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tion of the International Geodetic Association, and, owing “ Secretion of Urine under Normal and under Pathological in its immediate interest, has absorbed the greater portion Conditions." of its funds. The astronomical world was surprised by The trustees of the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute have, the announcement of Prof. Chandler that he was able to

we learn from Science, subscribed 160,000l. toward the demonstrate from existing observations that the earth's

400,00ol. necessary to endow the proposed extension of the pile describes a closed curve taking about fourteen months institute, affording facilities for more advanced work. In to complete a revolution. The possibility of a periodic addition to this handsome provision for higher education, shift of the earth's axis was foreseen by Euler, who calcu

our contemporary announces that Mr. and Mrs. Jacob lated the time of revolution to be ten months; but observ- | Turtellout, of Minneapolis, have offered to give 80,000l. ations did not show a sensible period of that duration. to build and endow an academy for the town of Thompson, No one apparently before Chandler tried to see whether

Conn., and that Dr. Henry M. Saunders, of New York, snother period beyond a small annual one existed. The

a trustee of Vassar College, has given 15,000l. for the discrepancy between the calculated ten and the observed

erection of a building as a memorial to his wife. Suurteen months was cleared up by Prof. Newcomb, who

The current number of Macmillan's Magazine contains pointed out that Euler's calculation was based on the supPosition that the earth is an absolutely rigid body. Any in which some of the weaknesses of systems of instruction

an article by Mr. A. C. Passmore on technical education, yielding would increase the length of the period ; in fact, the earth must be more rigid than steel in order that the

of this type are summarised. The need is insisted upon period should be as short as fourteen months. This shows

for adequate preliminary training of a suitable kind for now indirect information on the physical properties of the

students beginning courses of technology. It is urged that earth may be obtained sometimes in an unexpected manner,

instead of being in such a hurry to provide technical schools

it would be worth while to consider the qualifications and the periodic revolution of the pole leading to an estimate

fitness of the teachers. The examination system is cited of the average rigidity of the interior of the earth. The total displacement of the pole of the earth from its average

one of the chief causes conspiring to make British

technical education unsatisfactory. . But the author appears position is small, never amounting to more than 8 metres. The accuracy with which that displacement can be measured

to be unacquainted with the work being done in many is a testimony to the excellence of our astronomical observ

of the great municipal technical schools, and to have ceased

his educational observations some ten or fifteen years ago. ations. It is a type of work in which cooperation is abso

Conditions at present are better than Mr. Passmore paints lutely necessary. The subject has received additional

them. interest through the suggestion made by Prof. Milne in his recent Bakerian lecture that seismic disturbances may be

AMONG the bequests made by Mr. F. W. Webb, who caused by the changes in the position of the earth's axis.

died on June 4, we notice the following :--2000l. to Owens Considering that the distortions in the earth are sufficient College, Manchester, establish for the benefit of to increase the periodic revolution of the pole from ten to

employees and sons of employees of the London and Northfourteen months, this suggestion is well worth investigation,

Western Railway a “ Webb " scholarship tenable at Owens and the zool. per annum spent by this country in support College, Manchester ; 2000l. to the University College of of the work of the Geodetic Association will be well Liverpool for a similar purpose there as defined for Owens rmployed if it allows the vagaries of our pole to be more

College, Manchester ; 1000l. the Institute of Civil closely studied and all the dimensional quantities of the Engineers for providing annually a “ Webb Medal," and suriace of the carth to become more accurately known.

a premium of books to be awarded for the best paper on l'he contributions received by the Central Bureau of this railway machinery. 7ssociation from the participating States amount to about The annual assembly and prize distribution at University joool, and there is a balance which at the end of 1904 College, London, on Tuesday, July 3, was of more than mounted to more than 5000l. The expenditure during | usual interest from the fact that the friends of Prof. Carey nog was nearly 5oool., reducing the balance by 2000l. Foster had taken the opportunity of then presenting to The principal items of the expenditure were formed by the college the portrait of Prof Foster which has been inntributions towards the maintenance of six stations in painted by Mr. Augustus John. The presentation was the northern and two stations in the southern hemisphere made by Prof. F. T. Trouton, who recalled the fact that for carrying out the observations relating to the changes Prof. Foster was the first to introduce practical laboratory of the position of the earth's axis. The whole cost of teaching in physics into England. Many of the methods This service is about 4430l. The honorarium of the secre- devised by him in the development of his laboratory courses tary is 2501., which, together with the cost of printing, are to-day recognised as standard ones. For instance, postage, and a small item for grants toward special scien- every student has to go through and know his Carey-Foster tific work, makes up the expenditure. No charges are Bridge as surely and regularly as at school he has to pass made for office expenses, which are defrayed by the the fifth proposition of the first book of Euclid. The exPrussian Government.

