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will contribute a paper on the Keltic weights found at differentiation in the Mucorineæ, and also of his important Melandra, which throw considerable light on the sub- recent discoveries of sexual differentiation in the spores of divisions of the pre-Roman pound in Britain. Excavations Marchantia. on the interesting paläolithic site at Ipswich, of which SECTION L (EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE).--August 2: Presiaccounts have on two occasions been presented to the sec- dential address, Prof. Michael E. Sadler ; Report on health tion, have now brought to light a number of small imple- in schools, Prof. Sherringion; Medical inspection of schoois ments which would appear to have been used as scrapers, and colleges, Sir Lauder Brunton, Sir Henry Craik; and further evidence as to the relations of the implement- Physical training, Dr. Ethel Williams, Major Norman; iferous strata, which will be described by Miss Layard. The education of workpeople, Hugh Meredith. Miss Lavard also contributes an account of the excavation

August 3: Curriculum of primary schools and the trainof an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Ipswich, which has pro- ing of teachers in such schools ; Report of committee on duced, among other objects, fibulæ of interesting types, rare the courses of practical, experimental, and observational in Great Britain. Mr. Rudler's paper on the “ Red Hills" studies most suitable to elementary schools : general prinof the east coast salt-marshes will describe the low moundsciples, Sir Philip Magnus, M.P., subcommittee report on of burnt earth of frequent occurrence on the estuarial arithmetic and mensuration, Prof. R. A. Gregory, submarshes of Essex, which it is now proposed to examine committee report on nature-study, Hugh Richardson. systematically.

Contributions to the discussion will be made by Principal SECTION 1 (PhysioLOGY). —August 2: Address by the Burrell, T. S. Dymond, Prof. Green, J. C. Hudson. president, Prof. Gotch ; Report of committee on The meta- Training for the home duties of women. Report of subbolic balance sheet of the tissues; Papers on physiology. committee on Domestic studies, Geo. Fletcher. The followAugust 3: The nitrification of sewage, Dr. George Reid; ing will contribute to the discussion :- Miss Mary E. Papers on hygiene ; Report of the committee for the in

Marsden, Prof. A. Smithells, Miss Maud Taylor, Prof. Eestigation of the effect of climate upon health. August 5: H. E. Armstrong, Mrs. Margaret Pillow, B. S. Rowntree, Discussion on the physiological value of rest, opened by Mrs Marvin, Miss Romley Wright. August 6 : The balance Dr. T. D. Acland. Dr. Rivers, Dr. Myers, Prof.

of subjects in the curriculum of the secondary school and McDougall are expected to take part. Papers on the the training of teachers for such schools, T. E. Page, Hon. special senses, psychology and electrophysiology. Dr.

and Rev. E. Lyttelton, Rev. E. C. Owen, Arthur Rowntree Bevan Lewis and Dr. Smith will give a demonstration on (Leisure pursuits), Gidley Robinson (Preparatory schools), improved methods of studying the central nervous system, C. M. Stuart, J. H. Leonard, Miss E. E. C. Tomes (Trainand a paper on the pericellular plexus and neuro fibrils of ing), Prof. Raymont (Training); The uncertainty of educathe cerebral cortex. “August 6: Joint discussion with Sec- tional values in the absence of scientific experiment, Dr. tion B (Chemistry) on the factors which determine E. P. Culverwell; The demonstration school as a field for minimum diet values, opened by Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins. scientific research in school teaching, rof. J. J. Findlay. This, of course, has special interest, as much sociological August 7 : Inspection and examination of schools, C. M. work has been done in York by Mr. B. Seebohm Rowntree Stuart, J. L. Holland, Geo. Fletcher, and others; The on the limits of diet. Prof. Armstrong and other members teaching of modern languages, Prof. Wyld, Prof. Robertof the chemical section will take part. Papers on pathology. son; Experiments and results in elementary modern August 7: General papers.

language teaching conducted since 1892, Prof. J. J. Findlay ; SECTION K (BOTANY).—At least three of the sessions of (joint meeting with Sections A and G) The teaching of this section will be devoted to special topics of current mechanics by experiment, C. E. Ashford. interest, the proceedings in each opening with a general paper or address dealing with the topic as a whole, followed by more special papers and a general discussion. The

