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UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS. BIRKBECK COLLEGE, EXAMINERS.
BREAMS BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C. The University Court of the University of St. Andrews invites ap
FACULTY OF SCIENCE. plications for the appointments of ADDITIONAL EXAMINERS for GRADUATION in the following subjects :
DAY AND EVENING COURSES, under Recognised Teachers of FACULTY OF MEDICINE ... PATHOLOGY.
the University of London. FACULTY OF ARTS ... (a) ENGLISH.
Alex. McKenzie, Ph.D., D.Sc-. B MENTAL PHILOSOPHY Chomistry
M.A. (Logic and Metaphysics and
H. WREN, Ph.D., B.A., B.Sc. Moral Philosophy).
ALBERT GRIFFITHS, D.Sc. FACULTIES OF MEDICINE AND
D. OWEN, B.A., B.Sc.
B. W. CLACK, B.Sc.
|E. H. SMART, M.A. AND MEDICINE CHEMISTRY.
1 c. V. Coates, M.A.
Botany The persons to be appuinted will hold office for a period of three years
A. B. RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc.
(F. E. FRITSCH, Ph.D., D.Sc. from January 1, 1907.
H. W. UNTHANK, B.A., B.Sc. Applications are also invited for the appointment of an ADDITIONAL Qeology & Mineralogy Geo. F. HARRIS, F.G.S. EXAMINER for the PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS AND BURSARY COMPETITION in ENGLISH. The person appointed
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RESEARCH in Chemistry and Physics in well-equipped laboratories. February 1, 1907, and will act as a Representative of the University on the
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THURSDAY, MAY 10, 1906.
the volume does the theory appear to be summarised and presented in a succinct and complete form. But
the doctrine it seems to embody is that development THE CELL IN MODERN BIOLOGY.
and specialisation of function, with the correAlgemeine Biologie. Die Zelle und die Gewebe. sponding segregation of structure, are due to the corre
Second edition. By Oscar Hertwig. Pp. xvi+648; | lative action of the parts on one another coupled with 371 illustrations. (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1906.) the influence of agencies operating from without-i.e. Price 15 marks.
of the environmental conditions. It is this speculative THE The volume before us appears as the second edition part of the treatise, suggestive and interesting as it of the
is, that will probably provoke the greatest antagonism. the first part of which was published so long ago as Hertwig is a thorough believer in the inheritance of Ιδι2.
acquired characters, though it seems not improbable Cytology has advanced a good deal since that time, that many will dissent from the interpretations he and one finds a significant recognition of its wider puts on cases that he apparently regards as critical scope in the new title—“ General Biology”-given by Prof. Hertwig to his book. Experience is showing The example of the supposed inheritance of that the larger problems connected with living things, immunity against the poisonous action of ricin, shown such as organisation, heredity, function, as well as by Ehrlich to occur in the case of the offspring of those abnormal reactions constituting what we call mice under certain conditions, can hardly be accepted pathology, are all reducible to cell problems.
as satisfactory evidence of the “inheritance of For the most complex living creature is resolvable acquired characters ” as the phrase is critically underintu groups of more or less modified cells, and the stood. Indeed, it seems to break down altogether malies are not merely bound together like faggots in when the conditions under which it may be observed å bundle, but each group, each cell it may be, in so are examined and analysed. Mice are excessively far as it is the seat of chemical or physical change, is sensitive to the effects of ricin, very minute doses able in greater or less degree to exert an influence being sufficient to bring about the death of the animal. on other individuals of the cell community. In this But by repeated inoculation of sublethal doses of the ay there arise those adjusted relationships that poison a mouse may reach a state of immunity against exist between different organs, tissues, and cells the action of a quantity far greater than that which Tofferh ve designate as correlations, and it is just normally proves fatal. The offspring of female Da ause of the existence of these inter-dependent immunised mice are themselves also immune, at least crllular reactivities that complex organisation has during early life, whereas the young resulting from Curie iù be a possibility:
a cross between an immune male and an ordinary One of the chief aims of Prof. Hertwig's book is female do not exhibit the transmission of the to traie the cell in its manifold variety of form and | “ acquired character." In other words, the transis diverse conditions of activity, especially with refer- mission is confined to the female side. It is evident, Och to the part it plays as a corporate unit of the however, that such a case is really of no value whaturlanism. It is perhaps inevitable that such a task ever as evidence of transmission of acquired characters guld prove too great for any single writer to accom- in the proper acceptation of the term. For it is plish satisfactorily throughout, and, indeed, the pre- manifest that the young animal during the whole of $unt vurk is by no means free from the faults of its its existence in utero has been directly exposed to arttiin. Some aspects of the subject are exceedingly influences that ought to confer immunity upon it, W treated, others are left comparatively untouched, apart altogether from any question of transwhile in the case of vet others the standpoint taken mission.” Furthermore, it might well be that the up p-rhaps hardly represents that of contemporary bulky protoplasm of the egg, irrespective of the thought. The last criticism especially applies to the maternal influence after conception, may have been discussion of some of the physiological attributes of affected without any disturbance of the hereditary orll life. Again, the more recently studied phenomena mechanism, and, indeed, Hertwig himself admits as of apuspory, apogamy, and parthenogenesis, with their much. general bearings on the processes of maiosis and The case of certain Lepidoptera is more difficult of fertilisation, are very scantily dealt with. The work satisfactory explanation, although the evidence would is decidedly strongest on the morphological side, probably be insufficient to convince an opponent. although even here the treatment seems to suffer from | Some of these insects respond to different climatal sani oi the physiological relationships involved. conditions by the production of different colour
A considerable portion of the book is occupied with patterns on their wings. Now if the pupæ of some discussions as to the connection that may subsist | species (e.g. Arctia caja) be subjected to cold, the brexits ihe facts of cell structure and the phenomena " cold " form of imago will appear, and if the fertile sofistlug'ny and heredity. Brief accounts are given 1 eggs of such “cold ” forms be raised under warmer of thr standpoints adopted and the theories advocated i conditions, a small percentage of the perfect insects bt this riters, and Hertwig adds another of his ' thus produced will retain the characters of the “cold" Cran, which he terms biogenesis.
