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capricious, and rapacious tyrant, and not likely ever to consolidate any considerable share of power. — (We are indebted for this valuable article to J. B. Fraser, Esq., the celebrated traveller.) AFIUM-KARA-HISSAR (or Black Castle of Opium), a city of Asiatic Turkey, in Anatolia, cap. Sanjiack, 18s in. E. Smyrna, lat. 38° 45° N., long. 30° 56' E. It is situated on the declivity of a mountain range, and is defended by a citadel, built on a high and almost inaccessible rock. Pop. estimated by Kinneir at 12,000 families, or from 50,000 to 60,000 individuals. It is pretty well built ; but the streets are exceedingly narrow, and in many parts very steep. Some of them are washed by streams that descend from the adjacent mountains. It has numerous mosques, two Armenian chapels, six khans, and five public baths; an extensive manufactor of black felts, fire-arms, short sabres or yatagans, wit stirrups, bridles, &c. But it is principally celebrated for the great quantity of opium grown in its vicinity; from which, indeed, it derives its modern name. It is said by J)'Anville to be the Apamea of the Greeks and Romans; but the latter was situated a good deal further W. According to the Turkish annals, it was founded by Aladdin, one of the Seljuckian sultans. It was the patrimony of Othman, the founder of the Turkish empire, of which it has ever since formed a part.—(Kinneir's Journey, p. 229.; Olirier, vi. p. 400.) AFRA GO LA, a town of Naples, prov. Terra di Lavoro, 5 m. N. N. E. Naples, in a plain. Pop. 3,000. It has manufactures of straw hats; and a great annual fair, which commences on the second . of May. * It I CA. A vast peninsula, one of the great divisions of the globe, situated to the S. of Europe, and to the W. and S. W. of Asia. It is separated from the former by the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar; the two continents approaching at the latter within about 10 m. of each other. It is separated from Asia by the Red Sea, at whose southern extremity, the strait of Bab-el-mandeb, the shores of the two continents are only 16 m. apart. But at the most northerly extremity of the Red Sea, Asia and Africa are united by the isthmus of Suez; the Mediterranean being there about 72 m. from the Red Sea. The most southerly point of Africa, Cape das Agulhas (Cape Needles), is in lat. 34° 52' S.; and the most o Cape Blanco, opposite Sicily, in lat. 37° 21' N. Cape Gardafui, the most easterly point, is in long. 51° 30' E., and lat. 11°50' N.; and Cape Verde, the extreme western point, is in long. 17° 33' W., and 14° 43' N. lat. The distance between the most southerly and most northerly points is consequently about 5000 m., and between the extreme eastern and western points not much less. The area probably falls little short, if it do not exceed, 12,000,000 . Im. I. Africa is distinguished srom the other continents by its coasts extending mostly in continuous, unbroken lines, having but few indentations of the sea, and no extensive peninsulas; so that it forms a more compact and undivided mass of land. The uniformity of its outline seems to be in accordance with the uniformity of its interior. The surface of the latter does not present that endless succession of changes which are met with in Europe and southern Asia, and which are found in both Americas, but on a greater scale and at greater distances. It resembles rather the northern parts of Asia, exhibiting elevated table-lands and low plains, both of immense extent and of remarkable uniformity. The whole of Africa south of the equator, and north of it up to 10° lat., seems to constitute an extensive table-land, singed in most parts by a comparatively narrow stripe of low land along the sea. North of this table-land, between 100 and 30° N. lat., extends an immense but low plain, the greater part of which is occupied by the Great Desert, or Desert of Sahara. A comparatively narrow tract of mountainous country, including Atlas and its dependencies, separates the desert from the Mediterranean. On the E. the desert does not reach the Red Sea; being separated from it by the mountains of Abyssinia and the rocky countries extending from them northward along the Red Sea to the shores of the Mediterranean. 1. The elevated table-land in South Africa is less known than any other portion of the continent, the nature of its surface rendering it extremely disticult to penetrate