NOTES. three topics chosen for the present meeting are as follows :!1) Some aspects of the present position of Palæozoic

The death of Prof. Drude by his own hand at the early botany will be dealt with by Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., age of forty-three is a serious loss to physical science. and the conditions of growth of Carboniferous plants by Born at Brunswick in 1863, he made his mark first as a Prof. F. E. Weiss, Miss M. C. Stopes, and others. pupil of Voigt at Göttingen, and his series of papers in (2) The nature of fertilisation and kindred problems, at a

which he applied the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, joint session with Section D (Zoology). Mr. V. H. Blackman will open the proceedings with a general address

as developed by Herz, to the problems of light, stamped setting forth the present position of the subject. Prof. him as a physicist of the first rank. These appeared in Farmer, F.R.S., is expected to contribute a paper on the Wiedemann's Annalen in the years 1896–9, and as more cytological features of apospory, and Mr. Doncaster one fully developed in the author's “ Physics of the Ether on some cytological features of animal parthenogenesis.

and his text-book of optics, have received recognition in Several eminent foreign botanists, distinguished for their work on kindred topics, have promised to be present,

these columns. Among them may be specially noted his among them being Prof. Tschermak, of Vienna, Prof. theory of the magneto-optic phenomena of iron, nickel, Johannsen and Dr. Ostenfeld, of Copenhagen, Dr. Rosen- and cobalt, 1897; the theory of anomalous dispersion, 1898 ; berg, of Stockholm, and Dr. Lotsy, of Leyden. (3) The and of electric dispersion, 1899. Drude was also an exphvlogenetic value of the vascular system of seedlings. Mr. A. G. Tansley and Miss E. N. Thomas will open the

perimenter, and was able to devise and carry out critical proceedings, while Prof. Jefirey, of Harvard, Messrs. A. W.

experiments to test, where necessary, fundamental points of Hill, T. G. Hill, and Miss Ethel Sargant are expected to

his theory. In 1900 he succeeded Wiedemann as editor of contribute by papers or otherwise to the discussion.

the Annalen der Physik, and under his capable guidance Dr. T. W. Woodhead, who has been spending the last that well-known journal has fully maintained its reputation, Ipar at Zurich with Prof. Schröter, will communicate a while only last year he was called to Berlin as professor paper on ecological work in Switzerland, Mr. C. E. Moss will give an account of survey work and mapping in

of physics in succession to Warburg, now president of the Somersetshire, while Dr. Fritsch and Mr. Walker will con

Reichsanstalt. The physics school of the University of tribute papers on algal ecology. Prof. Wyndham Dunstan, Berlin has suffered severely in recent years, and the loss FRS, is expected to give a general account of his work of the brilliant physicist who had so recently joined them on hidrocvanic acid in metabolism, but it is not yet certain

will be deeply felt by his friends and colleagues. whether this will be presented to the botanical or to the chemical sertion. Among other papers may be mentioned Tue report on the civil hospitals and dispensaries in Prof. H. H. W. Pearson's on the habitats and habits of the United Provinces states, says the Pioneer Mail, that $. \frican cycads, communicated by Mr. A. C. Seward,

five cases of snake bite have been successfully treated at F.RS., and Mr. Hugh Richardson's on the vegetation of Tenerifte. It is hoped that Dr. Blakestce may be able Gorakhpur with Dr. Calmette's anti-venene and perto be present and give an account of his work on sexual

manganate of potash. They seemed bad cases, and almost


immediately recovered after the injection of the serum. in the current number of the Geographical Journal. Licut. Twenty-two cases were also treated in the Banda district, Behrens makes use of (1) trigonometrical determinations of and in twenty-one cases the treatment was successful. two tops of a summit ; (2) trigonometrical rays to four other

The death of M. Edouard Piette in his eightieth year summits; (3) eight perspective views from sketches and removes from the ranks of French anthropologists a tire-photographs, with some magnetic bearings; (4) a map comless investigator. He began to write on prehistoric ques- piled from all available sources up to 1901, chiefly based tions as long ago as 1869, and contributed numerous articles

on Dr. Stuhlmann's traverse and astronomical observations ; to periodicals, among which may be mentioned a supple- and (5) information just received from Mr. A. F. R. ment to L'Anthropologie, entitled “Les Galets coloriés du Wollaston, a member of the zoological expedition sent out Mas d'Azil,” splendidly illustrated in colours. Another under the auspices of the Natural History Museum, who work was entitled “ Les Tertres funéraires d'Avezac-Prat”; with two other members of the expedition made a number but a great part of his material remains unpublished, of ascents in this range during April last. though some of the plates illustrative of it were exhibited

