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मगाचार्यो यमराचार्यपूर्व किराते बुद्धस्थापका: । वृषाचार्यो विवाचार्दपूच चोने सिंहल एव हि ॥ ११५५
महामतं दाभ्यां स्थापितं जलधे : कुरे ।
ब्रह्मगिरे : सकाश च हिंमलात गिरेलटे ।
मोडे चोदयनाचार्या च शंकराचार्यतो नृप ॥ ११५७
मुण्डनविश्रान् तोरभुक्तौ तथा भट्टापराजिता: । ग्रपरे चत्वारो जना: जिनमार्गविचचणाः ॥ ११५८ ॥
वाखवतत्त्व' कल्यायतत्त्व ग्रागमतत्त्वमेव च । ज्ञानतत्त्व' नीवतत्त्व' संवेदनतत्त्वमेव च ॥ ११५६ ॥
विरितत्त्व व्यवहारतत्त्व' च पतितत्त्व सुशोभनः । नवत्त्वादिता: सर्वे बुद्धमार्गीयमानवा: ॥ ११६०
चक्र खरी कालिका च दुष्टानां फलदायिनी ।
महाकाली रक्तप्रिया शच्यां निधर्मि ॥ ११६१ # दुरित पापिनां दण्डकारिणी ।
श्यामा तपोवनच्या च कोकटस्यैव पूर्वगे ॥ १९६२ #
शांता शांतजने जैने व्यवहारे सुखदा ।
भृकुटि : कानपूरा च संकटोडारियो मना ॥ १९६३ ॥
गिरिनार गिरौ पूया विदा च सुतारकाः।
व्यवहारफजदात्रो मानिनो मानवर्धिनी ॥ ११६४
जिनमार्गरतानां च शोकचयविनाशिनी ।
व्यमोका सर्वदा लोहे सेनानां गृहवासिनी ॥ ११३५ ॥
विद्यााचो विदिताच वाक्येषु विदशस्य व
रता कारिणो च दिग्वाखिकमानव ॥ १९६६ ॥
angat fun zauifmdatą geam'y i
पातयामास रभसा प्राथिनां हितकारिणी ॥ १९६७ ॥
नानां ग्राम्यधर्मस्य वर्धिनी सर्वदा नृणाम् ॥ १९६८ ॥
fatet formului zangi èzmaat i
देवे नष्टे च निर्वाणं जाघते च प्रभावत: ॥ ११६६
सर्वेषां मानवानां च जिनमतपारगामिनाम् ।
म्हदेषु मरणं मोचएवाच देहाद्भिनो न जोक : ॥ ११७० ॥
All the 24 Śasana-devatás are mentioned here. It says that Bhücandra preached Buddhism in Magadhi at Picalavana and Lakramoca in Ceylon.
After 2400 years from the commencement of the Kali Yuga when Sūta was expounding the Bhāgavata at Naimişāraṇya Buddhadeva was born in Kikața as the son of Suddhodhana and Māyādevi. He preached that there is no soul beyond this body and that death itself is Nirvana. He had many followers, some of whom went to Ceylon, some to China, some to Kiratadeśa and some to the eastern peninsula. At one time they defeated in argument all the great scholars of Madhyadesa, but later on they were themselves defeated by Saṁkarācāryya, Udayanācāryya and Kumārila Bhatta and Mandana Miśra.
The author Ramkavi here confounds the Bauddhas, Jainas and the Carvākas, and says that the Bauddhas had 2 Sasana-. devatās and believed in Navatattva. But his description of Ceylon and the monasteries is full, though not at all accurate. The author says that Kartika was the God much worshipped in Ceylon, but he was cursed by his wife and in consequence he was banished from Ceylon and replaced by Buddha.
Sahadeva's Digvijaya relates to the western countrics and as Nakula's task was easily accomplished and Sahadeva's task was very hard, Yudhisthira commanded that they should lead a joint
expedition. In this expedition the countries conquered are:Arab, Persia, Bulk, Turkistan, Badaksan as well as Burma, the two Chinas and Siam.
Bhima's conquest commences from the north of Punjab. carries his victorious arms to Amṛtesvara (perhaps Amaranath), Jambu, Sialkot, Lahore, Sarayupāra, Gandak and the countries comprised in the modern provinces of Bengal and Bihar. In these two provinces Rāmkavi seems to follow the lead of Jagamohan, making his description fuller, more modern and more interesting.
