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BOOK XVI.

ARGUMENt.

Telemachus, haying been kindly received by Eumaeus, converses with his father, without recognising him, and sends Eum&us to the city, to bear the news of his return to Penelope. Minerva in the mean time restores Ulysses to his former appearance, and he makes himself known to his son. The suitors, who had lain in ambush for Telemachus, return to Ithaca, and meditate fresh plots, for which Antinous is rebuked by Penelope. Eumaeus returns at night to Telemachus and Ulysses.

They in the mean time, Ulysses and the divine swineherd, were preparing their meal in the lodge together with the dawn, having lit a fire, and they sent out the herdsmen with the field-pasturing swine. But the barking dogs fawned about Telemachus, nor did they bark at him as he approached: but divine Ulysses perceived the dogs fawning, and the sound of feet came about him: and he quickly addressed to Eumaeus winged words:

"O Eumaeus, certainly some companion of thine will come hither, or some one else, who is known: since the dogs do not bark, but fawn around him: and I hear somewhat the noise of feet."

Scarcely had he finished speaking, when his dear son stood in the portico: and the swineherd rushed up astonished; and the vessels, with which he was busied, mixing the dark wine, fell from his hands. And he came to meet the king; and he kissed his 1 head, and both his beautiful eyes, and both his hands: and the warm tear fell from him. And as a father being kindly disposed embraces his son, when he comes from a foreign land in the tenth year, his only one, born to him in his old age,2 for whom he has toiled through many griefs; so then the divine swineherd clinging to godlike Telemachus, kissed him all over, as having escaped from death: and then lamenting he spoke winged words:

"Thou art come, O Telemachus, my sweet light; I said that I should not behold thee again, when thou wentest in a ship to Pylos: but come now, my dear child, enter, that I may be delighted in my mind, beholding thee within, who art lately come from elsewhere: for thou dost not frequently 1 Observe the force of Aird.

* And thence, "tenderly beloved." Cf. Buttm. Lexil. p. 512.

come to the country, or the herdsmen, but thou dwellest among the people; for so it pleased thy mind, to be a witness of the destructive3 crowd of suitors."

But him prudent Telemachus answered in turn: "Thus shall it be, my friend; but I come hither on account of thee, that I may behold thee with mine eyes, and may hear thy account whether my mother still remains in the palace, or whether some other man has now wedded her; and the bed of Ulysses through lack of furniture lies some where possessing foul cobwebs." 4

But him the swineherd, chief of men, addressed in turn: "She by all means remains in thy palace, with a patient mind: and by her weeping all her wretched nights and days waste away."5

Thus having spoken, he received his brazen spear; and he went within, and passed over the stone threshold. And to him approaching his father Ulysses gave way from his seat: but Telemachus on the other side forbade him, and said: "Sit down, O stranger; and we shall find a seat elsewhere in our stall; and the man is near who will place it [for me]."

Thus he spoke; but he going immediately sat down: and the swineherd spread green twigs under for him, and a fleece above ; there then the dear son of Ulysses sat down. And near them the swineherd placed dishes of roasted flesh, which they eating had left on the day before: and he hastily heaped up bread in baskets, and mixed sweet wine in an ivy cup: and himself sat opposite divine Ulysses. And they stretched forth their hands to the food lying ready before them. But when they had taken away the desire of drinking and eating, then Telemachus addressed the divine swineherd:

"My friend, whence has this stranger come? how did sailors bring him to Ithaca? whom did they boast to be? for I do not at all think that he came hither on foot."

* On a'Wi)Xoc see Buttm. Lexil. p. 51, sqq.

4 Cf. Propert. iii. 6,33, "Paths et in vacuo texetur aranea lecto." In interpreting Iviwaiuv, I follow the second explanation of the Scholiast, Tuv 7rept/3oXoiuv. So Pollux, x. 27, ra fiiv arpa/iara Kat «7T£/3\)jfiara—icat To irap* 'O/iripip ifiariov ivtwaiov, and Hesych. v. X9r€t Ivevvaiwv.

5 Cf. Ovid, Ep. i. 7, "Non ego deserto jacuissem frigida lecto; Nec quererer tardos ire relicta dies: Nec mini, qucerenti spatiosam fallere noctem, Lassaret viduas pendula tela raanus."

But him thou didst thus address in answer, O swineherd Eumaeus: "Therefore I will tell thee all things truly, child. He boasts his race [to be] from wide Crete, and he says that wandering he has been tossed about to many cities of mortals; for so for him the deity destined these things. He has now at length come to my stall, having escaped from a ship of the Thesprotians: but I will give him in charge to thee: do as thou desirest; he professes himself to be thy suppliant."