The Country in Town Exhibition, which was opened by at the Trocadéro some years ago. He formed a magnificent Princess Christian on July 5 in the Whitechapel Art Gallery, collection of stone, bone, and early iron objects from has proved in every way as successful as its promoters Brassempouy, Mas d’Azil, and other places, and presented could have wished. The chief objects of the exhibition are it about four years ago to the Museum of Saint-Germain, to show how many interesting remnants of the country and where it is arranged in stratigraphic order. He was an its denizens there still remain in London, to suggest how honorary fellow of many learned societies, but, his much of the country can be brought back to town, and to generous benefaction notwithstanding, he was neither a indicate those places near the metropolis (which can be member of the Institute nor the recipient of a decoration. reached at trifling cost) where the beauties of nature can

The death of the Rev. J. F. Blake will be felt by many easily be enjoyed. In connection with the exhibition, a British geologists as a personal loss. Prof. Blake was series of lectures was arranged, the first being given by born in 1839. He was educated at Christ's Hospital and Mr. Richard Kearton, on Nature at work and play. Dr. Caius College, Cambridge, where he was senior scholar. Henry, in dealing with the question of tree planting in In the natural science tripos of 1862 he took a second London, showed that it was the way the trees were treated class, and he was fifteenth wrangler. Following the pro- rather than the injury caused by the atmosphere which fession of his father, the Rev. Robert P. Blake, he entered prevented them from growing. Mr. T. S. Dymond gave the Church, and held curacies at Lenton, near Notting- many useful hints in connection with the soil of London, ham, and at St. Mary's, Bryanston Square. Afterwards Sir John Cockburn outlined the way in which Australian he went as mathematical master to St. Peter's School, cities have been beautified by tree planting, Mr. Herrod York, a post he occupied for nine years. From 1876 to dealt with bees, and Mrs. Dukinfield Scott showed her 1880 he was lecturer at Charing Cross Hospital on com- animated photographs of plants. The chairman of the parative anatomy. From 1880 to 1888 he held the chair executive committee is Mr. J. C. Medd, and the honorary of natural science at University College, Nottingham. In secretary is Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb. 1895 he went out to India to arrange the Baroda Museum. From a resolution published in the Pioneer Mail (June Prof. Blake was an active Fellow of the Geological Society | 15) it appears that the Government of India has had under of London, and in 1891-2 he was president of the

consideration the desirability of making better provision Geologists' Association. His contributions to geological for scientific research in connection with Indian forests. literature cover a wide field, but the ground he made

In order to provide a staff of experts who will be in a particularly his own was the Jurassic of England. Many position to devote a large proportion of their time to the of his papers will be found in the Journal of the Geological prosecution of scientific research connected with forest proSociety, in the Palæontological Society's monographs, and duce, as well as to give the best available training to elsewhere. A characteristic publication was the Annals

candidates for the forest services, both of British India of British Geology,” an excellent work, which doubtless and of native States, the Indian Government has, with failed through containing too fully the marks of Prof.

the sanction of the Secretary of State, decided to raise the Blake's strong critical capacity. His natural enthusiasm

status of the existing Imperial Forest School at Dehra and integrity of character endeared him to all with whom

Dun, and to add to its staff. The school will now be he came really in contact.

known as the Imperial Forest Research Institute and Mr. F. Victor Dickins informs us that on August 21 College, and the staff will include six officers of the the session of the Congrès préhistorique de France will Imperial Service holding the following posts :-(1) An open at Vannes, the curious old capital of the Morbihan, Imperial sylviculturist, who will make sylviculture his under the presidency of M. A. de Mortillet. All necessary special study. (2) An Imperial superintendent of forest information will be readily afforded by the general secre- working plans, who will collect and collate statistics of tary, Dr. Marcel Baudouin, Paris, rue Linné 21. The

the results of forest management throughout India. (3) subscription and cost of excursions are extremely moderate, An Imperial forest zoologist, whose chief duty will be to and for ten francs a day, all comprised, the very best investigate the damage caused by insects and other pests, accommodation is procurable at Vannes. The session will

and to suggest remedial measures. (4) An Imperial forest close on August 26; and arrangements are made for a botanist, who will study the botany of forest plants, reduction of the fares on the French railways.

