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King, it was well known who was meant; solutely; Alexander, moreover, had alno one was ignorant that this title applied ways in arms against him 40,000 Greeks, only to the prince who reigned in Asia, as experienced as his Macedonians, and and who, de jure or de facto, was sovereign animated by all the hatred they were capaof the world. Notwithstanding the me- ble of cherishing towards a fellow-counmorable victories of the Greeks, which may tryman, whom they regarded as the opbe supposed to have been somewhat exag- pressor of their native land. Scarcely ar.. gerated by national vanity, Greece, but rived at manhood, in the midst of factions, for Alexander, would have ended by be- he subjected to the yoke warlike republics, coming a province of the Great King. He jealous of their liberty; he left Europe; had already proceeded so far as to secure an
innumerable nations recognized his laws; obedience to his commands, in interposing nothing arrested his progress, neither Libin the disputes of the Greeks; he had as yan sands nor Scythian snows. What are many of them as he pleased in his pay, the campaigns of modern times compared and wanted but little more to be in reality
with these immense military enterprizes? their master. Without Alexander, Greece He left every where striking proofs of his had submitted to the yoke almost con- genius; he did not subvert, he founded a tentedly.
new empire. The highest mountains in When the King of Macedon triumphed the world were impotent barriers between over Darius, he became Monarch of Asia. him and his enemies; the icy summits of This is the secret that explains the whole
Imaüs bowed the head, and expanded bepolitical conduct of the conqueror. The
fore him; our geographers are at a loss Greeks, little familiar with the public law how to follow him in his distant career. of the East, could comprehend no part of In the peaceful sovereignty of Asia, still that conduct, and could never pardon more eminent by his genius than his sword, Alexander for having forced them to live meditating vaster projects than those he had in peace: they wished to regard him only achieved, he died at Babylon, which he as the oppressor of their democracies. The wished to make the capital of the world. memory of this great man has been trans- The universe lay hushed before him, and mitted to us through a multitude of frothy he was not thirty-two years old! The declamations; and after more than 2,000 army of such a chief must be a nursery of years, we still judge him with all the pre- great captains; all were able generals, judices that belong to his enemies. If we all partook of his valour, but not one posought to entertain any esteem for the de- sessed his genius. In Asia, Alexander structive genius of conquerors, why should wished to become Persian ; they continued we not admire Alexander? other person- Greeks: their history is explained in these ages, celebrated on the same account, we two words. Alexander would have laid admire, who scarcely deserved our admi- the foundations of a lasting empire; they ration. The name of this hero seems des- retained but a precarious sway; miserably tined to eclipse for ever the glory of all supported by foreign mercenaries, and abother conquerors, who undergo a disad- horred by the natives. Thus the Arsacides vantageous comparison with him. He had had little difficulty in wresting from their one defect, almost a solitary one, and it hands the sceptre of Asia. was a defect belonging to his country; he The Arsacidean monarchy was the centre paid dearly for it, since it cost him his of a vast political system, connected with life. Was there ever a man who, with the Romans on the western side; whilst such slender resources, performed so many on the east, it was in contact with the and such vast undertakings? With 30,000
Chinese empire. Thus on one side the men he completed the conquest of Asia.
Parthians might be seen stirring up resisLet it not be said, that he triumphed over tance to the Romans, even on the banks of timid multitudes: his adversaries might the Danube ; and on the other, we might have been deficient in military skill, but have beheld Chinese monarchs interposing Darius and the Persians were brave, and as mediators in the sanguinary disputes of this was a matter of moment at a period the Arsacidean princes. This powerful when valour decided almost solely the fate feudal monarchy was composed of four of battles. The Scythians, the Bactrians, principal kingdoms, possessed by one single the Indians, opposed him long and re- family. The elder branch had Persia ; and its chief, decorated with the title of King their proximity to Asiatic nations explairs of Kings, exercised paramount sovereignty the remarkable resemblance between them. over all the princes of his kindred. The But is it imagined, that this was the only Kings of Armenia held the second rank; time such a revolution took place? Is it then followed those of Bactriana, chiefs of supposed that it has not often happened, all the Alanes and Gothic tribes spread and at more early periods; before there upon the banks of the Indus, or in the un- existed empires sufficiently powerful to known regions which extend to the north of check these formidable emigrations? The Hindostan, and to the eastward of Persia. classic land is still under the yoke of the In the last rank was the Arsacidean King Turks, who were once neighbours of the of the Massagetæ, who possessed all Chinese; they govern still in Lesser Asia Southern Russia, and governed the Gothic, and in