But him prudent Telemachus answered in turn: "0 Eumaeus, truly thou hast spoken this word very grievous to my mind: for how shall I receive the stranger in my house ? - I myself am young, and I do not yet trust in my hands to ward off a man, when any one is first wroth with me; and my mother's mind is meditating in doubt in her breast, whether she should remain here with me, and should take care of the house, reverencing the bed of her husband, and the voice of the people, or should now accompany him of the Grecians, whatever most excellent man woos her in the palace, and offers her most [gifts]. But as to the stranger, since he has come to thy house, I will put on him a cloak and tunic, beautiful garments; and I will give to him a double-edged sword, and sandals for his feet, and I will send him wherever his heart and mind commands him. But if thou desirest it, take care of him, detaining him in thy stalls: and I will send hither garments, and all his food to eat, that he may not waste away thee and thy companions. But I will not suffer him to go there amongst the suitors; for they possess too infatuate insolence, lest they scoff at him, and there will be grievous sorrow for me. But it is difficult for one man to do any thing amongst many, although [he be] mighty; since they are much superior."

But him much-enduring divine Ulysses addressed in turn: "O my friend, since indeed it is lawful for me to answer, ye much gall my heart, in truth, when I hear what shameful things you say the suitors devise in the palace, against the -will of thee who art such a one. Tell me, whether thou art willingly subdued, or do the people, following the voice of a deity, hate thee publicly: or dost thou find any fault with [the conduct of] brothers,6 in whom, fighting, a man is wont to trust, even if a mighty contest should arise. For would that 6 See Etistathius.

I were so young in this mind, or the son of blaraeless Ulysses, or even himself [should come wandering, for there is still some chance of hope], immediately then another man might cut off my head, if I became not an evil to all of them, having come to the palace of Ulysses, the son of Laertes. But if on the contrary they should with numbers overcome me who am alone, I should wish to die slain in mine own palace, rather than always behold these unseemly deeds, strangers harshly insulted,' and [men] dragging women servants in an unseemly way through the beautiful house: and wine drawn off, and [the suitors] eating bread uselessly, to no purpose, without an end, for a work that will never be accomplished."

But him prudent Telemachus answered in turn: "Therefore, 0 stranger, I will tell thee very truly; neither are all the people wroth with me, hating me, nor do I find fault with brothers, in whom fighting a man is wont to trust, even if a mighty conquest should arise. For thus has the son of Saturn made our race single; Arcesius begot an only son, Laertes, his father again begot Ulysses alone; but Ulysses having begotten me alone, left me in the palace, nor did he have any joy from me: therefore there are numberless enemies in our house. For as many chieftains as rule over the islands, Dulichium, and Samos, and woody Zacynthus, and as many as rule over rugged Ithaca, so many woo my mother, and waste our household. But she does not refuse the hateful marriage, nor can she bring it to a conclusion: but they waste away my property, consuming it; and they will soon destroy me also myself. But however these things lie at the knees of the gods. O father, do thou go quickly, tell to prudent Penelope, that I am safe, and have come from Pylos. But I will remain here: and do thou return hither, having told it to her alone; let not any one of the other Grecians hear it: for many devise evils against me."

But him thou didst address in answer, O swineherd Eumaeus: "I know it; I perceive it; thou speakest to one who understands. But come, tell me this, and relate it truly, shall I go a messenger on this same journey to unhappy Laertes, who hitherto greatly grieving for Ulysses, used to oversee the works, and drank and eat with the servants in the house, when the mind in his breast commanded him: but 7 Hesych. <iTVfpi\i^ofiivovt, O-rxtipw^ &[3pi%oftLtvoue.

now, since thou hast gone in a ship to Pylos, they say that he no longer eats and drinks any thing, nor looks over the works, but he sits lamenting in groaning and sorrow, and his flesh wastes away around his bones."

But him prudent Telemachus answered in turn: "It is rather sad; but however we will leave him although sorrowing. For if all things were by any means to be chosen by mortals themselves, first indeed I should choose the return of my father. But do thou, when thou hast told thy news, come back, nor do thou wander in the country after him: but tell my mother to hasten the handmaiden, her housekeeper, as quickly as possible, secretly: for she could inform the old man."

He spoke, and urged on the swineherd: but he took sandals in his hands; and having bound them under his feet he went to the city; nor did the swineherd Eumaeus, going from the stall, escape the notice of Minerva: but she came near him, and in her person she was likened unto a woman fair and large, ands killed in renowned works of weaving. And she stood at the entrance of the lodge, appearing to Ulysses; nor did Telemachus behold or perceive her; (for the gods do not by any means appear manifest to all;) but Ulysses and the dogs saw her; and they did not bark, but with a yelping they fled to the other side through the stall. But she nodded with her eye-brows, and divine Ulysses perceived her; and he came out of the house, outside the great wall of the hall, and he stood before her; and him Minerva [thus] addressed:

"0 Jove-born son of Laertes, much-contriving Ulysses, now tell it to thy son, nor conceal it, that having planned death and Fate for the suitors, thou mayest go to the all-illustrious city: nor will I myself be a long time away from thee, for I am longing to fight."

She spoke, and Minerva struck him with a golden rod: first she placed a well-washed robe and tunic about his breast; and she increased his person and youth. And he again became dark-coloured, and his cheeks were lengthened out; and dark hairs sprang up about his chin. She indeed having done thus, went away .again; but Ulysses went to the lodge; and his dear son was astonished at him. And fearing he turned his eyes elsewhere, lest it should be a god; and addressing him, he spoke winged words:

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