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UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

Decimals are, of course, included in the scheme, but the INTELLIGENCE.

apparent omission referred to makes it appear that the

study of decimals is to be postponed until vulgar fractions The Technical High School of Prague will celebrate its and mensuration have been mastered. Though the formal hundredth anniversary in November next. Prof. Wilhelmstudy of decimals may be deferred until the Sixth Standard Gintl has been appointed rector for the year 1906-7. is reached, the use of a decimally-divided scale for measure

ments shoulu certainly form part of the work in the On July 4, the honorary degree of Sc.D. of Dublin

Fifth Standard at least, if not at an earlier stage. MenUniversity was conferred upon Colonel David Bruce, C.B.,

suration without decimals is an anachronism; and the Mr. E. .T. Whittaker, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal of

Board of Education ought to state, through its inspectors Ot Ireland, and Sir A. E. Wright, F.R.S.

otherwise, that use should be made of scales divided into PROF. C. GRAEBE has tendered his resignation of the

tenths, in the measurements of rectangles and rectangular

solids, and of triangles, included in the course prescribed. professorship of inorganic, organic, and technical chemistry in Geneva University, to take effect from October 1, after which date Prof. Graebe will be an honorary professor of the University.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

LONDON. The cost of the new metallurgical institute now being erected in connection with the Technical High School at

Royal Society, December 14, 1905.-—" An Investigation into Aachen will be met chiefly by the voluntary contributions

the Structure of the Lumbo-sacral-coccygeal Cord of the of the Rhine and Westphalian metallurgical industries; Macaque Monkey (Macacus sinicus)." By Mabel Purefoy

FitzGerald. the sum set apart for the actual buildings is 500,000 marks.

Communicated by Prof. Francis Gotch,

F.R.S. At the recent laying of the foundation stone, Generaldirector Springomm, as president of the Verein deutscher

From the examination of the cross-sections of the lumboEisenhüttenleute, expressed the sympathy and best wishes sacral-coccygeal cord of the Macaque monkey (Macacus of the society with the undertaking.

sinicus), it is seen that :

(1) The maximum section area of the cord, of the white Mr. F. C. FORTH, principal of the Municipal Technical substance as a whole, as well as of the dorsal and the Institute, Belfast, has sent us a copy of an interesting ventro-lateral columns, is found in the fourth lumbar article on the compilation of technical students' records region. reprinted from the Journal of the Department of Agri- (2) The maximum section arca of the grey substance as culture and Technical Instruction for Ireland (vol. vi., a whole, and of the dorsal and the ventral horns, is found No. 3). The system advocated of chronicling for ready

in the fifth lumbar region. reference data relative to students' attendances, marks, (3) Reckoning the cross-sectional area of the cord as and successes has been devised to meet the requirements 100, the maximum percentage of the white substance as of a large technical institute, and as it has now stood the a whole, and of the dorsal and the ventro-lateral columns, test of two years' working, the description of it should is found in the first lumbar region. prove a valuable guide to other technical institutions.

(4) The maximum percentage of the grey substance is

reached in the first coccygeal region. SCARCELY a week passes without an announcement in

(5) Reckoning the total area of the grey substance in the American papers of some handsome contribution to each cross-section of the cord as 100, the maximum per. higher education from public-spirited citizens. In the last

centage of the dorsal horns is found in the third coccygeal issue of Science received we notice that at the commence- region, and that of the ventral horns in the fifth lumbar ment of Brown l'niversity it was announced that 32,4001. region. had been subscribed for the John Hay Memorial Library,

January 18. " Observations the Life-history of thus securing the additional gift of 30,000l. by Mr. Andrew

Leucocytes." By C. E. Carnegie. Mr. D. W. Goodspeed, secretary of the board

Walker Communicated by of trustees of the University of Chicago, has announced a

Prof. Č. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. gift of 52.000l. from Mr. John D. Rockefeller for current January 25.-“ On the Origin of the Sertoli, or Footexpenses for the year beginning July 1. At the recent com

cells of the Testis." By C. E. Walker and Miss Alice L. mencement of Olivet College gifts aggregating 53,000!. Embleton. Communicated by Prof. C. S. Sherrington, were announced. Of this amount 43,000l. applies toward

F.R.S. the Carnegie endowment, leaving only 7000l. to be raised In animals, those cells set aside to produce definite to ensure receiving Mr. Carnegie's gift of 50,000l. By

sexual elements go through two divisions, the first and the will of the late Prof. George A. Wentworth, of Phillips second maiotic (heterotype and homotype) divisions, and Exeter Academy, 2000l. is bequeathed to the academy. are then, without any further division, converted directh

into spermatozoa. The same thing happens in the maturaThe new Code of regulations for public elementary schools tion of the