form. Hertwig dissents from the explanation, sugIt is not very easy to extract the author's exact gested by Weismann, that the eggs themselves may poroztia sith regard to biogrnesis, and nowhere in i have been affected whil-t still in the body of the
does not result in a corresponding alteration intiene (1) MANY who know Prof. Haeckel only as the
parent insect in the pupal condition, but his argu
APPRECIATIONS OF HAECKEL. ment does not amount to much; and it may well be (1) Ernst Haeckel: Der Mann und sein Werk. By borne in mind that an example of somewhat analogous Carl W. Neumann. Pp. 80. (Berlin : Gose and character is afforded by the alternative characters ex- Tetzlaff, n.d.) Price 1.50 marks. hibited by the leaves and other structures of many (2) Haeckel: His Life and Work. By Wilhelm amphibious plants. Many of these can assume one Bölsche, with introduction and supplementary of two different forms, the production of either depend- chapter by the translator, Joseph McCabe. Pp. ing on the stimulus given by the environment to the 336; illustrated. (London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1906.) embryonic tissues at the growing points. Thus the Price 159. net. form of, say, a leaf of such a plant is determined (3) Last Words on Evolution: a Popular Retrospect at a very early stage in its developmart, and long and Summary. By Ernst Haeckel. Translated before it is sufficiently advanced for any functionally from the second edition by Joseph McCabe. Pp. direct adaptation to a terrestrial or to an aquatic 127; with portrait and three plates. (London : environment. But when
the stimulus has A. Owen and Co., 1906.) Price 6s.
author of zoological memoirs, evolutionist future development of such a leaf—it belongs definitely essays, and monistic propaganda, will be glad of the to the aquatic or to the terrestrial type, whichever opportunity which this brightly written booklet line of ontogeny it embarked on from the first. It affords of becoming more closely acquainted with the would seem, at any rate for the present, and in the man himself and with the story of his life. We read absence of sufficient experimental evidence to the with interest of the eager boy-naturalist wandering contrary, more natural to regard these di- or poly- on the Siebengebirge, of the apprenticeship under morphic species as “balanced ” forms; the actual Johannes Müller, of the year of medical practice (if course of their ontogeny, whilst restricted to certain a can practise on three patients !), of the directions, and confined within definite limits, depend- eventful year in Italy during which Haeckel nearly ing on the alternative character of some metabolic became a landscape painter, of the growing fascinactivity. This is, however, very different from an ad-ation which the plankton exerted, satisfying at once mission of the “ inheritance of acquired characters." | his artistic and scientific interests, of the influence For if anything at all is meant by the expression, it can that the “ Origin of Species " had on him, and of his only imply that the hereditary mechanism has itself early settlement in Jena—that “ feste Burg freien undergone a definite and corresponding change; and Denkens ”—which nothing could ever induce him to at present a direct influence of the environment in this leave. At the Stettin Versammlung in 1863 Haeckel sense is negatived by the results of the most critically entered the lists as a champion of the evolutionist conducted experiments on breeding.
* Weltanschauung," contending almost single-handed Hertwig takes up a definite position as to the against contempt and prejudice. His cause, which relation of the “ somatic” to the “ germ cells. eventually prevailed, as the truth must, had to be He regards all the cells of the body as fundamentally fought for, and those who are offended by the equivalent, though differentiation may mask and impetuous expressions of Haeckel's “ Stürmernatur " finally render impossible the return of a particular cell are profitably reminded by this little book of the to the embryonic state. The definite tissue cell has courage and indefatigability of perhaps the most virile become specialised rather as the result of an im- protagonist of a thesis which has been one of the pulse from without than by a segregative process of greatest contributions made by science to human analysis; and herein he is diametrically opposed to progress. The author has told the story of Haeckel's Weismann and his followers, in regarding cellular life and work with vividness and enthusiasm. He differentiation as a secondary rather than as a primary concludes his effective sketch by indicating, somewhat matter. In this he will find many who are at one too tersely and vaguely, how it has been possible for with him, for the “ erbungleich ” division postulated him to use the truth that is in !!aeckel in developing by Weismann, which would result in development a monistic philosophy more satisfying to the human consisting of a sorting out or analysis of the characters spirit. of the germ, conflicts with many facts of experience, (2) Prof. W. Bölsche's study of Ernst Haeckel is, and it is only by numerous “ Hilfshypothese” that it like the frontispiece to the book, a picture in warm can be sustained for the plant and vegetable kingdoms. colours. The author is nothing if not enthusiastic,
In a notice of a book like this one of Hertwig's, it is and indeed no one can think over the achievements of natural that the points on which diversity of opinion Haeckel's life without sharing the author's admiration prevails should occupy a relatively prominent place. for his hero. If it be true, as the translator says, But such treatment is in no way intended to detract that “a hundred Haeckels, grotesque in their unlikefrom or to minimise the great value of the work, ness to each other, circulate in our midst to-day," coming as it does from one who has himself done so this "plain study of his personality and the growth of much to advance the subject of which he writes, and his ideas” should go far to replace them by giving whose lucid and suggestive treatment of his theme us an appreciation approximately true. We should will always command attention. It is a book that not ourselves have called Bölsche's book, as Mr. should be read by all who are interested in the ques. McCabe does, a plain study,” for its characteristic tions of modern biology.
J. B. FARMER. features are exuberant enthusiasm and a brilliantly