from the sea coast into the interior. We are only well acquainted with the southern extremity, which forn,s the Cape Colony. Here Africa presents to the Indian Ocean a broad line of coast, running east and west nearly along the 34th parallel from 18° to 20° E. long., or from the Cape of Good isope to Algo. Along this coast extends an undulating country, intersected with a few elevations deserving the name of hills. Its width varies between 10 and 5.0 miles. North of this the table-land rises in terraces. . The first terrace, called the Long Kloof, is enclosed by the double ridge of the Zwarte Berge, or Black Mountains, of which the northern, or the Groote (Great) Zwarte Berge, rises to about 4,000 f. above the sea. North of this range is the second terrace, called the Great Karroo, which is about 100 miles across and 3,000 feet elevated above the sea. It is bounded on the N. by the Nieunveld Bergen, a chain of which some summits are considered to rise to 9,040 or 10,000 feet. On its northern side the table-land seems to have at*tained its mean elevation, which probably is not less than from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. At both the eastern and western extremities the two above-mentioned ranges run N. W. and N. E. parallel to the sea-shore, at a distance of from 30 to 200 miles; the intermediate space being likewise occupied by two or more terraces. The ranges along the W. shores do not extend farther than about 29 S. lat., where they terminate in isolated hills and with a high bank on the Gareep or Orange River. N. of this river the coast, when seen from the sea, presents only high sand-hills without any traces of water, and is, consequently, entirely destitute of vegetation. It extends as far as Cape Negro (18° S. lat.). The interior cast of the western ranges and of this coast is an elevated sandy desert, with few wells and little rain. Only that portion 3. S. of Gareep river has been vi.. the remainder, and by far the greater portion, is less known than the Sahara itself....This desert country, which presents a level without hills or mountains, extends over half the breadth of the continent as far as 24° E. long. The eastern half of the table-land from the Cape Colony to 18° S. lat. offers a different aspect. A great number of mountain-ridges, of moderate elevation, traverse it in different directions; and at the foot of these ridges the country is well watered and fertile; though here, too, extensive sterile tracts occur, but they are not continuous. We are, however, only acquainted with the southern part, up to 26° S, lat., Fărther north, about 20°, a high mountain range is said to exist, called the Lupata Mountains, but this is doubtful. The descent from the table-land to the Indian Ocean is also formed by two or three terraces, the highest edge of it being about 90 or 100 miles distant from the shore. This edge, formed by a mountain ridge, prevents the rivers of the table-land from escaping to the Indian Ocean ; so that they either run westward, and fall partly into the Gareep river, or are partly lost in the sands of the desert. North of the Zambese river (about 18° S. lat.), which appears to have the itest part of its course on the tableland, the interior of its castern parts is entirely unknown. A lake, called Moravi, is reported to extend over many degrees of lat., but its existence is doubtful. The eastern descent of the table-land resembles that farther south, being formed by terraces. This, however, extends only to the equator, or the mouth of the river Juba; for |...}. north, up to Cape Gardafui, the coast itself is formed by high rocks, rising to 400 feet and upwald, and no moun. tain ranges are visible from the sea. A few rivers, apparently of considerable size, break through the o along the coast. It would seem that on the western side of the continent, between 189 and 40° S. lat., there is a considerable depression in the table-land. This country, which is known under the name of Lower Guinea, has low sliores, behind which at a considerable distance the surface seems to rise, but not to a so height. Then follows an uneven plain, watered in its lower parts by numerous rivers, among which the Zaire or Congo and the Cuanza are the largest ; but towards the sources of these rivers the country is mountainous, and it is even reported that some of the mountains are always covered with snow. In the plain numerous lakes of considerable extent are met with. North of the river Zaire, at about 4° S. lat., the country again rises at no great distance from the sea to a reat height. 'I his high ground is called Serra Complide. ts W. declivity extends N. W., by degrees approaching nearer the Atlantic, till it reaches the innermost corner of the Bay of 13 iatra, where it comes close down to the sea, and forms for more than 30 miles the shore, rising, under the name of Cameroon Mountains, to 13,000 feet above the water. These great mountain masses seem to form the W. cxtremity of an extensive range, which at about 5° of N. lat. seems to traverse the whole continent, and of whose central parts we get some information from the Arabian o by whom it is called 3.