No post-maiotic (post-homolype) marks a great advance on similar publications of a few divisions have hitherto been recorded. years ago. The detailed schedules of former years, with In plants, on the other hand, after the second maiotic their minute instructions as to the work of separate division has occurred, an apparently unlimited number of standards, are discontinued. Great prominence is given to generations may be produced of cells that have gone a few broad educational principles, on which all successful through the maiotic phase, and consequently possess only school practice must be based. The new code, in fact, half the somatic number of chromosomes. In the first of supplemented by the recently published excellent suggestions the above papers, the occurrence of maiotic phenomena is for teachers, provides just that necessary official guidance recorded among the leucocytes and the cells which are which should suffice to enable properly trained teachers to their immediate ancestors. According to these observ. adapt their procedure and curriculum to local conditions ations, after the first and second maiotic divisions have and requirements. The tendency exhibited by the central occurred, they are followed by an indefinite number of authority to give efficient teachers a freer hand is satis- generations of cells possessing only half the somatic comfactory, and we welcome it. A new scheme of arithmetic plement of chromosomes. The first maiotic division is is included in the Code, and it reflects the movement started preceded by amitosis and mitosis of the somatic character, by the British Association to eliminate from school arith just as happens in the testes of many animals, is not in metic all fanciful problems of little everyday use, and to all. It must be remembered that in certain plants only a introduce practical measurements at an carly stage. The few of the cells which have gone through the maiotic phase scheme in the new Code puts such measurements in the ever become sex cells. The others may form tissues having Fifth Standard work, but omits to state definitely in the somatic characters and functions. This parallel between same section that such practical work with a scale of certain vegetable cells and jeucocytes is carried further by inches and tenths, or centimetres and millimetres, is the the observations recorded in the second of the above papers. most satisfactory and natural introduction to decimals. Here it is stated that at an early stage in the develop

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ment of the testis, before the tubules or pockets are making the copper ferrocyanide membranes, and it is forned, it is impossible to discriminate between the cells pointed out that with the best membranes, in most cases, destined to become foot-cells and the leucocytes or their a small quantity of solution comes through during the immediate ancestors in the same animal.

experiment. It is shown that even a small leak causes Among these cells, also, divisions are seen where the a considerable lowering of the observed pressure, hence chruinosome number is half what is found in the somatic the final results accepted are those where the leak was cells. The conclusion drawn from this is that the un- least. differentiated cells which surround the male ova, and Attention is directed to the fact that the osmotic pressures which eventually form both the foot-cells and the walls of of cane-sugar solutions, when measured directly and when the pockets or tubules of the testis, are derived from leuco- calculated from their vapour pressures, agree to within cytes or have immediately common ancestors. If these

3 per cent. observations be correct, we have, therefore, animal cells which, though reduced, form tissues possessing somatic

Zoological Society, June 19.-Sir Edmund G. Loder, characters and functions known to happen in plants.

Bart., vice-president, in the chair.---The nudibranchs of The bearing of these observations upon the cancer

southern India and Ceylon, with special reference to the problem is obvious when the fusion between leucocytes and

collections and drawings preserved in the Hancock Museum tissue cells recorded elsewhere is borne in mind.

at Newcastle-on-Tyne : Sir Charles Eliot. This paper was

an attempt to settle the synonymy of various NudiMay 17.-" Some Physical Constants of Ammonia: a branchiata of the Indo-Pacific with the help of Kelaart's Study of the Effect of Change of Temperature and Pressure drawings and the collections made by him and Walter on an Easily Condensible Gas.” By Dr. E. P. Perman Elliot, and now preserved at Newcastle. It also contained and J. H. Davies. Communicated by Principal E. H. some new information as to the anatomy of several species Griffiths, F.R.S.

(particularly Platydoris formosa, P. papillata, Doriopsilla (1) The vapour density of ammonia at oo has been found

miniata, Kalinga ornata, and several Pleurophyllidiidæ). to be 0.77085 (mass of 1 litre in grams at latitude 45o), -An account the Entomostraca taken during a bathyprevious results being 0.7708 by Guye and 0.7719 by metrical survey of the new Zealand lakes, and a Le Duc.

parison of this fauna with that of the English lakes : Dr. (2) When the ammonia and the glass vessel G. S. Brady. A paper dealing with the higher Crustacea thoroughly dried no appreciable adsorption of ammonia by obtained during the above-mentioned survey : Prof. C. glass, or condensation of ammonia on the surface of glass, Chilton.-A classification of the Selachian fishes : C. T. was found 10 take place.