Egypt. Well, long before the Alanes, Saxon, Median, Persian, and In- epochs distinguished in common history, dian tribes, stationed on the banks of the men who were not of the same race, but Volga and the Tanais. We must not be who came from nearly as great a distance, surprised to see these people placed far subjected Asia and Europe to their rule, from the geographical positions which their and the Nile acknowledged their laws. denominations would appear to denote: it They invaded, through the present empire would be difficult to explain and account of Russia, Greece, and Germany, penefor this, did we not know how the Alcoran trated into Spain, and, as the Vandals has dissevered the members of the same did since, passed beyond the pillars of Arabian tribe, placing some upon the Hercules, and crossed into Africa, where banks of the Ganges, and others at the they extended to the distant borders of foot of the Pyrenees. The residence in the Senegal. An India, distinct from Europe of the Medes and Indians was less Asiatic India, existed in Europe; the remarkable, their boundary line of demar. rites and institutions of the Brahmins cation being less remote. Although the flourished there in full vigour; there, likeearliest origin of the Arsacides must be wise, men at the age of sixty had comsought in Asia, yet, when this part of the pleted their earthly career, and thenceworld was subjected by them, they came forward, disengaged from all duties tofrom Europe, and formed a portion of a wards the world and their families, only powerful nation, scattered from the banks aspired to return into the bosom of the of the Danube to the most distant countries Deity, from whom their souls were but an of Upper Asia. This people were the emanation, and hastened this happy moDacii; this was the national denomination ment by a voluntary death. By a more of the Arsacides, and they communicated painful path, others arrived at the same it to their subjects. Three centuries before end; separated from the rest of mankind, our era, Hungary and Bactriana bore confined in secluded monasteries, subjected jointly the name of Dacia, a well known to severe mortifications, buried in profound term which, though differently modified meditations on the divine essence, these by the successive idioms which have pre. pious monks believed they became one with vailed in Europe and Asia, still serves to the being whose nature they investigated ; designate the Germans and the descendants and the people, struck by their sanctity of of the ancient Persians.
life, decreed them divine honours whilst It is easy to perceive, from what has they lived, and conceived, whilst acknowbeen said, that the origin of the Arsacides ledging them for kings, that they had God is connected with another question of the himself for their ruler. Many traces of utmost importance, a question often dis- this portrait of European India still subcussed, but still far from being resolved, sist in that of Asia, and the adjacent reand the solution of which would explain gions. Wherever we turn, in referring the intimate relation in respect to language, to periods far distant from our own, we grammar, institutions, manners, religion, recognize in Europe, and in Asia, at imand physical organization, which assimilate mense distances, and with the same deno. to each other all the people of ancient and minations, fragments of the same nature modern Europe. It is well known, that dispersed by the astonishing revolutions the barbarians who demolished the Roman which we have referred to. empire, came from the frontiers of Asia; The people are the only personages, if
we may so express it, who figure in this in- of the Arsacides, put an end to the unteresting part of history, the history of our equal struggle, and the empire of Asia ancestors. We scarcely know the names devolved without dispute to the descenof any of the leaders of these ancient and dants of Arsaces. The defeat of Crassus, powerful colonies : it is only as they ap- and that of Antony, the disgrace of which proach our time, that the gloom gradually could not be effaced by the victories disappears, and that historical facts are of Corbalo and of Trajan, proved that perceived with all their detail. The power
the Parthians had not degenerated. So of the Arsacides is the first of thuse long as the empire subsisted, they were mighty governments of which an histori- the terror of the Romans; the projects cal narrative can be afforded. Materials of strangers were never favoured by their are not wanting ; but let us imagine a dissentions. The enemy destined to overmagnificent temple, which has long been come them was to spring up among them. suffering from the destructive scythe of
selves. One of their weakest vassals, time, whose imperfect ruins, heaped con
Ardeschir, lord of a little district in Persia, fusedly together, or dispersed at a dis- gradually increased his strength, by reduc. tance, seem to forbid our distinguishing ing other petty lords ; then dexterously, even the plan of the building; such is the taking advantage of the religious enthuobject which the history of the Arsacides siasm of the people, and the hatred which presents to us. There remain no chroni- they cherished against the Parthians, whose cles. A number of brief passages, man
foreign extraction they had not forgotgled, corrupted, dispersed, belonging to
ten, he contrived to render himself formiauthors of separate periods, of different dable to the great king, who fell A. D. languages, and of various nations, are the 226, leaving the empire to the dynasty of only means left of establishing their his- the Sassanides, after his family had occutory. The Greeks, the Latins, the Ar- pied the Persian throne for 476 years. menjans, the Syrians, the Arabs, the Per