ample set by Foster was followed in laboratory after laborThe geodetic work indirectly gives us valuable, though atory, until to-day there is not a town without its course of only partial, information on the interior of the earth, but it experimental physics. Prof. Trouton concluded by hoping runfines itself in the main to the surface of the globe; the that though the portrait represented its subject as an older investigation of our atmosphere carries us beyond.

man than he really is, yet his useful life might be spared (To be continued.)

until the portrait may become that of a much younger man. The Right Hon. Lord Reay, G.C.S.I., who received the

portrait on behalf of the college, referred to the great UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

impetus which the study of physics had received by his INTELLIGENCE,

work and writings, which are characterised by great clear

ness and lucidity. More especially he referred to the debt DR. J. P. Hill has been appointed to the Jodrell chair

owed to Prof. Foster by the college, of which he became *f zoology at University College, London.

the first principal at a time at which great tact and knowAt King's College, London, Dr. C. S. Myers has been ledge were required in connection with the delicate negotiappointed professor of psychology (including experimental ations leading to the incorporation of the college in the paychology), and Mr. H. S. Allen senior lecturer in physics. University of London. His lordship concluded by presentTHE Rrv. T. C. Fitzpatrick, dean and supernumerary

ing a replica of the portrait to Mrs. Carey Foster. Prof. fellow of Christ's College, has been elected president of

Foster, in acknowledging the presentations, alluded to the Qurrns' College, Cambridge, in succession to the Bishop

interval of fifty-three years since he was first present at a ceremony of the same kind. In one respect the present

ceremony was of historical interest, inasmuch as it was À COURSE of five free public lectures is to be given, in the last ceremony to be held by the college before its inaccordance with the will of Mr. Brown, in the physio- corporation. He looked forward to the advantages arising Jogiral laboratory of the University of London on July 9, from this incorporation. The prominent defect in the 11, 13, 16, and 18, by Prof. T. G. Brodie, F.R.S., on the higher teaching in London is the dispersion of the large

of Ely.

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In passing from the arbitrar: our terrestrial measurements (: which we measure the dimension from them to stellar distances, ti. radius or circumference forms an quantity. One of the first acts Sciences, founded in 1666, consiste of accurately measuring the dim this at once enabled Newton to con of universal gravitation. As imp: of measuring kept pace with th plished our knowledge steadily in improving on it. New problemmore minute study, and the me and size of the earth still remain importance. The actual surveys a: for the purpose are of necessity let dividual States or to the combinatio concerned, but the general discuss they apply to the earth as a wii International Geodetic Association, sists of twenty-one States. The annual contributions to the gener the following table :

£ Belgium

So Aust Denmark

40

Port Germany

300 Rout France

300 Russ Greece

40 Swed Great Britain

300 Switz Italy

300 Servi Japan

300 Spair Mexico

150 Hung The Colonies of the

Unite Netherlands

40

rica Norway ...

40 The Central Bureau of this associa Roval Geodetic Institute of Potsdan

post is the azimuthal angle the radius vector makes

13 of the Oscillator reckoned from the direcI Wantch the free ends point. These expressions show

increases from oo to 180° the values of E and y, and are greater when A= 180° than when A=0°. like where is an unsymmetrical radiation by such an www.reatest in the direction opposite to that in le tree ends point. inilaan oscillator may also be regarded as the combin

vid completely closed conductive circuit or magnetic Hol with a straight or open electric oscillator. The

the magnetic oscillator was investigated by the Prob. G. E. Fitzgerald (see his scientific writings.

n Prof. J. Larmor, Sec. R.S., p. 128) prior to the 1. llertz's discoveries, and in the discussion at the yuleiv

March 22 on Mr. Marconi's paper, . !! was pointed out by Prof. J. Larmor that a scilator of the kind above discussed was equivalent cimomagnetic action to a magnetic plus an electric

on

“ On a Static Method of Comparing the DensiI bourses." By R. Threlfall, F.R.S. Since it is a simple matter to make a manometer showog differences of gas pressure of a few centimetres of waler, accurate to between 1/100 mm. and 1/ 1000 mm.. according to the construction, it is possible to determine the relative densities of gases by a method similar to the one employed by Regnault in determining the temperatureJensity variation of mercury