Regan. The author stated that the Selachii were regarded (3) From density determinations at different temperatures, as entitled to rank, at least, as a well-marked subclass, the coefficient of expansion of ammonia has been deduced and he divided them into two principal groups, viz. as 0.003914 between oo and -20°, and 0.003847 between Trematopnea and Chasmatopnea, the latter including the oo and 100°.

single order Holocephali.-An account of the polyclad (4) From Rayleigh's determination of the compressibility Turbellaria from the Cape Verde Islands collected by Mr. of ammonia and our own value for the density, the mole- C. Crossland: F. F. Laidlaw. The collection shows that, cular weight of ammonia has been calculated as 17.030, on the whole, the fauna of this region of the Atlantic and the atomic weight of nitrogen as 14.007.

agrees closely with that of the Mediterranean so far as (5) Incidentally, the density of air free from water the polyclads are concerned. The most interesting of the vapour and carbon dioxide has been determined as 1.2920 sixteen or seventeen species represented in the collection (lat. 45°).

are, perhaps, a species of Anonymus (of which several (6) The deviation from Dalton's law for a mixture of specimens were taken) and Traunfelsia elongata, gen. approximately equal volumes of air and ammonia has been

et sp. nov. The latter is an elongated form remarkable found to be about i part in 1000.

for the possession of marginal tentacles, which are not (7) The pressure-coefficient of ammonia has been deter- usually associated with a long, narrow body in this class. mined, the pressure being atmospheric at 15°. Between A unique feature in this genus is the presence of a pair no and -20° the coefficient was 0.004003, and between oo of alveolar glands, each with a long duct opening on and 98o it was 0.003802.

either side of antrum masculinum. The genus is referred The determination of the vapour pressure of liquid to the Diposthiidæ of Woodworth.-A large unknown ammonia was repeated at some of the lower temperatures, marine animal observed off the coast of Brazil during a using pure ammonia, in order to obtain an accurate value cruise in the Earl of Crawford's yacht the Valhalla : for its boiling point. From the results, the boiling point E. G. B. Meade-Waldo and M. J. Nicoll (see p. 202). of liquid ammonia at 760 mm. pressure was found to be -33°5 C.

Royal Microscopical Society, June 20.—Dr. Tukinfield

H. Scott, F.R.S., president, in the chair.—The structure June 7.-" On the Osmotic Pressures of some Concen- of some Carboniferous ferns : Dr. D. H. Scott. The trated Aqueous Solutions.” By the Earl of Berkeley and author pointed out the change which had taken place E. G. J. Hartley. Communicated by W. C. D. Whetham, during the last three years in our conception of the CarbonF.R.S.

iferous ferns. So many examples of fern-like plants were This communication gives an account of measurements now known to have borne seeds, or were suspected of of osmotic pressures of aqueous solutions of cane sugar, having been seed bearers, that comparatively few undoubted dextrose, galactose, and mannite. The method adopted is ferns were left, and it was questioned whether, at least in that briefly outlined by us in vol. Ixxiii., Roy. Soc. Proc. the Lower Carboniferous, true ferns existed. One family, A gradually increasing pressure is placed upon the solu- the Botryopterideæ, was admitted to be well represented in tion (which is separated from the solvent by a semi- Lower as well as Upper Carboniferous times, and Mr. permeable membrane) until the solvent, which at first Newell Arbor had proposed to establish a group of Primoflows into the solution, reverses its direction, and is filices to include this and other primitive ferns of the squeezed out. The pressure, when there is no movement Palæozoic age. The object of the communication was to of the solvent, is considered to be the osmotic pressure. give a few illustrations of this ancient race of ferns. The Owing to the difficulty of determining the exact point at Botryopterideæ were first described, beginning with the which no movement takes place, and for other reasons, type-genus Botryopteris. The genus Zygopteris was next the experiments are carried out so as to enable an observ- considered. A new genus from the Lower Coal-measures ation to be made of the rate of movement of the solvent, of Lancashire, for which the name of Botrychioxylon was both when the pressure on the solution is just below and proposed, was then described. Two or three other examples when just above the turning-point pressure.