The death of the King of Kings did not sians, medals, inscriptions, profane and complete the downfall of the Arsacides : ecclesiastical antiquities, must be laid under the princes of Bactriana, in concert with contribution to restore this great portion of those of Scythia and Armenia, combined the annals of the human race. Every link
more than once their efforts with those of in this long concatenation of facts must be the Romans, against the new possessors of carefully discussed and examined in all its Persia ; but their power insensibly decayed. bearings, in order to assign it the proper
The Bactriani, already nearly overcome by place in the series. It was in the year 250
the Persians, submitted, at the beginning before Christ, that the Parthians first en
of the fifth century, to the Ephthalite deavoured to snatch the sceptre of Asia Huns; and the Arsacides of the North from the successors of Alexander. Ar- sunk before Attila. Part of their subjects saces fell in this attempt; but his brother sought an asylum in the passes of Caucasus, Tiridates was more fortunate. With the and on the shores of the Baltic, where assistance of the barbarians of the North, their descendants remain to this day; he succeeded in obtaining the acknow. whilst another part, blended with the tribes ledgment of his independence. Less that overturned the Roman empire, in than a century after, Mithridates, not the flying from the victorious troops of the formidable enemy of the Romans, (he was terrible king of the Huns, planted them. but a vassal of the Arsacides,) but the selves upon the borders of the Atlantic sixth king of the Parthians, who bore
The Arsacides of Armenia subthat name, put a finishing stroke to the sisted longer ; they embraced Christianity, Grecian power. A conqueror and legis- thirty years before Constantine had raised lator, he governed from the Euphrates to it to the throne ; so that the kingdom of the Indus, and princes of his blood ruled Armenia was, in fact, the first Christian in India, in Scythia, and Armenia. After monarchy: it terminated in 428. Some of his death, the Greeks made a last effort : the Arsacides, fallen from the height of fortune smiled upon them for a moment; royal rank, maintained themselves in Persia, but speedily, the imprudence of their chief, where they reigned in the tenth century and some allies who came from the fron- under the name of Samanides: others, tiers of China to fight under the banners taking a direction westward, acquired, by their exploits in Africa and Italy, a high last defenders of the Christian Faith in renown there in fighting under the ban. Armenia, wbere their actions are conners of Belisarius: they ended by mount- founded with those of our crusaders. Such ing the throne of Constantinople. Finally, was the fate of the Arsacides ! we again behold them shining among the
JUGGERNAUTH is one of the most cele- up. The roofs are ornamented in a sin. brated places in India. All the land within gular style, with representations of montwenty miles is considered holy; but the sters, which can only be understood by a most sacred spot is enclosed within a stone drawing: but the walls of the temples, wall, twenty-one feet high, and forms nearly which are not visible beyond the enclosure, a square: two sides measuring each 656 are covered with statues of stone. Several feet, and the other two 626 feet in length. represent a famous Hindoo god, Mahadeo, Within this area are about fifty temples, de- with his wife Parbuttee, attitudes so dicated to various idols; but the most grossly indecent, that it seems surprising conspicuous building consists of one lofty how any superstition could debase its vostone tower, 184 feet high and twenty- taries to such a degree, as to make them eight feet eight inches square inside, and is introduce into their most sacred places called the Bur Dewal, and two adjoining such filthy and obscene representations. stone buildings with pyramidical roofs. Each side of the boundary wall has a The idol Juggernauth, his brother Bul- large gateway in the centre; but the grand budra, and his sister Shubudra, occupy the
entrance is in the castern face. There is tower. The first pyramidical building, a second enclosure within, the area of which is forty feet square inside, is con- which is raised about fifteen feet, Close nected with the tower, and is the place to the outer wall, there is a very elegant where the idol is worshipped during the stone column of basalt; the pedestal is bathing festival. Adjoining this temple highly ornamented ; the shaft is of a single is a low building on pillars, (with a fabu- stone exhibiting sixteen sides ; the diameter lous animal in the centre,) which is in- is seven feet, and the whole column meatended as an awning to shelter the entrance sures thirty-five feet; on the top is a figure from the rays of the sun; and after this of Hoonoomaun, a Hindoo deity, who asis a second building, with a pyramidical sumed the shape of a monkey. This well stone roof, where the food prepared for executed pillar was originally erected be. the pilgrims, or others, is daily brought, fore the great gate of the temple of the previous to distribution. This latter build- sun at Kanaruck, usually called the Black ing is said to bave been removed from Pagoda, and when most of the buildings Kanaruck, or the Black Pagoda, and is of that temple fell down, it was removed called the Beg Mundeep.