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Djebel-el-Kumri, or the Moon Mountains. This range, which seems to constitute the higher edge of the table-land to the north, appears to stretch eastward towards the Strait of Bab-el-mandeb, until it unites to the mountain system of the Abyssinian Alps. North of this range, as far as about 10° N. lat., a mountainous country extends between 10° and 25° E. long., which may be considered as the terraces by which the table-land descends gradually to the low plain, which extends farther north. The extensive mountain region which has obtained among us the name of Kong may be considered as a continuation of the high table-land of southern Africa, being separated from its northern terraces only by the narrow valley of the Quorra, between 7° and so N. lat., and farther south from the Cameroon Mountains by the extensive delta of that river. East of the meridian of Greenwich it approaches by degrees nearer the sea, whilst its northern edge draws off in a N. W. direction, until between 4° and 5° W. long. it approaches 15° N. lat., so that between 5° and 12° W. long. it extends over ten degrees of lat. It terminates rather o near 129 W. long., but its rocky masses come down close to the shore between Cape Palmas and Cape Sierra Leone. This mountain region, in which a great number of fertile valleys and plains are embosomed, is of very moderate height in its eastern and more narrow portion, rising hardly to more than 3000 feet; but farther west it is higher, and between 5° and 8° W. long. it is reported to be crowned by several peaks which pass the snow line. But only a very small portion of it has been visited by Europeans. In its western districts are the sources of the Quorra. 2. The Great Plain, which, on the south, is bounded by the high table-land of southern Africa and the Kong Mountains, and hence stretches northward to Mount Atlas and the ridges depending on it, contains two disferent countries – a fertile and a sterile. The former called Soodan, and the latter Sahara. Soodan, under which name the lower terraces of the table-land seem also to be comprised, extends from the E. descent of the Kong Mountains to the banks of the Bahr Abiad (the W. branch of the Nile), §§§ inclu of the lower terraces of the high table-land, the country o; between 59 and 15° N. lat. Its lower districts, which lie contiguous to the Sahara, are, according to a vague estimation, from 1000 to 1200 feet above the sea, but the terraces of the table-land rise to 3000 feet and upward. In many parts it is well watered by rivers, which descend from the table-land or originate in the low ridges by which the country is intersected ; such districts are covered with immense forests, and are very fertile where cultivated. In other parts water is rather scarce, and some of them partake largely of the nature of the Sahara. Its climate is extremely hot, nevertheless it sometimes happens that during night the thermometer descends to the freezing point. The Sahara, or sea of sand, covers perhaps nine tenths of the whole plain. For on the west of the meridian of Greenwich, it extends from the foot of the Kong Mountains (15° N., lat.) to that of Mount Atlas (about 309), occupying the whole width of the plain, which is here 1000 miles across. Farther east, where it is bounded on the south by Soodan, it is some what less wide, which is produced by some mountain ranges connected with the Atlas, extending in an E. S. E., direction. But its breadth is nowhere less than 750 m. It is divided into two parts by a tract of stony country, by which it is traversed from N. to S., between 13° and 15° E. long., and which in parts offers some cultivable land, while in others the stony surface is covered with sand. By following this stony tract Messrs. Denham and Clapperton, who set out from Tripoli, succeeded in reaching Soodan. That portion of the desert which extends between this tract and the Atlantic Ocean is called Sahal, and is almost entirely covered with a fine sand, which being agitated by strong easterly winds, appears like the surface of the sea, and often rises in the air in the form of sands pouts. Low hills and wells occur in a few places: and water, in many parts, is only found at , a depth of more than 100 feet. In that division of the desert which extends between the above-mentioned stony tract on the one side and Egypt and Nubia on the other, the surface is covered rather with gravel than with sand, and in many laces with a hard clay; elevations, and even ridges of ow hills are here much more frequent, and consequently also wells. All the western part of the Sahara would, owing to its burning heat and the want of water, be totally impassable, were it not that it is here and there interspersed with verdant well-watered spots or oases, which appear like islands of the blest in the midst of desolation. *. ancients compared them to the spots on a leopard's skin. (Strabo, p. 130.) These oases are mostly of very limited dimensions ; but some of them, particularly those on the east side of the great desert, are very extensive: the country of Fezzan, for example, is in fict an oasis. They are usually surrounded by higher land,

which serves to account for the springs, and consequently the verdure, for which they are so celebrated. But there seems to be much probability in the shrewd conjecture of Major Rennell, that the oases are indebted for no inconsiderable portion of their reputed beauty and delicious freshness to the o contrast between them and the parched desert by which they are surrounded. (Geography of Herodotus, 8vo. ed. ii. p. 185.) Those only who have toiled for days amid a pathless burnin sand, can form a proper idea of the delight &oi in falling in with one of —the tufted isles,

That veruant rise armid the Libyan wild.

