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causes contribute to their fupport. The prejudices of education incline many to think that thofe regulations must be just and expedient which their grandfires agreed to, and their fathers approved. The timidity of others, and their indifference towards public concerns, make them quietly fubmit to inftitutions which their judgments condemn. Thus men of philofophic tempers, cultivate the arts and fciences, leaving the wheels of government to the rotation of Chance. The ambition or avarice of another clafs, make it their intereft to uphold a partial fyftem, which affords them an ample and dangerous fcope of acting as petty tyrants, public plunderers, and oppreffors.

These circumstances ever have prevented, and it is to be feared ever will prevent the establishment of a fyftem of Government founded on the enlarged bafis of public welfare: and mankind feem fo confcious of the obftacles against fuch a benevolent plan, that they are ready to condemn every scheme as Utopian, which propofes this glorious end for its object. Thus Plato, More, Harrington, and others, have been cenfured as vifionary Projectors. But though, perhaps, there may be fome foundation for this reflection, yet their models afford many excellent regulations, worthy the attention of Legislators.

We are glad, however, to find, that the ill-placed ridicule which has been caft on thefe fpeculative Politicians, does not deter others from publishing schemes for the improvement of civil fociety for we confider thefe Letters from Mr. Vander Neck in no other light than that of a new plan of Police.

Whether there ever were such people as the Ceffares, or fuch a perfon as Mr. Vander Neck, is not material to the Reader. It is fufficient, that fome excellent regulations are here offered, for improving the intereft and happiness of fociety. And though we cannot fay, that many of them have the merit of novelty to recommend them, or that they are conveyed in a very elegant or ftriking manner, yet the Reader will find many precepts in the science of Legiflation, which might be carried into practice, at least in fome of our newly-acquired Colonies.

The Writer, in the firft Letter, gives the reafons which induced him and his friends to leave Holland, and fettle in an uninhabited country. This detail is very flat and uninterefting; and the fame may be faid of the far greater part of the fecond Letter..

In the third Letter, we find the form of government they established, confifting of a Governor, who is hereditary, and of Senators, who are chofen by the Citizens. We likewise meet with feveral objections against Ariftocracy, Democracy, and Monarchy, which are worthy of notice.

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The following Letters relate more particularly to the laws concerning the refpective Magiftrates, and to the diftribution of property. But we choose to felect extracts, as a fpecimen of this work, from the feventh Letter; as the regulations therein contained, are of moft general import.

When any perfons attain to the age of twenty-one years, their fervice or apprenticeship is diffolved.

The fame freedom extends alfo to every married perfon, though under that age, provided the marriage is with the confent of the Mafter or Mistress.

No cock-fighting nor horfe- races, nor any thing that is contrary to the rules of humanity and decency of manners, is allowed of among us, or that has the leaft tendency to render the mind cruel. And whoever treats his beaft with cruelty or barbarity, forfeits that animal to the public, and is farther fined according to the nature of the crime; for to treat the creatures (which are in our power) with kindness, and while we make them fubfervient to our ufe, to be pleafed with adding to their felicity, fhews a truly good and divine temper.

• Whoever shall endeavour to destroy the liberties of the people, and the conftitution of the ftate; or discover to our enemies the paffages which lead to our country, fhall be put to death as a traytor, even though he were the Governor himfelf. Murder and adultery alfo are punished with death; unless it should appear in the laft cafe, that the guilty party was drawn into the commiffion of that crime, by the art and contrivance of the husband and wife. And all attempts to commit any of these crimes fhall be feverely punished with a fine and imprifonment.

When any one is unable to pay his debts, his Creditors are to make an application to the proper Infpectors, who are carefully to examine into the caufe of fuch a failure, and report it to the Senate. If the Senate finds it to rife from loffes, illness, or unavoidable misfortunes, his debts are to be difcharged out of the public ftock. But if he is found to be reduced by a criminal and faulty conduct, his goods are to be publicly fold to pay his debts, and he is farther to be punished for his ill behaviour.

Whoever challenges another to fight a duel, and whoever accepts of fuch a challenge, is not only to be fined and imprifoned for one year, but also to be turned out of their citizenfhip, the first for feven years, and the other for three; and dur ing the year of their imprisonment, muft ftand expofed to public fhame four times, for the fpace of one hour each time, at REV. Qt. 1764. $

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our quarterly public meetings in the chief town. But if any one kills another in a duel, he is accounted guilty of wilful murder, and is punished with death.

All forts of fish in the rivers, and all fowls, birds and animals which are wild, are free for every one to take and kill. But the Senate has power to limit the feafons for fishing, hunting, and fhooting, and alfo the fize of the fifh, under which they ought not to be killed, that the game and fishery be not deftroyed.

Whoever hurts or injures another, either in his person, houfe, goods, &c. through folly or careleffnefs, is obliged to make him fuch a fatisfaction and recompenfe, as the jury or fenate fhall determine. But if it is done defignedly, he must make a full fatisfaction, and pay a fine alfo. And whoever mocks or affronts any one, mercly on account of lameness, blindnefs, or any other natural infirmity, muft make a proper acknowlegement to the injured perfon for his offence.