to Juggernauth. The priests relate, that The temple of Juggernauth was erected the present statue of Hoonoomaun was hy Rajah Anung Bheern Deo, and com. put there since its removal. The original pleted in A. D. 1198. The art of arch. ornament is said to have been the figure of ing appears to have been unknown even at Aroona, the charioteer of the sun, and the a much later period, in Orissa ; as these pillar is thence called Aroonkhumba. buildings, as well as similar ones erected Near the north-east angle of the bounby the two succeeding Rajahs, have large dary wall of the temple, there is a lofty massive iron beams, wherever a flat sur- arch of pot-stone. It is used by the Hin. face was required; and the roofs consist doos during the festival of the Dole Jattra, of successive layers of stones, projecting a when three silver images are swung backfew inches, till the opening is very consi- wards and forwards. The swing is fastderably reduced; iron beams were then ened to the stone arch by brass chains, put across, to support larger stones, laid The arch stands on an elevated platform, ffat, or, in some instances, the successively and the images are sprinkled with rose projecting layers were continued, till stones water and a red powder, like what is used could reach across the opening and close it during the hooly. This arch was originally at Kanaruck, and subsequently re- large tower, but collected in the Begue moved to this place.
Mundeer, where it can be seen and sanc. The idol of Juggernauth, which is so tified by the idol from his distant throne. celebrated that pilgrims resort to worship In addition to this food, a very considerit from the remotest parts of India, is pro- able extra quantity is allowed for the great bably the coarsest image in the country. festivals : and in order to make this superThe figure does not extend below the stition as profitable as possible, the priests loins, and it has no hands, but two stumps have decided that nothing can pollute the in lieu of arms, on which the priests occa- food prepared in the temple; it may be sionally fasten hands of gold. A Christian conveyed to any place—it may be touched is almost led to think that it was an attempt by a Mussulman, or a Christian, without to see how low idolatry could debase the becoming unfit for a Hindoo. Nothing human mind. The priests endeavour to can be more convenient than such a belief, account for the deformity by a strange le- as Hindoos in general must eat their food gendary tale. Some thousands of years where it is cooked, and a thousand things ago, in the Sut Jog, or Sutya Yuga, Ma- may pollute it. The consequence is, that harajah Indradyumna, of Oojein, in Mal- the cooks are employed to prepare food for wa, applied to the celebrated manufacturer most of the pilgrims, at a price which of gods to make a new idol.
varies according to the demand, and is al. quest was granted, on condition that the ways highest during the festivals. It is Maharajah should be very patient, and not said, that a few days before the festival of interrupt the work, as it could never be the Rath Jattra, food is cooked within the completed if any attempt was made to see court of the temple for at least 100,000 the process. This caution was not duly pilgrims; and it will easily be credited, attended to. The prince endeavoured to that on these occasions the 400 families see what progress had been made and it of cooks have full employment. The became necessary that he should be satis- potters make earthen pots of three sizes ; fied with the imperfect image.
the food is carried away in them, and they It may be easily supposed that a very form a kind of standard measure; and, as large establishment of priests and others, none but new pots can be used, the conis attached such a temple. One of the sumption is very great, and supports a head men stated the number to consist of great many families. The only interrup. 3,900 families, including 400 families of tion to this cooking, is during the time the cooks to prepare holy food. The provi- idol is travelling in his car to the place sions furnished daily for the idol and his where he was formed, and returning to the attendants, consist of 220 pounds of rice, temple; about a fortnight in all. 97 pounds of kullye (a pulse), twenty- There are twelve festivals celebrated at four pounds of moong (a small grain), Juggernauth during the year, but by far 138 pounds of clarified buffalo's butter, the most important season is the Ruth eighty pounds of molasses, 32 pounds of Jattra; when the idol is placed on a car, vegetables, ten pounds of sour milk, two and visits the place where he was originally and half pounds of spices, two pounds of formed, called Junnuckpore. This hapsandal wood, some camphor (two tolahs), pens either in June or July, and the numtwenty pounds of salt, four rupees or ten ber of pilgrims who attend, is very much shillings worth of firewood: also twenty. regulated by the season. When the new wo pounds of lamp oil for lights at night. moon of Assaur occurs early in June, This holy food is presented to the idol three there is a prospect of fair weather, and times a day. The gates are shut, and no one about 150,000 are supposed to attend the but a few personal servants are allowed to ceremonies; but when it is late in the be present.
This meal lasts about an month, many are deterred, by the dread of hour, during which period the dancing encountering the periodical rains, which girls attached to the temple, dance in the destroy a great many of the poor deluded room with many pillars. On the ringing creatures, the greater part of whom arc of a bell the doors are thrown open, and exposed night and day to the inclemency the food is removed.
of the weather. A good many Hindoos The food prepared for sale, or bespoken undertake this pilgrimage during the driest by the inhabitants, is not brought into the weather, and arrive to celebrate the Chund