It is shown that, using columns 20 metres long, the ditierence of density of Romnical" and "atmospheric " wiwogen should be capul observation. The author has emploved the method comparison of the densities of producer gas and using gas columns about 35 metres in height. The wolumns of gas and air respectively were contain urriposition pipes twisted gether and immersel

in an outer iron pipe Through which a streno

passet in two experimente

Sifter

Tes of gas Tenees of pressure

cm. of respectively wero

is densisurate to about 116

density were deduced

Jometer w the Cambrids

o the designs was en

and, possible to

five titive, and R without

relative

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1

June 7.-" Effects of Self-induction in an Iron Cylinder." Faraday Society, June 12. -Mr. W. Murray Morrison By Prui. Ernest Wilson. Communicated by Sir William in the chair.—The electrolytic deposition of zinc, using 11. Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S.

rotating electrodes : Dr. T. Slater Price and G. H. B. An irun cylinder 10 inches (254 cm.) in diameter is Judge. An improved form of apparatus for the electrotraversed in the direction of its axis of figure by an electric lytic deposition of metals, using a rotating kathode, is current, which is allowed to become steady. Under the described. The ordinary beaker is replaced by a tap funnel action of a sufficiently large potential difference and non- of about 100 c.c. capacity, so that the electrolyte can be inductive resistance the total current is suddenly reversed run off at the end of the experiment, thus obviating the and maintained constant, and its propagation to the centre use of a siphon.—A simple form of rotating kathode for of the cylinder is investigated by aid of embedded ex- electrochemical analysis : Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. The ploring coils. The results show that a current of about kathode consists of a spiral of platinum wire, or, better, jou amperes takes two minutes to become steady over the iridio-platinum wire. Nickel wire may be substituted for whole section of the cylinder. The delay is caused by the platinum, and the author recommends its employment in opposing electromotive forces induced in the mass by the place of the more expensive metal. Attention is also change of the magnetic fluxes produced by the currents directed to the solubility of platinum anodes, with heavy interior to the successive annuli. When the total current is currents 0.0016 grm. being dissolved in a cyanide solution sinall, the induced E.M.F.'s at the centre, for example, in thirty-five minutes.The electrolysis of solutions of occur at once, and then die away. With currents of about thiocyanates in pyridine and in acetone : S. Binning and 200 amperes a second maximum is developed after about Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. On oxidation of thiocyanates with eighty seconds. For gradually increased total currents the chlorine, persulphates, &c., a yellow colouring matter-secund maximum occurs at shorter intervals of time after canarine-is obtained. By electrolysis of aqueous acidified reversal, and becomes the most prominent feature of the solutions of thiocyanates an apparently similar product, which phenomenon.

was originally described in 1884 by Lurdow, is obtained. The results obtained can be applied to cylinders of other The authors consider that this substance is not identical diameters than the one experimented upon, and an estimate with the canarine obtained by chemical means, because it is made of the time taken fully to make use of the whole shows certain reactions not given by the oxidation product. section of an iron telegraph wire and steel rails as used in alternate-current traction.

Geological Society, June 13.-Sir Archibald Geikie, Scc.R.S., president, in the chair.-Recumbent folds pro

duced as a result of flow: Prof. W. J. Sollas. Prof. Mineralogical Society, June 12.-Prof. H. A. Miers, Lugeon has described a series of recumbent folds so greatly F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Sartorite from the exceeding in horizontal extension their vertical thickness Binnenthal: Dr. C. 0. Trechmann. This mineral has

that they are spoken of as sheets; they lie flat one on the hitherto been held to crystallise in the orthorhombic system, other, and those higher in the series extend farther to the and full descriptions have appeared from the pens of front than those below, a feature referred to as déferlevom Rath and Baumhauer. Solly, later, assigns it to the ment. The roots of the lower folds are visible in the monoclinic system, without, however, publishing details. high Alps adjacent, but the roots of the higher must be Two very perfect crystals, originally, attached to each sought in the zone of Mont Blanc and the Briançonnais. other, were examined and compared with other crystals and Thus some of the uppermost folds may have surmounted with the results of the above-named authors. Both