The osmotic of the family having been noticed, Dr. Scott described pressure is deduced from these rates. The range of certain annulate fern sporangia. The germination of spores pressures covered by the experiments is from 12

within a sporangium was demonstrated, and this sporatmospheres.

angium had quite recently been identified as belonging to A description is also given of the methods adopted for

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Stauro pleris Oldhamia.

to 135

Chemical Society, June 21.-Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., It has been shown by Edison, Fleming, and others that president, in the chair. The Cleve memorial lecture : the passage of the electric discharge in vacuo is much Prof. T. E. Thorpe. The constituents of the essential oil facilitated by heating the kathode. More recently it has from the fruit of Pittosporum undulatum : F. B. Power been shown that the passage of the discharge is still further and F., Tutin. The results show that the oil contains facilitated by coating the heated kathode with oxides of d-pinene, d-limonene, esters of valeric, formic and other the alkaline metals. It is generally held that the efficacy acids, a sesquiterpene, palmitic acid, and a phenol.--Mo- of the hot oxides in this direction is due to their giving bility of substituents in derivatives of B-naphthol : J. T. off negatively-charged ions or corpuscles. *The author Hewitt and H. V. Mitchell.—The decomposition of nitro- therefore decided to ascertain whether similar effects could cellulose : O. Silberrad and R. C. Farmer. The de- be obtained by painting the kathode with radium, and as composition products are ethyl nitrate, ethyl nitrite, ethyl radium gives off corpuscles when cold, it was anticipated alcohol, nitric and nitrous acids, ammonia, formic, acetic, that it might not be necessary to heat the kathode. butyric, dihydroxybutyric, oxalic, tartaric, isosaccharinic, Using a continuous current up to 400 volts pressure, this and hydroxypyruvic acids. Carbohydrates were also pre- was found not to be the case, the radium having no sent.--Note on gunpowder and bullets made about 1641, appreciable effect in producing a visible discharge. When recently discovered in Durham Castle : 0. Silberrad and the radium-coated kathode was heated to redoess, the W. S, Simpson, The gunpowder was found to approxi- | radium was found to have a very marked action in facilimate closely in composition to the black powder now used tating the production of a luminous discharge. Experiin this country. The ingredients had been merely ground ments were made which proved that the mere presence oi and mixed together. It seems probable that this powder radium in the tube was insufticient to produce the effect, was of Prussian origin.--The constitution of acetone : and, furthermore, it was found that the tube would only Miss M. Taylor. The results prove that acetone does not allow visible discharges to pass in the direction that made behave either towards sodium or Grignard's reagent as iso

the radium-treated electrode the kathode, the tube acting propenylalcohol, CH,.C(OH): CH.-Diazo-derivatives of the as a unidirectional valve in the same way as do tubes with mixed aliphatic aromatic w-benzene-sulphonylaminobenzyl | kathodes coated with oxides.—The effect of the electric amines : G.T. Morgan and Miss F. M. G. Mickle-spark on the actinity of metals : T. A. Vaughton. It has thwait.-Influerice of substitution on the formation of been pointed out by several observers that some metals. diazoamines and aminoazo-compounds, part v.-s-Dimethyl- such as aluminium, cadmium, zinc, magnesium, &c. 4: 6-diamino-m-xylene : G. T. Morgan and A. Clayton. | although not radio-active in the ordinary sense of the --Improved apparatus for the determination of molecular word, yet have the power of affecting a photographic plate. weights : P. Blackman.

The electric spark has a remarkable influence on this

“actinity," in some cases causing an increase, and in Linnean Society, June 21.- - Dr. A. Smith Woodward,

others apparently diminishing it. The alteration is not F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-A contribution to the merely momentary, but remains for months. It is, howbotany of southern Rhodesia : Miss L. S. Gibbs. The