In England or France they might be thought nothing of ; but in the Sahara they seem more than a paradise. The famous temple of Jupiter Ammon was erected in the oasis of Siwah, in the N. E. angle of the great desert, in lat. 219 12 N., long. 26° 18' E. 3. The Abyssinian Mountains, which are little known to us, except in their north-eastern and northern declivities, where they approach the strait of Bab-el-mandeb and the shores of the Red Sea, and terminate at about 12° N. lat., seem to constitute an extensive mountain system, whose centre is placed between 89 and 9° N. lat. in the countries called Narea and Effat. ln this part it seems to approach the snow-line, but not to rise above it. It is less elevated at the source of the Barhel-Azrek or Blue liver, one of the upper branches of the Nile, where it rises, according to Bruce, at from 9,000 to 10,000 feet above the sea. We do not know whether or in what manner the Abyssinian Mountains are connected with the Gebel-el-Komri, or whether they are separated from the high table-land, or constitute its N. F. boundary, which seems to be the more probable hypothesis. The valleys of this mountain system are fertile and well peopled. From the northern declivity of the Abyssinian Mountains extends along the shores of the Red Sea as far as the isthmus of Suez a rocky country, which, between 129 and 20° N. lat., occupies in width an extent of between 300 and 400 m., but farther north by degrees grows narrower. Between 23° and 30° N. lat. it is only from 150 to 200 miles across. Near its western border it has a deep, but comparatively narrow depression, in which the river Nile flows N. from the Abyssinian Mountains to the Mediterranean. This long valley is mostly very fertile. The small portion of the rocky country which lies to the west of this valley, and which forms the eastern boundary of the Sahara, does not rise to a great height, rarely to more than about 1000 f. above the valley. But the countries east of the valley of the Nile and between it and the Red Sea are more elevated. They form a table-land, mostly of an uneven surface, which however in many places exhibits extensive plains, whilst in others it rises into ranges of high hills. Many of the plains are covered with sand, and resemble the eastern portion of the Sahara; other districts afford pasture ground, but very few places are fit for agriculture and cultivated. This rocky country terminates on the banks of the Nile in the parallel of Kahira (Cairo), from the neighbourhood of which its northern boundary runs off in an E. N. E. and W. N. W. direction. The former constitutes the isthmus of Suez, and reaches to the Mediterranean between the Lake of Menzaleh and Ras Kazaroon in Syria; farther east it joins the mountains of Arabia Petraea. This rocky country lies to the E. of the delta of the Nile. On the W. of the delta the rocks run from Kahira W. N. W. to the Arabs' Gulph, where they apNo. the Mediterranean near the Arabs' Tower (319 N. lat. and 29° 30' E. long.). From this line the rocky country extends westward with a width of about 70 m. at the outset, which, however, increases as it advances farther W., so as to occupy between 200 and 300 miles at 20° E. long., where it suddenly terminates. In the neighbourhood of the Egyptian delta, the rocks are hardly a hundred feet above the plain, but farther W. they rise into high hills and mountain-ridges (Gerdobah §. tains), and terminate with the high table-land of Barca, whose mean elevation above the sea is estinated to be about 1500 feet. Where the table-land of the Barca terminates with a rather abrupt descent (near 20°), a narrow strip of the Sahara comes up to the very shores of the Mediterranean. at the most southerly corner of the Gulf of Sydra or Kibbir (the Great Syrtis,) where it terminates on the beach with sand-hills. This strip of the Sahara separates the rocky region of the Nile from the mountain system of the Atlas. 4. Mount Atlas and its dependencies, by far the most celebrated of the African chains, occupy that portion of the continent most to the north and nearest to Western Europe. It seems to begin on the E. near the eastern boundary of the country of Fezzan, whence two ridges of moderate elevation ruin W. N.W., and in the to: are called Karush. Farther E., however, they receive other names. This mountainous country, which traverses the N. of Fezzan and the S. of Tripoli, is nowhere probably more than 120 miles in wiłł. but the ridges of low hills which issue from it advance to the very shores of the Mediterranean, between Cape Mesurata and the Gulf of Cabes (the Lesser Systis), so that the whole region may be from 180 to 200 m. across. At the Gulf of Cabes, however, the region of Mount Atlas enlarges considerably towards the N., and thence to its western extremity on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean its mean breadth exceeds 350 miles. The highest ridge seems to traverse the region in an oblique line, beginning on the east opposite Sicily, at Capes Bon and 13 lanco, and terminating on the shores of the Atlantic at Capes Geer and Non. The mountains which occur in that line do not appear to rise above the line of congelation, or at least only in a few insulated points. The country which extends N. of it to the shores of the Mediterranean is mountainous, and contains a number of fertile longitudinal valleys. Farther W. (about 5° W. long.), however, where its northern slope is diverted W. to the Atlantic Ocean, it extends in large Plains, which follow each other in the form of terraces. The tracts of country which lie to the S. of the highest ground cannot be called mountainous, their surface being formed by wide, broad-backed ridges, of very moderate elevation, and by slight depressions between them in the form of shallow valleys. These latter tracts partake of the hot and dry character which distinguishes everywhere the African continent; whilst the district situated towards the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean resembles more the countries of southern Europe. (See ATLAs.) 