origin (blei-farbig, leadcoloured).

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