the obstacle presented by Mont Blanc on their way to the crystals exhibit conspicuous monoclinic habit, and one is front in the pre-Alps. The features presented by recumbent a distinct twin. The elements of vom Rath are :a:b:c=

folds are more suggestive of flowing than bending. Experi0 539:1:0619. The elements arrived

ments have been made with pitch-glaciers (poissiers) in ::b:<= 1.27552 :1:1:19487 with B 77° 48', in which

which an obstruction was placed. Folds were produced, one 4:0:c correspond with c:b:a of vom Rath. The twin

of which was like the Morcles fold behind the Diablerets, and composition plane is a=(100), and the twinned crystal another like the Pilatus, and yet another like the Sentis, is a juxtaposition twin on this face. Further evidence of

and the fourth compared with the overslide of the Bavarian the twinned structure is afforded by many narrow, twin front; all four exhibit déferlement. The lower limb of lamella on the above law. Baumhauer records fifty-nine each fold is adjacent to the similar limb of its neighbours ; observed forms on this mineral, including thirteen but, in another experiment, in which two obstacles were pyramids. On the above two crystals eighty-seven forms used, the results were nearer to those seen in the mounwere observed, including thirty-five pyramids. There is tains, where the lower limb of a superior fold reposes on little agreement in the angles and forms with those of the

the upper limb of the fold immediately beneath it.—The other five crystals, or with previous observations. In the Crag of Iceland--an intercalation in the basalt-formation : zone of the prisms (brachydomes of vom Rath), however, Dr. Helgi Pjetursson. The existence of fossiliferous dethere is a close agreement, sufficient to make it very prob- posits on the west coast of Tjörnes, N. Iceland, has been able that all the examined crystals belong to the mineral known for 100 years. Mörch enumerates sixty-one species wartorite. Further research is necessary on the scarce

of Mollusca, and concludes that the temperature must have maierial in order to show whether two or more morpho- been much milder than at present. From the shells, it has tropically related minerals may not be involved here.- been considered that the deposit could not be younger than The occurrence of axinite in the area south of Bodmin, in

Middle Reg Crag. Dr. Thoroddsen thinks that these Crags Cornwall: G. Barrow.—Cassiterite pseudomorphs from

are younger than the Old Basalts of Tjörnes. The author Bolivia: R. Pearce. The frequent occurrence of cindery finds, however, that, about 500 feet above the sea, they and cellular cassiterite in Bolivia suggested that the pseudo- are overlain by the Eastern Basalts. Thus there is a fossilmorphs might be after a sulphostannate, but this is not iferous intercalation occupying part of the great gap borne out by the crystallographic examination made by

between the Tertiary and the Pleistocene rocks. The basal Mr. L J. Spencer.-Notes on skiodroms and isogyres : Dr. layer of the Pleistocene series is fossiliferous, and has J. W. Evans. The author referred to Prof. Becke's paper on vielded twenty-two species of Mollusca, twenty of which the object, and showed that the derivation of the forms and

represent a highly Arctic fauna. Certain of the larger movements of isogyres (the loci in convergent polarised light basalt-dykes are cut off at the base of the Crag. The of vibrations extinguished under crossed nicols) from the

absence of the Crag-deposits from other localities is exskindroms (the curves expressing the directions of such vibra

plained by the erosion of the coast-line. fioms) 47* simplified when a microscope with revolving

Paris. --ftployed, instead of one with a revolving stage. orph of quartz after apophyllite : H. Hartley Academy of Sciences. June 18. - M. H. Poincaré in the

od Thomag.–A heating stage for the Dick chair.--- Researches on the direct synthesis of nitric acid '?. Hartley.-Mr. J. P. De Castro exhibited and nitrates from their elements at the ordinary temperaI of tantalite from Western Australia, and ture : M. Berthelot. Nitrogen and oxygen were caused rce specimens of axinite from St. Ives, to combine at the ordinary temperature under the action

of the silent discharge, care being taken that no visible

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resources amongst various organisations which are in some respects rivals. Principal Rücker had recently said that

any organisation to be visible must be on a grand scale." It is only by combination that the colleges of London can hope to attract the support which is so urgently needed.

metrical oscillator consisting of three simple oscillators of equal electric moment superimposed so as to make a doubly bent oscillator of the shape [.