ever, quite superficial, and may be removed by slightly collections on which the report was based were obtained rubbing the surface of the metal with emery-paper. In in August to October, 1905, at the end of the dry season. the case of aluminium sparked with gold, the direction of The air is dry and the sun's rays very strong, temperature the current does not make much difference in the actinity from 80° to 90°, so that the country presented a burnt-up of the sparked plate, but in the case of other couples the aspect, and the trees were bare, except a few evergreens. difference is very marked. For example, if a cadmium The veld is systematically burnt, to promote young growth strip is sparked with antimony, the cadmium being conför cattle-food, to the detriment or destruction of trees nected with the positive terminal, the cadmium becomes and shrubs. Distribution of species is wide, and the pre- very active photographically, not only on the spot sparked. sent paper tends to a confirmation, with many new records. but all over its surface. If, however, the cadmium is Twenty-three new species are described, amongst the more connected with the negative terminal and sparked with a interesting being the grass Erianthus teretifolius, Stapf, positive terminal of antimony, the cadmium remains very and a characteristic Elephantorhiza.—The authentic por- slightly more active than if not sparked at all.--The traits of Linnæus: W. Carruthers. The author recalled dielectric strength of thin liquid films : Dr. P. E. Shaw. the fact that in 1889 he made the subject the chief topic The range of voltage used in the experiments is from 25 of his address at the anniversary meeting on May 24 of to 400, and the corresponding spark-lengths vary from that year ; he subsequently visited Sweden, Germany, and about 0.15 to 6.0 u (p =0.001 mm.) for the insulating the Netherlands to inspect the originals, and read a paper liquids used. The apparatus employed for measuring detailing his results at the "general meeting held length is the micrometer designed by the author for November 19, 1891 ; a transcript of his remarks had been measuring gauges (Proc. Roy, Soc., April). The subprepared, but did not satisfy him, and nothing was pub- stances used were olive oil, castor oil, linseed oil, rape oil. lished. The approaching bicentenary celebration of the turpentine, fusel oil, oil of resin, cod-liver oil, neat's-foot birthday of Linnæus, for which the Swedes have been oil, paraffin, transformer oil, the homologous series making extensive preparations, had induced him to revise C,H., C.H., C.H., C.H., and armacell. ohmaline. his old transcript, and add some recently ascertained facts, and Sterling varnishes. The best insulators are paraffin which he now submitted to the society.–Plantæ novæ and transformer oil, though for these, as for all commercial Daweanæ in Uganda lectæ : Dr. Otto Stapf. Mr. M. T. oils, great care was taken to remove water and acid by Dawe, officer in charge of the Forestry and Scientific De- prolonged heating to 110° C., and treating with potassium partment of the Uganda Protectorate, made an expedition carbonate. No simple connection can be traced between from Entebbe, through Buddu and the western and Nile specific inductive capacity and dielectric strength. - The provinces of that territory. His collections were

effect of electrical oscillations on iron in a magnetic field : mitted from time to time to Kew, and his report was Dr. W. H. Eccles. In attempting to make precise issued as a Blue-book (1906, Cd. 2904) last April; it gave measurements of the effect of high-frequency oscillations an account of his journey, with some rough illustrations on iron held magnetised by a magnetic field, two main of specially noteworthy plants. Much new light is thrown difficulties are met. The one is that arising from the fact on distribution, and new species are described, amongst that the oscillatory currents induced on the surface of the them the new genus of Rutaceæ, Balsamocitrus, Stapf, iron investigated shield the inner layers, and thus moka and a new species of Warburgia (Canellacea).

As an

the mass of iron affected a variable quantity. The other appendix, Mr. Dawe gives a summary of his report on the difficulty arises in the matter of producing oscillations of vegetation of the country traversed.--The genitalia of determinate and invariable character. The author has Diptera : J. Hopkinson.—The structure of bamboo leaves : endeavoured to meet the first difficulty by using oscillations Sir Dietrich Brandis.

so feeble that they affected only the outermost lavers of

the iron wires employed, and these men only slightly Physical Society, June 22.- Prof. 1. Perry, F.R.S.,

The second difficulty has been met by using the oscillations president, in the chair.--The effect of radium in facilitating produced in an open insulated solenoid by a single small the visible electric discharge in vacuo : 6. A. C. Swinton. measurable spark passed to one end of the solenoid.

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EDINBURGH.

hydrogen. These experimental facts are applied to the con

sideration of volcanic phenomena.-The condensation of Royal Society, June 18.-Dr. Munro, vice-president, in the chair. -A study of the dietaries of students residences BB-dimethylglycidic ester with sodio-malonic ester. Syntheses

of terebic and pyroterebic acids : A. Haller and G. Blanc. in Edinburgh : Dr. Isabella Cameron. The objects of the investigation were to compare the dietary of the middle

Dimethyl-glycidic ester, heated on the water bath with classes with that of the working classes, which had already olide-4, and this, boiled with hydrochloric acid, gives terebic

sodio-malonic ester, gives 4-methyl-2 : 3-dicarboxyl-pentanbeen carefully studied, to ascertain how far this diet conformed to the various standard diets, and to investigate acid, the latter being characterised by its conversion into the question of the reduction of cost through combination. isocaprolactone and pyroterebic acid.

--The external work

created by the statical and dynamical actions of the internal I he dietaries of four men's residences and one women's

work of the motor muscle : A. Chauveau.—The treatment residency were studied for one week, which was equivalent of pulmonary tuberculosis by serotherapy : MM. Lanne10 1129 men for one day. The average amount consumed per man per diem was :-proteids, 143 grams; fats, 138 pathogenic Trypanosomes: attempts

longue, Achard, and Gaillard. The identification of

at diagnosis : A. grams; carbohydrates, gut grams; fuel value, 3973 calories.