5. Climate. —By far the greater part of Africa lies within the torrid zone, those countries only which are situated towards its southern and northern extremities being beyond the tropics, or within the temperate zones: Owing to the vast extent of its arid plains, and the general want, in so far as we are able to discover, of the tempering influence of extensive inland lakes or seas, the temperature of Africa is decidedly higher thau, that of any other of the great divisions of the globe. The parts without the tropics are destitute of that regular succession of four seasons which is considered as a characteristic feature of the temperate zone. Here, as between the tropics, the year is divided into the dry and rainy seasons; but with this difference, that between the tropics the rainy season sets in when the sun approaches the zenith, whereas it occurs in the countries beyond the tropics when the sun approaches the opposite tropic, and consequently is at the greatest distance from their zenith. The rainless zone, or the space intervening between the countries which have the rainy season, in summer and those which have it in winter, occupies in Africa a much wider extent of surface than in the other divisions of the globe. In the northern hemisphere, the tropical rains cease on the southern borders of the Sahara at about 16° N. lat., and the winter rains begin at its northern border about 28°; so that the rainless region here occupies twelve degrees of lat. In the stony country E. of the Sahara, the tropical rains cease between 189 and 19° N. lat, and the winter rains between 279 and 389; here therefore the rainless season occupies nine degrees of lat. We are less acquainted with the climate of the countries lying contiguous to the southern tropic; but it is certain that on the western side of Africa, between 280 and 20° S. lat., a great sandy desert extends over the greatest portion of the table-laud, in which there falls very little if any rain. The eastern declivity of the table-land, which is exposed to the immediate influence of the north-east monsoon, has a regular succession of dry and rainy seasons. The great extent of the rainless regions seems to be one of the principal causes of the high temperature of this continent. Nearly all the countries of Africa are hotter than those of Asia and America situated under the same parallels. The highest degree of heat is experienced in the Sahara and the countries bordering the great desert. It is, however, worthy of remark that in Soodan, in about 10° N. lat., and at no great distance from the Sahara, the temperature sometimes descends at night to the freezing point. 6. Rivers. — Though Africa, being mostly situated between the tropics, has the sull advantage of the abundant tropical rains, it is less favoured with running waters than the other divisions of the globe. This is partly ascribable to the great extent of the rainless regions, and partly to the elevation of the table-land occupying the southern half of the continent. The countries which are well watered are not numerous, and occupy but a small portion of the whole surface. Such are the northern declivity of Mount Atlas, the countries embosomed within and lying contiguous to the Kong Mountains, Soodan, the valleys of §. Abyssinian Mountains, the western coast between 49 and 18° S. lat., and the comparatively narrow strip of country lying along the east coast from the Cape of Good Hope to the equa

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tor; to which are to be added the deltas of the Nile and the Quorra. The largest river is the Nile, which probably has a course of not less than 2500 m. ; but as the source of its remotest branch, the Bahr-el-Abiad (the White River), is still unknown, its length cannot be determined with any degree of precision. It is equally impossible to determine the length of the Quorra or Joliba, the Niger of the ancients. For though its middle portion was ascertained by Mungo Park, and its lower by Clapperton and the Länders, its upper portion, which seems to traverse the high table-land enclosed by the Kong Mountains, has not been visited. Its whole length does t o exceed 2000 m. The course both of the Senegal and Gambia are known ; the former running about 1000 and the latter 700 m. The rivers traversing the high table-land of Southern Africa are only known at their mouths and a short distance inwards. These are the Congo or Zaire, and the Coanza, which fall into the Atlantic Ocean ; and the Zambese, which falls into the channel of Mozambique. The river Gareep or Orange, which slows a short distance to the N. of the Cape Colony, is pretty well known in its whole course, and may run about 900 miles. 