If V denotes the scalar potential at a point in the field at a distance a large compared with the dimensions of the oscillator, and F, G, and H the components of vector potential, then it is shown in the paper that

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SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

V=

+ dy k de k dydz

k daily LONDON. Royal Society, March 8.—“The Microscopic Charges in

F=0, G=0

dn

. the Nervous System in a Case of Chronic Dourine or Mal

dedł

ayelt de Coit, and Comparison of the Same with Those found in Sleeping Sickness. By Dr. F. W. Mott, F.R.S. wher: n=sin (mr - nt)/, and from these expressions the (From the Pathological Laboratory of the London County electric (E) and magnetic (H) force at various points in Asylums.)

the field can be obtained. The final result is to give exThe author describes the changes in the central nervous pressions for these forces normal to the radius vector system of an Arab stallion, which acquired the disease by drawn in the equatorial plane of symmetry as follows :infective coitus. After exhibiting 156 characteristic cutaneous plaques, together with marked symptoms of

= paraplegia, it died 271 months after infection. The material was forwarded by Dr. Lingard, director of the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory of India, who has

E=

cos 6

-1 written an interesting monograph on dourine. A full de

kr scription of the etiology and clinical symptoms of this

M disease is contained in this monograph, and an account

omr in detail of this particular case.

Dourine is due to a specific form of trypanosome, affects equines, and is transmitted, like syphilis, by coitus. This

where cos 6 is the azimuthal angle the radius vector makes is of especial interest, since the Spirochaeta pallida has

with the axis of the Oscillator reckoned from the direcbeen shown to be the infecting agent in syphilis.

tion in which the free ends point. These expressions show A comparative examination of the tissues of the central

that as o increases from o° to 180° the values of E and nervous system in this disease and in sleeping sickness,

Hvary, and are greater when 0= 180° than when @=0°. experimental and human, appears to show that prolonged

Hence there is an unsymmetrical radiation by such an trypanosome infection results in a chronic lymphadenitis,

oscillator, greatest in the direction opposite to that in followed later by a chronic interstitial inflammation of the

which the free ends point. lymphatic structures of the nervous system. The morbid

Such an oscillator may also be regarded as the combinprocess in the case of dourine starts in one seat of primary

ation of a completely closed conductive circuit or magnetic infection, extends to the inguinal glands, and thence (pre

oscillator with a straight or open electric oscillator. The sumably by the pelvic lymphatics) spreads by the lumbo

field of the magnetic oscillator was investigated by the sacral nerves to the posterior spinal ganglia, where it may

late Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald (see his scientific writings, set up an intense inflammatory process with destructive edited by Prof. J. Larmor, Sec.R.S., p. 128) prior to the atrophy of the cells. This destruction of the trophic

date of Hertz's discoveries, and in the discussion at the sensory centres which was found in this case of dourine

Royal Society on March 22 on Mr. Marconi's paper, would account for the cutaneous eruption which occurred

loc. cit., it was pointed out by Prof. J. Larmor that a during life. It would account also for the marked de

bent oscillator of the kind above discussed was equivalent generation of the posterior roots and the sclerosis in the in electromagnetic action to a magnetic plus an electric posterior columns, especially in the root zones. The lesion

oscillator. in some respects therefore resembled locomotor ataxy, and it is of interest to note that cases of dourine have occurred

May 3.-“ On a Static Method of Comparing the Densiin which fractures and dislocations have been observed

ties of Gases.” By R. Threlfall, F.R.S. -due probably to neurotrophic changes. Moreover, there

Since it is a simple matter to make a manometer shop. were other signs of chronic irritation observed elsewhere

ing differences of gas pressure of a few centimetres of in the spinal cord and nervous system, viz. subpial and

water, accurate to between 1/100 mm. and 1/ 1000 mm., septal proliferation of the glia tissue. Marck has described

according to the construction, it is possible to drtermine the disease as an infective polyneuritis ; there were reasons,

the relative densities of gases by a method similar to the however, in this case, for supposing that the motor nerves

one employed by Regnault in determining the temperaturewere not affected by a degenerative change in the same

density variation of mercury. way as the posterior roots.