Laveran and F. Mesnil. The serum of an animal which The expenditure came to fully is. 2d. per day per man,

has acquired immunity against a particular trypanosome nearly double the cost of the average labouring man's diet. When compared with similar institutions in Xmerica, frequently possesses to a high degree specific properties

which can be utilised for the identification of trypanosomes. the Edinburgh residences were found to consume

The authors give a detailed account of experiments made in proteid and carbohydrate, but less fat. There was also less

this connection, and show that the application of this waste.—The theory of epidemics : Dr. John Brownlee.

method is not without difficulties.—The indication for the The growth and decay of an epidemic seemed to depend anti-tuberculous vaccination of young ruminants by the alion the acquisition of a high degree of infectivity at the

mentary canal : S. Arloing. Details of experiments on start, this infectivity being then lost at a rate expressible

young goats are given from which the author concludes that mathematically as an exponential. This truth was realised

complete immunisation can be effected by the aid of human by Dr. Farr, but the subject did not seem to have been

or bovine tubercle bacilli, suitably modified, introduced pursued with any definite scientific aim. Dr. Brownlee

into the alimentary canal.-M. Gernez was elected had subjected various epidemic statistics to mathematical

member in the section of physics in the place of the late M. analysis, and had found that the curves representing their

Pierre Curie.---The deformation of certain tetrahedral surgrowth and decay could be well represented by Prof. Karl

faces : G. Tzitzéica.-A theorem of algebraic surfaces of Pearson's curve of type iv. The correspondence was very

the nth order : G. B. Guccia.—Differential equations of close, except in the neighbourhood of the vertex. The

the second order and first degree the general integral of general conclusion was that the condition of the germ had

which is uniform : M. Gambier.-Diminution of velocity much more to do with the causation of an epidemic than

and change of trim of ships by the reflex action of water the constitutional peculiarity of the persons affected at the

on the bottom : E. Fournier.-A simplified study of the moment. There was no evidence in favour of the idea

effects of capacity of alternating current cables : A. that the epidemic ended because of the lack of susceptible

Blondel.-Interferential photography : the variation of the persons.- The plant remains in the Scottish peat mosses,

incidence : polarised light: M. Ponsot.----An arrangement part ii. : Francis J. Lewis. This part had to do with the Scottish Highlands, the preceding part having dis- permitting of placing simultaneously several prisms in the cussed the peats of the Lowland Uplands." These Highland position of minimum deviation : P. Lambert.-A simple

method for the study of the movements of metallic vapours peat mosses began later than the Lowland mosses, and did

in the oscillating spark : G. A. Hemsalech, The sparks not show the intercalated Arctic condition after the retreat

are blown on one side by a current of air of known velocity, of the ice-sheet. The bottom layers in the mosses in Caithness and Inverness had Arctic plants, but these were lack- resulting in curved lines in the spectrum, from measure

ments of which the tangential velocities of the metallic ing in the Skye mosses, which accordingly were shown

vapours can be determined.—The methods of photographing to have begun still later. The succession of layers was

the absorption lines of the colouring matters of the blood : broadly similar to the succession already made out in the

Louis Lewin, A. Miethe, and E. Stenger. Details of the Lowland mosses, but in the Highland peats of recent age

apparatus used are given. The present note contains no there were two distinct dry woodland mosses full of trunks

results.---The heat of formation of Pinus sylvestris, separated by a layer of sphagnum moss.

of carbonyl-hydroferro

cyanic acid : J. A. Muller. The heat of combustion, deterThe peat deposits over Scotland thus showed a definite

mined in the calorimetric bomb, was 3444 calories per succession of changes which could be correlated with the

gram, from which the heat of formation was calculated later stages of the Glacial epoch.

-- 122 cal.-The kathodic phosphorescence of europium

diluted with lime. Study of the ternary system lime-gadoParis.

lina-europia : G. Urbain.—The refractive index of subAcademy of Sciences, June 25.-M. H. Poincaré in the stances dissolved in other solvents than water: C. Chéne. chair.-The formation of endothermic compounds at high