7 Lakes. – These are neither numerous, nor generally of great extent. In the older maps a large lake is laid down to the W. N. W. of Mozambique, called Moravi or Zambre ; but its existence is problematical. The largest lake by far of which we have any certain account is that of Tchad, made known and partly explored by Messrs. Denham and Clapperton. . It is situated almost in the centre of the continent, in Soodan, to the S. of the great desert, near the 15th degree of N. lat., and under the 15th degree of E. long. The lake Debo, or Dibbie, in the same lat., and under the 5th degree of W. long., traversed by the Niger or Joliba, though considerable, is of very inferior dimensions. Some lakes are met with in the ranges of Mount Atlas, especiall towards the Gulf of Cabes, among which that of Lowdeja is the most extensive. The greater number of lakes seem to occur within the depression of the table-land of southern Africa, between 4° and 18° S. lat. ; but our information on this as on most other points connected with the geography of Africa is in the last degree vague and unsatisfactory. The lake of Dembea, in Abyssinia, traversed by the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Eastern Nile, is also of very considerable magnitude. 8. Mingrals. – The mineral riches of Africa are very imperfectly known ; but the probability seems to be that in this respect it is but little if at all inferior to any of the other great divisions of the globe. Gold dust, principally obtained from the sands in the upper parts of the rivers, forms a principal article of import from Africa; and iron, the most useful of all the metals, is known to be very generally diffused. Salt is wanting in Soodan and some other ...'. extensive districts; but cu the other hand it is found in immense quantities both to the S. and N. of this central district. II. Races of People. — Although we are accustomed to consider the inhabitants of Africa as being generally of the Negro race, the actual number of varieties of the human family occupying this portion of the globe is not only much greater than those found in Europe, but the differences in colour, form, and stature are much wider. There are about seven ascertainable varieties, which may be enumerated as follows, beginning with the southern extremity of the continent; viz., the Hottentot, Kaffer, Abyssinian, Egyptian, Numidian, Nubian, and Negro. We shall give a brief description of each race in this order. In the Hottentot the colour of the skin is a yellowish brown, and has been contpared to that of a “faded leaf.” The cheek bones are high, and much spread out in the lateral direction; and from these the face is suddenly contracted below to a very narrow and pointed chin. Nose remarkably flat and broad towards end. Colour of the eyes a deep chesnut; they are long, narrow, and removed to a great distance from each other. The hair of the head is of a singular nature; it does not cover the whole scalp, but grows in small tufts at certain distances from each other. When kept short, it has the appearance and feel of a hard shoe-brush; with this difference, that it is curled, and twisted into small round lumps about the size of a marrowfat pea. When suffered to grow, it hangs on the neck in hard twisted tassels like fringe. There is little beard; and the hair on other parts of the body is either scanty or altogether wanting. The stature of the Hottentot is very short, about four feet six inches being considered about the middle size for the men, and four feet for the women, which is about fourteen inches short of the average stature of Europeans. Their form is slender, delicate, and not ill proportioned; but altogether they may be pronounced a very ugly race. The sex is distinguished from all others of the human race by a pendulous rugose elongation of the nymphae of from two to five inches long, and by a vast accumulation of fat over the glutei muscles, which invariably takes place after the first conception. Both these appearances are well ascertained to be natural, and in no way the result of art. The language of the Hottentots is as singular as their persons. Its pronunciation has been compared to the clueking of a turkey. There are numerous guttural sounds produced deep in the throat, and pronounced with a peculiar clack of the tongue, which is quickly struck against and withdrawn from the teeth or palate. The aspirated gutturals are combined with harsh consonants in a manner unpronounceable by Europeans, except those who have acquired the language in infancy. No portion of this race, unconnected with Europeans, has advanced beyond the rudest stage of the pastoral state of society. When discovered, they had domesticated the ox and the sheep, the flesh and milk of which afforded thern food, and their skins, with those of wild animals, clothing; they knew nothing of tillage, had no fixed dwellings, and practised no mechanical art except that of fabricating the bow and arrow. The ancient country of the Hottentot variety may generally be described as that which now constitutes the British colony of the Cape of Good Hope. The immediate neighbours of the Hottentots, and lying N. and N. E. of them, are the Hoffers – a very different race. The colour of the Kaffer is neither black, like that of the Negro, nor of the colour of a faded leaf, like that of the Hottentot, but of a deep brown. Hair short, curling, and woolly; but it is not of the wooliness of the Negro. Nose tolerably elevated; lips large and thick; but the lower maxillary bone does not project in the remarkable manner of the Negro, and consequently the fascial angle is much greater. The body, instead of being, as in the Hottentot, diminutive and feeble, is muscular and athletic, and the stature is equal to that of the European race. The peculiarities of the female form in their southern neighbours have no existence among them, and the genius of their language is distinct and peculiar. In the useful arts they have made considerable progress. Besides domesticating the ox and sheep, they have also tamed the horse and goat; and their agriculture extends to the cultivation of barley and millet. It is a singular and distinctive trait that they practise universally the rite of circumcision. Of the origin of the practice they can give no account; and it has most probably been derived from intercourse, at some remote period, with some people by whom it was practised. The Abyssinian race is entirely different from those previously mentioned. Their colour is nearly black; but the hair is long, and generally lank, like that of an Arab or Hindoo. Features regular, after the European model, and the nose often aquiline. The stature equals that of the European; and the whole person is generally