It is shown that, using gas columns 20 metres long, the

difference of density of " chemical ” and “ atmospheric March 22,-_“A Note the Theory of Directive nitrogen should be capable of observation. The author Antennæ or Unsymmetrical Hertzian Oscillators. By has employed the method in a comparison of the densities Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.

of producer gas and air, using gas columns about This paper deals with the theory of bent or unsym- 20 metres in height. The two columns of gas and air remetrical Hertzian oscillators. As is well known, spectively were contained in composition pipes twisted straight linear oscillator radiates equally in all directions together and immersed in water in an outer iron pipe around the axis. It has been found, however, by Mr. through which a stream of water passed. Marconi that if an antenna for electric-wave telegraphy In two experiments on two different samples of gas is bent so that a short part of its length, rising from the differences of pressure of 0.3458 cm. and 0:3550 cm. of earth, is vertical, and the greater part horizontal, and water respectively were observed, and producer-gas densi therefore parallel to the earth, such an oscillator radiates ties accurate to about 1, 5000th part in terms of the density less in the direction in which the free end points than in

of air were deduced. The commercial micromanometer the opposite direction. This is of great practical import- made by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co, to the ance, and the writer accordingly investigated mathe- author's designs was employed in these comparisons, and, matically the behaviour of a simple case of an unsym

since it is possible to construct an instrument say five

times as sensitive, and to use columns of gas at least 1 See Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. lxxvii. p. 1413, 1906. r Marcini, “On

twice as long without inconvenience, the method should Methods whereby the Radiation of Electric Waves may be mainly confined to certain Directions, and whereby the Receptivity of a Receiver may be

vield values of relative density correct to i part in 10,00%) restricted to Electric Waves emanating from certain Directions."

without difficulty.

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June 7.-" Effects of Self-induction in an Iron Cylinder." Faraday Society, June 12.—Mr. W. Murray Morrison By Prof. Ernest Wilson. Communicated by Sir William in the chair.—The electrolytic deposition of zinc, using H. Preecr, K.C.B., F.R.S.

rotating electrodes : Dr. T. Slater Price and G. H. B. An iron cylinder 10 inches (25.4 cm.) in diameter is Judge. An improved form of apparatus for the electrotraversed in the direction of its axis of figure by an electriclytic deposition of metals, using a rotating kathode, is current, which is allowed to become steady. Under the described. The ordinary beaker is replaced by a tap funnel action of a sufficiently large potential difference and non- of about 100 c.c. capacity, so that the electrolyte can be inductive resistance the total current is suddenly reversed run off at the end of the experiment, thus obviating the and maintained constant, and its propagation to the centre use of a siphon.-A simple form of rotating kathode for of the cylinder is investigated by aid of embedded ex- electrochemical analysis : Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. The ploring coils. The results show that a current of about kathode consists of a spiral of platinum wire, or, better, 500 amperes takes two minutes to become steady over the iridio-platinum wire. Nickel wire may be substituted for whole section of the cylinder. The delay is caused by the platinum, and the author recommends its employment in opposing electromotive forces induced in the mass by the place of the more expensive metal. Attention is also change of the magnetic Auxes produced by the currents directed to the solubility of platinum anodes, with heavy interior to the successive annuli. When the total current is currents 0.0016 grm. being dissolved in a cyanide solution small, the induced E.M.F.'s at the centre, for example, in thirty-five minutes.—The electrolysis of solutions of occur at once, and then die away. With currents of about thiocyanates in pyridine and in acetone : S. Binning and 300 amperes a second maximum is developed after about Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. On oxidation of thiocyanates with eighty seconds. For gradually increased total currents the chlorine, persulphates, &c., a yellow colouring mattersecond maximum occurs at shorter intervals of time after canarine—is obtained. By electrolysis of aqueous acidified reversal, and becomes the most prominent feature of the solutions of thiocyanates an apparently similar product, which phenomenon.

was originally described in 1884 by Lurdow, is obtained. The results obtained can be applied to cylinders of other The authors consider that this substance is not identical diameters than the one experimented upon, and an estimate with the canarine obtained by chemical means, because it is made of the time taken fully to make use of the whole shows certain reactions not given by the oxidation product. section of an iron telegraph wire and steel rails as used in alternate-current traction.