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As we live upon our own fmall eftates, with very little trade, no one can receive any ufury or intereft from another, for any money or goods lent to him; unlefs for good reasons, and with the confent of the fenate.

Whoever wilfully fpreads any lies or falfe reports of another, to injure his character and reputation, muft publicly ask his pardon, and pay a fine both to the perfon injured, and also to the public. And alfo if any one falfely afperfes another's character, only for want of prudence and better confideration, he fhall be punished as the jury or fenate fhall direct, that it may lead all perfons to a habit of caution upon fo very tender a point.

Since we are all brethren, and God has given to all men a natural right to liberty, we allow of no flavery among us: unlefs a perfon forfeits his freedom by his crimes.

Whoever steals any thing from another, or cheats or overreaches him, muft make fome reftitution to the perfon, and pay a fine to the public. If the thief or cheat cannot be found, then the town or parish muft make fuch a fatisfaction to the perfon for his lofs, as the Judges or Senate fhall determine.

The Senate is enjoined to establish fumptuary laws, and carefully to guard against the first introduction of all forts of luxury; and to prohibit all thofe arts and trades which minister only to idleness and pride, and the unneceflary refinements and embelJifhments of life, which are the certain fore-runners of the ruin of every State. And though it is very commendable to be neat and cleanly in our apparel, yet nothing is more contrary to a

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wife and rational conduct, than to lay out too much thought and expence upon it; and a frequent change of fashions, fhews a vain and trifling mind. The Senate have therefore regulated every one's drefs, according to their age and fex: it is plain, decent, and becoming but no diamonds or jewels, no gold or filver lace, or other finery, are allowed of; left pride and vanity, the love of fhew and pomp, fhould fteal in among us by imperceptible degrees. Only fools and idcots are obliged to wear fome gold, filver, or fine laces, to diftinguish them from those of better fenfe. An effeminate fop or beau (being a difgrace to men) is to be fined and employed in the bettering houfe, in fome dirty and laborious public works: and the more effectually to curb the defires of the female fex, and keep them in due bounds in these particulars, it is decreed, that if they drefs above their rank, or contrary to the laws, they fhall not only be fined for it, but fhall be obliged to appear abroad for one year afterwards, in a drefs below their ftation, as a just punish ment for their vanity and love of oftentation.'

The eighth and ninth Letters treat of the feveral employments of the inhabitants, which are fo regulated, as to prevent any from being poor, or in want, among them: and likewife give an account of the marriages among them, which they are encouraged to contract very early with feveral other particulars, which our limits will not allow us to take notice of.

Though we cannot highly extol this work as a matter of compofition, yet we read it with pleafure, on account of the end propofed. Every man of humanity muft lament, when he confiders how many of his fellow-creatures are cruelly deprived of every benefit for which civil Society was, or ought to have been, instituted.

The Two Books of Apollmius Pergaus, concerning Tangencies, as they have been restored by Francifcus Vieta, and Marinus Ghetal dus. With a Supplement. By John Lawfon, B. D. 4to. Whiston.

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PAP

APPUS, in the preface to his feventh book of Mathematical Collections, mentions twelve analytical treatifes, of which very few of the originals have reached our hands, Euclid's Data being the only piece compleat, tho' we have fragments of fome others, particularly of the Conics of Apollonius. Several able Mathematicians have, therefore, laboured to fupply this lofs, from the account of them given by Pappus. The work before us is a tranflation of one of thofe pieces, entitled de Tac$ 2 tionil us,

tionibus, as reftored by Vieta, under the name of Apollonius Gallus, and his deficiencies fupplied by Marinus Ghetaldus. We have taken the pains to compare this treatife with the original, and alfo with the abftract and tranflation of it in the Curfus Mathematicus of Peter Herigone, vol. I. page 915, edit. Paris; and have the pleafure to find, that Mr. Lawfon has fhewn himself both a faithful Tranflator, and an able Geometrician. But we could wifh he had added, in his Supplement, fome of the conftructions of the moderns, as many of the moft important problems concerning Tangencies, are performed by them in a far more concife and elegant manner, than any to be met with in the works of the antients.

Perhaps it will not be difagreeable to our mathematical Readers, if we add a fimple method by which many of these problems may be conftructed with the utmoft facility.

Having two points given, B and D, and likewife a circle, whofe center is A, to defcribe another circle which fhall pafs through the given points, and touch the given circle.

CONSTRUCTION.

Let D B be joined, and through thofe points defcribe a circle, cutting the given one in the two points E F; join these points with the right line E F. Produce E F and D B till they interfect, as in H. From H draw a tangent, as H K, to the given circle. Then through the points D, B, K, defcribe the circle DK BL, which will touch the propofed circle in K.

[blocks in formation]

DEMONSTRATION.

EHXFH DHX BH, and EHXFH = HK,

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