Arjuna's Digvijaya is given within a small compass and he sometimes coalesces with Bhima. The author is not very distinct in his geography or in his bearings. If Indraprastha is to the starting point of the four brothers it is inexplicable how Sahadeva conquers the countries on the Vitasta and Sindhu while Bhima conquers Jammu and Sialkot. Peshwar is given as the capital of Sivi Rājā.
Rāmkavi gives a date of his compilation in a chronogram, Randhrabdhinetracandraistu ganite vatsare", i.e., 1370 of some unknown era.
These are the works written by human beings for the use of human beings and for terrestrial objects, but there are other works affiliated to the Purāņas. But before taking them up I should examine the question whether the above four works were written in imitation of Abul Fazal's Ain-i-Akbari and my answer is in the negative. Vidyapati certainly belonged 150 years before Abul Fazal. And Vikrāma-Vaijala, the author or patron of VikramıSagara cannot come later than Abul Fazal, because in the first half of the sixteenth century Jagamoban extensively used Vikrama-Sāgara. Jagamohan and Rāmkavi may have borrowed something from Abul Fazal, but that borrowing must be very slight as his point of view of writing these works was entirely different from that of Abul Fazl's. These are in no sense State documents; they are intended for the use of Hindu people describing as they do specially the places of pilgrimage and the rules of performing ceremonies.
The great work of a Pauranic nature is the Brahmakhaṇḍa of the Bhaviṣya Purāņa. It also professes to give the description of the fifty-six countries to the east and west of Bengal and Bihar, and it is very full from Benares to Manipur. As a Purāṇa it is a great moral admonitor, and it vehemently criticizes the particular vices prevailing in particular parts of the country. Though it is supposed to be written by Vyasadeva at the end of the Dvāpara Yuga, it is a very modern compilation. It gives the story of Vidya and Sundara at Burdwan which has been popularized by Bharatacandra whose poem, entitled “Vidyā Sundara" was completed in the year 1753. There are other indications also that it is a very late compilation. It speaks of the last Muhammadan capital of Bengal as "Morasidabad” a name which it got from Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704. It is very likely that an old Pauranic work has received several revisions or has been seriously interpolated.
It is a pity that we get only fragments. The order in which the countries have been described is not to be found anywhere. The jumps from Varendra to Dravida from Heramba to Rintambore appear to be inexplicable, so until good manuscripts come out of the search instituted by this Society, you may get interesting extracts from these fragments, but the hope of properly editing the book will be a far distant contingency if it be not hopeless altogether.
II. The Brihadratha Chronology
(Cir. 1727-727 B.C.).
By K. P. Jayaswal, M.A. (Oxon.).
I.-The post-War Kings.
1. The Purāņas divide the Brihadratha dynasty of Magadha, like any other dynasty, into two main chronological groups: (1) those who flourished before the Maha-Bhārata War and (2) those who flourished after the War. On the basis of the calcula
A new datum: 700 years for the post-Maha Bhārata Bṛihadrathas.
tions set forth in my paper on the Śaiśunāka and Maurya chronology1 for the dates of the Saisunākas and the Maha-Bharata War, I came to the conclusion that the post- Maha-Bhārata Brihadrathas covered 697 years. Now I find a confirmation of that conclusion in a Puranic datum which was not accessible to me when I wrote my above paper (1913). This datum is found in a rare manuscript of the Matsya Purana, at present in the India Office Library (No. 334; Jackson collection).
2. The Purāṇas (the Vayu, Brahmaṇḍa and Matsya) after chronicling the reigns of the Magadha Sovereigns from Sahadeva 'who fell in the Bharata war' up to Ripuñjaya give the following line to close the Brihadratha dynasty :
दात्रिंशच्च नृपा ह्येते भवितारो वृहद्रथाः पूर्ण वर्ष सहस्र ं वै तेषां राज्य भविष्यति ॥
1 J.B.O.2.S., I. 111-112. The accession of Maha-Nanda falls in 409 B.C., and the birth of Parikshit or the end of the Maha-Bharata War (1015+ 409) in 1424 B.C.
2«The Purāṇas give 1,000 years to Brihadiathas. But the post-Maha-Bharata Brihadrathas are only 32 and there are 12 pre-Maha-Bharat princes of the Brihadratha dynasty. The Saiśunāka dynasty commences in 727 B.C. on the extinc tion of the Prihadrathas. To the credit of the post-Maha-Bhārata Brihadrathas thus there would be only (1424–717) 697 years". J.B.O.R.S., I, 111-12.
Pargiter, Purāņa Text, p. xxxii.
♦ Pargiter, P.T., p. 17.