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well formed, and occasionally handsome. The nations compreheaded under this race have made considerable progress in the useful arts. They have domesticated most of the useful animals, as the ox, sheep, horse, ass, and came]; and cultivate most of the common corns, as wheat, barley, and millit. They also work, with some skill, articles of iron, copper, and brass; and except the ancient Egyptians, and probably the Numidians, are the only native race of the entire continent who have invented an alphabet or possessed a literature. The Egyptian race is represented by the Copts of Egypt. These have long hair, a yellowish dusky complexion, neither Grecian nor Arabian, a puffed visage, swollen eyes, flat noses, and thick lips; and in short, according to Volney, much resemble Mulattos, or the mixed offspring of the European and Negro. It is almost unnecessary to add, that this was one of the earliest civilized races of mankind; and that at least thirty ages ago it had already tamed the useful animals, cultivated the most valuable plants, smelted the useful and precious metals, and erected architectural monuments which for their durability, extent, and grandeur, still astonish the world. They were also among the first to invent hieroglyphic and alphabetic writing. The next race to be named is the Numidian. The people, not yet mentioned, who inhabit the northern portion of Africa from about the 189 of N. latitude to the Mediterranean, and known by the various names of Moors, Berbers, Tuanghis, and Tibbans, are, in some cases with an admixture of Arab blood, probably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country before the settlement of the Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, or Arabs; — that is, they are the descendants of the Lybians, Numidians, Mauritanians, &c. With this race the hair is long and black; eyes dark; the colour of the skin a light brown, little deeper than that of the inhabitants of Spain; the features are European, but the nose generally not very prominent, and never aquiline, as is often the case with the Arabian. Although apparently superior at all times in civilization to any Negro nation, this race appears at no period to have made any remarkable progress in arts or arms, and scarcely any in letters; for it has been ascertained only of late years, rather as a matter of curiosity than any thing else, that they once possessed the art of alphabetic writing. Their language, indeed, is but the jargon of a rude people, destitute of terms to express the most common distinct ideas, such as shortness, roundness, sloth, death, &c. Such ideas are either expressed by circumlocutions, or in more difficult circumstances recourse is had to the Arabic language. Their inferiority is indeed most decidedly implied by the facility with which they have given way before every successive race of conquerors, during a period of at least 2500 'ears. y The next race to be described may be called the Nubian ; and, with the exception of the Abyssinians, will comprehend nearly all the people of Africa from about 8° of N. latitude to the southern confines of Egypt, and from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean on the east to about the 25° of E. longitude westward. In this race will be included the people called Barabra or Nuba, the people of Sennar, the Sumuli, the Suaking, the Bishari, the Ababdah, the Galla, and others. A long oval countenance; a curved nose, somewhat rounded towards the top; rather thick lips, but not protruding excessively, like those of the Negro; a retreating chin ; scanty beard; lively

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dark eyes; strongly frizzled, but never woolly hair; a finely formed person of the middle size, with a bronze complexion—are the physical characteristics of this race. Some of the nations of this race have made considerable progress in the common arts of life, but they have no indigenous literature. With the exceptions now mentioned, the rest of the African continent may be said to be peopled by the Negro race, which commences at the southern boundary of the great desert, and, embracing both the western and eastern coast, with the island of Madagascar, extends to about 20° of S. latitude. The following are the leading characteristics of this well-known variety of our species: — Skin and eyes black; hair black and woolly; skull compressed laterally, and elongated towards the front; forehead low, narrow, and slanting; cheek bones prominent; jaws narrow and projecting; upper front teeth oblique; chin, reced: ing: eyes prominent; nose broad, thick, flat, and confused with the extended jaw; lips, particularly the upper one, very thick; palms of the hand and soles of the feet flat; tibia and fibula, convex; pelvis narrow; knees turned in, toes turned out. The stature and physical strength are equal to that of the European, while the latter exceeds that of any other race. Many of the Negro nations have made considerable progress in the necessary and useful arts, – a progress which, it may be safely affirmed, greatly surpasses