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could not be attributed to any other thing: though, had there been a due preparation, the most obstinate intermittents would probably have yielded to this bark without any foreign aslistance : and, by all I can judge from five years experience of it upon a number of persons, it appears to be a powerful absorbent, aftringent, and febrifuge in intermitting cafes, of the same nature and kind with the Peruvian bark, and to have all its properties, though perhaps not always in the same degree. It seems likewife to have this additional quality, viz. to be a safe medicine; for I never could perceive the least ill effect from it, though it had been always given without any preparation of the patient." Art. 36. Two remarkable cafes in Surgery. By Mr. Francis Geach,

Surgeon in Plynouth. The first of these cases relates to a man who received a violent blow on the right hypochondrium, which proved fatal, affording a variety of remarkable appearaiices.

The second is the case of a man who was wounded with a small sword in the eye. In consequence of which, he lay for five weeks after, in a state of lethargy and insensibility; from which state, nature relieved him by the eruption of a miliary fever; which proved the crisis of his disorder, and, with a very little assistance of medicine, effectually restored him. Art. 48. Account of a cafe, in which green Hemlock was applieds

by Mr. Colebrook. This case was that of a woman having a hard fchirrus in each breast. The method in which the herb was used, was by eating it with bread and butter twice or three times a day. It appears to have pretty effectually relieved the patient; but it is to be taken with very great caution respecting the quantity. Art. 50. An account of a blow upon the heart, and of its effeéts.

By Dr. Akenide.' This very singular cafe appears to have been a real contusion of the heart; occasioned by a blow given with the edge of a plate, struck against the hčart, probably at the instant of its greatest diastole.

The rest of the Papers, contained in this Volume, will be taken nos tice of ix a future Articles


A Supplement to the Essay on the General History, of the Manners and Spirit of Nations, from the Reign of Charlemaign to the present


time. . By M. de Voltaire. Tranlated from the French.
12°, 2 Vol. 5s. Nourse.
FTER the account already given of this work, among

our Foreign Articles *, nothing remains to be said of its de-
lign and execution in general: it is impossible, however, to dir.
miss this very pleasing writer without wishing to entertain our
Readers, with farther proofs of his uncommon genius and viva-
city. To this end, therefore, we fhall quote the following pal-
fages; which may fene, at the same time, to give the Reader a
specimen of the translation,
* Manners and Customs in the thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries.

+ + One single passage will suffice to shew the scarcity of money in Scotland and in England, no less than the rudeness of those times which we grace with the appellation of fimplicity: It is still extant in the records, that when the kings of Scotland came to London, their allowance from the court of England was thirty thillings a day, twelve loaves, twelve cakes, and thirty bottles of wine.

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The bishops had, for a long time, always travelled with a prodigious number of fervants and horses. A council of Lateran, held in 1179, under Alexander III, reproached them, that the plate of monaiteries was often foid for their reception, and to defray their expences in their visitation. The retinue of an archbishop was, by the canons, reduced to fifty horses, that of the bishops to thirty, and that of the cardinals to twenty-five; for a cardinal, who had no bifhopric, and who consequently had no land, could not rival the luxury of a bishop. This magnificence of the prelates was much more odious in those times than at present, there being then no middle state between the high and the low, the wealthy and the poor. Toindustry and traffic is owing that middle state which constitutes the opulence of a nation. The Sciences and Polité Arts in the thirtcenth and fourteenth Cen

turies. Sophocles's art was not in being; the firft dramatical exhi. bitions in Italy were scriptural stories, and the whole extremely coarie and aukward; hence the custom of acting the mysteries made its way into France. Though these sorts of plays derive their origin from Conftantinople. St. Gregory Nazianzenus, being something of a poet, had introduced them in opposition to

• Appendix to Vol. XXIX. p. 488.
'The beginning of the fourteenth century.


the dramatic works of the ancient Greeks and Romans; and as the chorusses of the Greek tragedies were religious hymns, and their theatres facred, Gregory and his successors composed religious tragedies. But though the Christian religion had superjeded gentilism, the new drama did not explode that of Athens. Of these pious farces there are still some remains among the fhepherds of Calabria, particularly at proper seasons, when they act the birth and death of Jesus Christ. This custom was also greedily adopted by the northern nations * The subjects have lince been handled with more dignity, as we see in those entertainments called Oratorios.

In a word, the French theatre can boast of master-pieces taken from the Old Testament.

• The French fraternity of the paflion towards the fixteenth century, brought Jesus Christ upon the stage. Had the French tongue been then as majestic as it was coarse and homely; if among such ignorance and stupidity, there had been one man of genius, the death of a righteous man, persecuted by Jewish priests, and condemned by a Roman pretor, might probably have made a lofty piece; but for this an enlightened age was required, and never would this enlightened age have allowed of such representations.

Du Cange, and his continuators, who are the most exact compilers, quote a manuscript of five hundred years ftanding, in which is the affe's hymn.