Results are given for solutions of lithium chloride temperatures : M. Berthelot. According to the current in water, methyl and ethyl alcohols, and in glycerol.--thermodynamical theories, endothermic compounds can be The variations in state undergone by amorphous carbon formed and are stable at high temperatures. The author under the influence of a sudden variation of temperature : criticises the experimental observations adduced in support O. Manville. The variation in state was measured by of this view, and concludes that no exact observation has the alteration in the temperature at which the carbon combeen brought forward establishing, either in principle or in menced to give carbon dioxide in a current of oxygen.-The fart, that very high temperatures can cause a reversal of chem- double sulphate of iridium and potassium, Ir,(50.),. iral affinity by directly forming endothermic compounds by 3K,SO,: Marcel Delépine.—The properties of the subsimple heating.--The generalised problem of Dirichlet and stances formed by the action of hydrochloric acid upon cerFredholm's equation : Emile Picard.---The radio-activity of tain metallic silicides : M. Boudouard. These substances gases evolved from the water of thermal springs : P. contain hydrogen, and may be regarded as mixtures in variCurie and A. Laborde. The data given in a previous able proportions of silicoformic anhydride and silico-oxalic: paper arr corrected, and some additional determinations given hydrate.- The crystallography of iron : F. Osmond and inr some new springs. The action of steam upon sulphides G. Cartaud.--The action of oxygen on rubidium-ammonia : at a red heat. The production of native metals : Armand E. Rengade. The three metals potassium, cæsium, and Gautier. The sulphides of iron give rise to magnetic iron rubidium, dissolved in liquid ammonia, give in presence of oxide, sulphurelted hydrogen and hydrogen. In the case oxygen a white dioxide and a yellow tetroxide. Potassium of lead sulphide, taken as a type of the sulphide of a metal and cæsium give in addition a dark trioxide, but there is which does not decompose water, the primary products no evidence of the formation of an analogous oxide of rubiwould appear to be lead, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurdium.-Researches on the pyrazolones : new methods of dioxide, the two latter substances reacting to give free synthesis : Ch. Moureu and J. Lazennec. The reaction sulphur. Copper sulphide gave copper, sulphur dioxide, and between the arylpropiolic esters and hydrazine, forming

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pyrazolones has been extended to the alkylpropiolic esters.

CALCUTTA. The pyrazolones can also be obtained when the ester is re

Asiatic Society of Bengal, June 6.-Indian meteorites placed by the amide or by the B-oxyalkylacrylic esters obtained from the acetylene compounds by a

recently acquired by the Geological Survey : L. L. Fermor. method

The crusts of some of them show interesting fow-strue described in a previous paper. The theory of the reactions

tures.-(1) Notes on rare Indo-Pacific barnacle. Re. is discussed.--Phenyl migrations in the halohydrins and in

marks on Conchoderma hunteri, Owen, which the author, the a-glycols : M. Tiffeneau.-Cinnamenyl-paraconic acid :

agreeing with Hoek, regards as a variety of C. rirgatum J. Bougault.—Researches on the relations of functional (Spengler). (2) Contributions Oriental herpetology. groups in distant positions : cyclic amines : E. E. Blaise

No. 4. Notes on the Indian tortoises. Remarks on some and M. Houillon. Oetamethylene diamine chlorhydrate gives obscure species, with list of the Indian Chelonia by the action heat an unsaturated hydrocarbon and a secondary cyclic base. This has been proved to be identical (3) Notes on the common Hydra of Bengal : Dr. N.

Annandale. The systematic position of Hydra orientalis with a synthetically prepared specimen of butylpyrrolidene.

is discussed, with a description of its anatomy. As the - The basicity of the xanthyl oxygen : R. Fosse and L.

result of two years' investigation, the author concludes that Lesage. A description of a series of double salts, of which

the species is diæcious, but that sexual reproduction plans xanthyl-lead bromide, CH(C.H.),O.Br+2PbBrg, may be

an unimportant part in the life cycle.-Rawāls and Merăis given as a type.-The production of Ascidia by trau- of Rajputana : Ř. C. Bramley.-An old reference to the matisms : L. Blaringhem.-The origin of the materials

Bhotias : H. Beveridge.-Parasites from the Gharial utilised by the ovary : Jean Friedel. The assimilating (Gavialis gangeticus, Geoffr.): Dr. von Linstow. Two power possessed by the green carpels of many plants is new nematodes, each representing a new genus, and a well known. From experiments on Ranunculus acris the

new linguatulid are described. The former were found in author concludes that the ovary utilises both its own pro

the stomach and on the mesentery; the latter in the lungs ducts of assimilation and the reserves of the peduncle. If and trachea. the conditions in which it is placed suppress one of these two modes of nutrition, the ovary can arrive at complete