Geological Society, June 13.-Sir Archibald Geikie, Sec.R.S., president, in the chair.-Recumbent folds pro

duced as a result of flow: Prof. W. J. Sollas. Prof. Mineralogical Society, June 12.-Prof. H. A. Miers, Lugeon has described a series of recumbent folds so greatly F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Sartorite from

the

exceeding in horizontal extension their vertical thickness Binnenthal : Dr. C. 0. Trechmann. This mineral has

that they are spoken of as sheets; they lie flat one on the hitherto been held to crystallise in the orthorhombic system, other, and those higher in the series extend farther to the and full descriptions have appeared from the pens of front than those below, a feature referred to as déferlevom Rath and Baumhauer. Solly, later, assigns it to the ment. The roots of the lower folds are visible in the monoclinic system, without, however, publishing details. high Alps adjacent, but the roots of the higher must be Two very perfect crystals, originally attached to each sought in the zone of Mont Blanc and the Briançonnais. other, were examined and compared with other crystals and Thus some of the uppermost folds may have surmounted with the results of the above-named authors. Both

the obstacle presented by Mont Blanc on their way to the crystals exhibit conspicuous monoclinic habit, and one is front in the pre-Alps. The features presented by recumbent a distinct twin. The elements of vom Rath are :a:b:0= folds are more suggestive of flowing than bending. Experi0-539:1:0619. The elements arrived

ments have been made with pitch-glaciers (poissiers) in :a:bic=1:27552 : 1:1.19487 with B 77° 48', in which which an obstruction was placed. Folds were produced, one a:bic correspond with c:b:a of vom Rath. The twin of which was like the Morcles fold behind the Diablerets, and composition plane is a =(100), and the twinned crystal another like the Pilatus, and yet another like the Sentis, is a juxtaposition twin on this face. Further evidence of and the fourth compared with the overslide of the Bavarian the twinned structure is afforded by many narrow, twin front; all four exhibit déferlement. The lower limb of lamellæ on the above law. Baumhauer records fifty-nine each fold is adjacent to the similar limb of its neighbours; observed forms this mineral, including thirteen

but, in another experiment, in which two obstacles were pyramids. On the above two crystals eighty-seven forms used, the results were nearer to those seen in the mounwere observed, including thirty-five pyramids. There is tains, where the lower limb of a superior fold reposes on little agreement in the angles and forms with those of the

the upper limb of the fold immediately beneath it.—The other five crystals, or with previous observations. In the Crag of Iceland an intercalation in the basalt-formation : zone of the prisms (brachydomes of vom Rath), however, Dr. Helgi Pjetursson. The existence of fossiliferous dethere is a close agreement, sufficient to make it very prob- l posits on the west coast of Tjörnes, N. Iceland, has been able that all the examined crystals belong to the mineral known for 160 years. Mörch enumerates sixty-one species sartorite. Further research is necessary on the scarce of Mollusca, and concludes that the temperature must have material in order to show whether two or more morpho- | been much milder than at present. From the shells, it has tropically related mir.erals may not be involved here.-- been considered that the deposit could not be younger than The occurrence of axinite in the area south of Bodmin, in Middle Reg Crag. Dr. Thoroddsen thinks that these Crags Cornwall : G. Barrow.--Cassiterite pseudomorphs from

are younger than the Old Basalts of Tjörnes. The author Bolivia : R. Pearce. The frequent occurrence of cindery finds, however, that, about 500 feet above the sea, they and cellular cassiterite in Bolivia suggested that the pseudo- are overlain by the Eastern Basalts. Thus there is a fossilmorphs might be after a sulphostannate, but this is not iferous intercalation occupying part of the great gap borne out by the crystallographic examination made by between the Tertiary and the Pleistocene rocks. The basal Mr. L. J. Spencer.--Notes on skiodroms and isogyres : Dr. layer of the Pleistocene series is fossiliferous, and has J. W. Evans. The author referred to Prof. Becke's paper on yielded twenty-two species of Mollusca, twenty of which the subject, and showed that the derivation of the forms and

represent a highly Arctic fauna. Certain of the larger movements of isogyres (the loci in convergent polarised light basalt-dykes are cut off at the base of the Crag. The of vibrations extinguished under crossed nicols) from the

absence of the Crag-deposits from other localities is exskjodroms (the curves expressing the directions of such vibra- plained by the erosion of the coast-line. tions) are simplified when a microscope with revolving nicols is employed, instead of one with a revolving stage.

Paris. -A peeudomorph of quartz alter apophyllite : H. Hartley Academy of Sciences. June 18.- M. H. Poincaré in the and N. Garrod Thomas.—A heating stage for the Dick chair.-Researches on the direct synthesis of nitric acid microscope : H Hartley, Mr. J. P. De Castro exhibited and nitrates from their elements at the ordinary temperaa large crystal of tantalite from Western Australia, and ture : M. Berthelot. Nitrogen and oxygen were caused Mr. R. Pearce specimens of axinite from St. Ives, to combine at the ordinary temperature under the action Cornwall.

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