Orientis partibus
Adventavit alinus

Pulcher & fortissimus. "A girl, representing the mother of God going into Egypt on an ass, with a child in her arms, headed a long procession, and at the end of the mass, instead of saying Ite mifa eft, the priest fet up a braying three times, and the people answered him in the like manner.

? This savage-like superstition, however, had its rise in Italy; and though in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, fonie Italians began to emerge from darkness, the populace ftill-continued deplorably ignorant. A tale had been trumped up at Verona, chat the ass on which Jesus rode had walked on the sea, and came along the gulph of Venice to the banks of the

Agreeable to this observation of Mr. Voltaire, the Low dutch have a stage-play still cxtant, wherein the profane ftory of Pyranus and Thilbe is applied to the love of Christ to his church, in the fume manner as divines apply the Canticles of Solomon.

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Adige, where Jesus Christ had affigned it a meadow for its palture ; and that this ass after living there quietly a long time, died in the meadows. Its skeleton was inclosed'in an artificial afs, depofited in the church of Our Lady of the Organs, under the guardianship of four canons. These relics were carried in procession three times a year with the greatest solemnity,

It was to this ass of Verona that the house of Loretto owed its fortune. Pope Boniface VIII, seeing that the procession of the ass drew a great resort of strangers, it came into his head that the virgin Mary's house would be an object of ftill greater curiosity; and the event fully answered. To this fable he

gave his apostolic sanction; they who believed an ass had crossed the sea from Jerusalem to Verona, could not boggle at believing that Mary's house was removed through the air from Nazareth to Loretto. The little mean house was soon inclosed within a magnificent church, which, by the pilgrimages and the gifts of princes, became as splendid and famous as the temple of Eplesus. The Italians grew rich by the blindness of other nations; but every where else the superstition was embraced for its own fake, and in conformity to the stupidity of the times. You have more than once observed that the fanaticism, to which men are so much inclined, always renders them, not only more fottish, but more wicked : pure religion both enlightens the understanding, and softens the manners; but superstition hoodwinks the mind, and inspires frenzy, extravagance, and every odious difpofition.'

If proof te wanted of this last observation, our Author hath given a sufficient one, in his account of the extraordinary adyenture, which was the cause of the revolution brought about by Zwinglius in Switzerland.

«The Franciscans and Dominicans had been at open variance ever since the thirteenth century. The interest of the Dominicans declined very much among the commonalty, for paying less honour to the Virgin than the Cordeliers, and denying, with St. Thomas, her being born without fin: whereas the Cordeliers ingratiated themselves every where, by preaching up the immaculate conception, as mentioned by St. Bonaventure. Such was the animosity between these two orders, that a Cordelier preaching at Francfort, in 1503, on the Virgin, and seeing a Dominican come in, cried out, that he thanked God for not being of a feet which dishonoured the very mother of God, and poifoned Emperors with the hoft. The Dominican, named Vigan, called out to him; that he lied, and was a heretic. Down comes the Franciscan from his pulpit, stirs up the people, and laying on his adversary with the crucifix, drives him out of the

church, that

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church, fo that Vigan was left for dead at the door. In 1504, the Dominicans held a chapter, in which it was resolved to be revenged of the Cordeliers, and to put an end both to their interest and doctrine, by employing the Virgin herself against them. The place chosen for transacting this scene was Berne: during three years several stories were spread about, of the mother of God appearing, and upbraiding the Cordeliers with the doctrine of the immaculate conception, saying, it was blasphemy, taking away from her son the glory of having washed her from original sin and hell. Against this the Cordeliers played other apparitions. At length, in 1507, the Dominicans, having gained over a young lay brother, named Yetser, made use of him to convince the people in their favour. It was the current opinion in the convents of all orders, that a novice, who had not professed, quitting the habit, continued in purgatory till the final judgment, unless delivered by prayers and donations to the


• The Dominican prior went one night into Yetser's cell, muffled in a kind of gown, painted all over with devils, and having heavy chains on him; with him also were four ugly dogs; and his mouth, in which had been put a small round box full of tow, cast forth flames. This prior said to Yetser, that he was an old monk, thrown into purgatory for having quitted the habit, but that he should be delivered, if Yetser would be so kind as to have himself scourged by the monks in his favour, before the great altar. This Yetser did not fail to comply with, and thus delivered the said soul from purgatory. Soon after the grateful soul appeared to him in a white radiant habit, informing him, that it had been freed from purgatory, and admitted into heaven, and recommending to him the honour of the Virgin ro impiously fandered by the Cordeliers.

“Some days after, St. Barbara, to whom brother Yetser paid a great devotion, appeared to him : it was another monk who played the part of St. Barbara ; she told him that he was sainted, and that the Virgin commissioned him to do her justice against the blafpheming Cordeliers.

• At last down comes the Virgin herself through the ceiling, attended by two angels; she ordered him to declare, that the was born in original sin, and that the Cordeliers were his son's greatest enemies. She farther told him, that she would honour him with the five wounds, with which St. Lucy and St. Ca. therine had been favoured.

• The following night, the monks having given the brother some opiated wine, they pierced his hands, feet and side. On his awaking, he found himself all over blood. He was told,


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