that made by any native nation of America. They cultivate many useful grains, roots, and fruits; have appropriated the services of the most useful of the domestic animals, such as the ox, horse, ass, camel, goat, sheep, and hog, "all of which appear to be indigenous. It is singular, however, that no Negro nation, nor even any native African nation, has ever had the ingenuity to tame and train the elephant, a service to civilization which has been performed by almost every Asiatic nation to whose country this animal is indigenous, and which there is abundant evidence to show was done by the Carthaginian and Roman settlers in Africa. It is a still more striking fact that no Negro, and indeed no African nation, save the Egyptians, Abyssinians, and partially the Numidians, ever possessed a literature, or had ingenuity to invent any alphabet, however rude. The general character thus sketched belongs with more or less intensity to the whole Negro race within the limits we have assigned to it; but it is not at the same time to be forgotten that there is much variety — a greater perhaps than exists among the European or any other family. We shall endeavour to describe a few of the most remarkable and best ascertained of these. The Mandingos are a numerous people, occupying the mountainous country on the west side of the continent which lies towards the sources of the rivers Senegal and Gambia. They possess the true Negro features, but not in an exaggerated form. The colour is black, with a mixture of yellow; the person strong, symmetrical, and above the middle stature. Of all the Negro races the Mandingos have exhibited the eatest aptitude for improvement. They are industrious, enterprising, and, compared with their neighbours, of an open and generous character. They have adopted the Mohammedan religion, and with it the letters and literature of Arabia. The Foulahs, or Paules, inhabit the same portion of Africa. The colour of the skin with this race is a sort of reddish black. Their countenances are regular, and their hair longer

and not so woolly as that of the ordinary Negro. They are robust, courageous, industrious and enterprising, and like the Mandingos have adopted the literature and religion of Arabia. Altogether they make a considerable approach to the #. which we have before described under the name of the Nubian. The Suhnias are a squat robust Negro race, not exceeding 5 feet 8 inches high. They are remarkable for their courage and hardihood, and have made considerable progress in the common arts of life, but have not adopted Mohammedanism or the Arabic letters. The Jolofs inhabit both the maritime and mountain country on the south banks of the Senegal, and are, in fact, the first Negro nation we encounter on the western side of the continent after quitting the Berbers. Their complexion is a fine transparent deep black. With the exception of thick lips and a nose much rounded at the end, their features make some approach to the European. The hair is crisp and woolly, the stature tall, and the figure good. To the south of the Gambia, and extending to Cape Palmas, we find the race called %,. of a deep black colour; with longish woolly hair; features so regular as to be thought to bear some resemblance to the Hindoo; and of slight and short stature, but much agility. These are nearly in a savage state. To the south of the Feloups are the Papals, a race of very ugly Negroes, of dull, gross, and ferocious aspect, with very flat noses, and of a dirty livid colour. These and some other races resembling them are followed in proceeding southward by the Bullom, &c., of a sine black colour, of gocd features, and well made, with persons above the mean stature. Proceeding southward, and more to the Gold coast and the country lying inland from it, we find the Intor, Fantee, and Ashantee nations, which appear to constitute another distinct variety of the Negro race. It is of the mean stature, and well proportioned. The face is of an oval form; the eyebrows lofty and thick; the lips fresh, red, and not hanging down as in the extreme forms of the Negro; and the nose not so flat. The hair is rather curled than woolly, and occasionally so long as to reach to the shoulders. Now and then are to be seen examples rather Asiatic than African. No nation of this variety has ever possessed the art of writing, either springing up among themselves or borrowed from I..."; and, although they have all made considerable progress in several of the common arts of life, they are in the habitual perpetration of cruel and ferocious rites, not to be paralleled by any other race of mankind. From the Bight of Biafra down to 20° S. latitude, where we encounter the Kaffers, there is comparatively little variation from our general description of the Negro family. In the interior of Africa lyin

between the Mountains of the Moon, whic

cross, or are supposed to cross, the entire continent in about 10° of N. latitude, and the great desert, we have, as far as our very imperfect information extends, little variety from the common type of the Negro. This is the country which the Arabs call Soudan; a word which means the country of “black men,” and is exactly equivalent to the Persian word Hindostan. On the east coast of Africa, between the Kaffer and Nubian races, we have nothing but true Negroes. It is, however, to be observed of these, that although the woolly head, black skin, flat nose, thick lips, and projecting jaws are never absent, their excess which is found in general on the western coast does not exist. Under the same denomination, though shortcr and feebler, is to

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