New South WALES. development from the other.-The longevity of seeds : Paul

Royal Society, May 2.-Mr. H. A. Lenehan, presi. Becquerel, Experiments were carried out on 550 species dent, in the chair.-Annual general meeting. An address belonging to fifty families, the age of which varied from

was delivered by the president.--A specimen of diamond in twenty-five to 135 years. The only seeds preserving their the matrix : E. F. Pittman. The specimen was found by vitality for more than eighty years were those protected by a Messrs. Pike and O'Donnell in their claim at Oakey Creek, thick skin and possessing slightly oxidisable reserves.-A

near Inverell. The diamond is a small one, weighing disease of the plane tree due to Gnomonia veneta : J. Beau

about one-third carat, and the material in which it is verie.-Some new Madagascan Asclepiadaceæ producing embedded is an igneous rock known as dolerite. Thr caoutchouc; J. Costantin and I. Gallaud. --The biology of

dolerite occurs at Oakey Creek as a pipe or dyke, and the the Virgularia : Ch. Gravier.--A new form of operculated specimen is of special interest as throwing some light upon Cirripede, Pyrgopsis Annandalei : A. Gruvel.-Prehis

the question of the origin of the diamond. toric remains in the neighbourhood of Kayes, Soudan : Fr. de Zeltner. The deposits of stone instruments are large, and formed out of rocks still existing in the district. The instruments cannot be classified with any of the usual

CONTENTS.

PAGE European types, are highly polished, and show considerable Physical Chemistry applied to Chemistry and skill in their manufacture. It is impossible at present to

Biology. By Prof. Benjamin Moore

241 fix their age.-A method of isolating the hæmatablasts of The Making of Rocks. By Prof. Grenville A. J the blood in a state of purity: L. Le Sourd and Ph.

Cole

242 Pagniez.-Researches on animal electricity : MM. Girard Structures and Materials. By T. H. B.

243 and Victor Henri. The role of the cellular elements in

Rational Dairying.
By T. S. D.

243 the transformation of certain carbohydrates by the intes

Our Book Shelf :tinal juice : H. Bierry and A. Frouin.—The problem of

Petrunkewitsch: "Gedanken über Vererbung."statical work : Ernest Solvay. A criticism on a paper of

J. A. T. M. Chauveau on the same subject.--The sensibility of the Riehl: “Giordano Bruno. In Memoriam of the retina for luminous radiations : Milan Štefánik. Using a

17th February, 1600"

244 spectroscope with glass prisms and a suitable coloured Letters to the Editor :screen the red end of the spectrum is visible with sufficient

Geological Survey of Canada. --Prof. Robert Bell, clearness for measuring the lines down to 1 3830. The F.R.S.; F. R. S.

245 photographic results obtained by M. Millochau with the

Osmotic Pressure. --Earl of Berkeley and E. G. J. same apparatus give the same limit. It follows that the

Hartley

245 retina is sensible for all the radiations which pass the Family Diseases and Temperaments. -- Prof. Kari spectroscope.-The use of sodium chloride in the histo

Pearson, F.R.S.

245 logical impregnation of tissues by silver : Ch. Achard and Thermodynamics of Diffusion. - Prof. G. H. Bryan, M. Aynaud. An experimental proof of the view recently

F.R.S..

246 put forward by M. Quinton that the results are due to the Farly Meteors of the Perseid Shower. - W. e. presence of sodium chloride in the intercellular Spaces, the Denning

240 chloride of silver thus formed darkening in the light.-A Western and Central Abyssinia. (Illustrated.) By method of detecting iron in living tissues : A. Mouneyrat. Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C M.G. -Study of the transmissibility of tuberculosis by ali- Opsonins and Tuberculosis.

248 mentary casein : Marcel Guédras. Food products for Notes

249 infants containing dried casein as a base may transmit Our Astronomical Column :tuberculosis. Casein dried at a low temperature may still Finlay's Comet,

2;3 contain the tubercle bacillus.--The extension of the marine The Radiants of the Perseid Shower invasion of the upper Sparnacian in the neighbourhood of Magnitude Observations of Nova Aquilæ No. 2 253 Paris : Paul Combes, jun.-The existence of the Cretacean An Objective- Prism Comparison Spectrograph 253 in the Oran schists : MM. Ficheur and Doumergue.

Russian Astronomical Observations .

255 The Yprés clays of the department of Aisne and the A New Observatory for Hamburg

253 climatic conditions at the Lutetian epoch : Paul Fritel.--- Star Transits by Photography. Illustrated.) 254 The trajectory of electric corpuscles in space under the The Museums Association.

215 influence of terrestrial magnetism, with applications to the The Meteorology of the Free Atmosphere

255 aurora borealis and to magnetic disturbances: Carl International Science. By Prof. Arthur Schuster, Störmer.-Two relief maps of Paringu and Soarbele F.R.S. (Southern Carpathians) executed from unpublished topo- University and Educational Intelligence graphical sketches : E. de Martonne.

Societies and Academies

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