diseases of trees, and distribution of species. (5) An The Daily Chronicle of July 6 publishes a Reuter Imperial forest chemist, who will investigate the chemical telegram of the previous day from Rome announcing that properties of soils and of the produce of the forests. (6) An the Duke of the Abruzzi had telegraphed to the King of Imperial forest economist, who will make a special study Italy that on June 16 he reached the highest point of of the best methods of rendering forest produce of all kinds Mount Ruwenzori. The probable position of this peak, as available at the smallest cost consumers, and will deduced from a combination of the best data available, may keep in touch wito the commerce of India with the view of be gathered from a paper by Lieut. T. T. Behrens, R.E., ' fostering and meeting the demand for forest products.






COMUNICATION by wireless telegraphy has just been is given as nearly 7500 million marks, and that of the established between the Australian continent and Tasmania

latter as nearly 6000 million marks. Of these, 430 million by the Marconi system.

marks are imported chemicals, including both raw and Tur foundation stone of the German Museuin für

manufactured substances, and 473 million exported Meisterwerke der Technik " is to be laid in Munich about

and manufactured chemicals ; it is noteworthy that the the middle of November, in the presence of the Emperor imported raw stuffs for the chemical industries is put of Germany,

down at nearly 300 million marks in value, and the ex

| ported at 57 million. THE Magdeburg rivic authorities have decided to pay for the erertion of a laboratory for the examination of With the view of cultivating an intelligent interest in food materials in connection with the new State bacterio- meteorological science, the council of the Royal Meteorlogical laboratory which is shortly to be built.

ological Society appointed the assistant-secretary of the The income of the jubilee fund founded in Heidelberg in

society, Mr. W. Marriott, last year to act in cooperation 1886, and to be awarded to teachers in the university in

with scientific societies, institutions, and schools as recognition of their scientific work, has been divided be

lecturer on meteorological subjects. The experiment has tween l'ruf. Fr. Pockels, professor of physics, and Prof. A.

proved so successful that it is being continued, and a list Klages professor of chemistry, to enable the latter to

of lectures for the coming lecture season has just been

issued. Particulars can be obtained from the society, continue his investigations on optically active benzoyl der vatives.

70 Victoria Street, S.W. PROF, K, SEUBERT has retired from the International An article on hybridisation and plant breeding in the Atomic Weights Subcommittee on account of over-pressure July number of the Monthly Review, written by Mr. A. J. of work. His place will be taken by Prof. W. Ostwald, Bliss, affords a timely introduction to the subject that will so that the subcommittee will now consist of Profs. T. E. shortly attract public notice when in the course of the Thorpe, H. Moissan, W. Ostwald, and F. W. Clarke, month the third triennial conference on plant breeding will president.

be held in London under the auspices of the Royal Horti

continuous A STANDING exhibition committee is to be formed in

cultural Society. Premising that there Berlin by the Zentralverband deutscher Industrieller, act

variations and discontinuous variations, the writer proceeds ing in conjunction with the Zentralstelle für Vorbereitung

to show how variations have been produced by cultivation von Handelsverträgen and with the Bund der Industrieller.

and selection alone, as in the case of Shirley poppies, or The duties of this committee will be to collect information

more easily and rapidly by cross-fertilisation. To fix the with regard to all exhibitions of importance and to deal

type, thanks to Mendel, certain principles are being evolved with questions affecting the interests of German exhibitors,

for the guidance of the breeder. The elucidation of these both at home and abroad.

principles and other problems will be discussed at the con

ference. The article concludes with some interesting A LEGACY of 360,000 francs has been left to the French details of results already obtained and future possibilities. Academy of Sciences and a few other institutes under the will of the late Baron de Rey. To the Academy

IN their thirty-fourth annual report (for

1905) the itsell is bequcathed the sum of 150,000 francs, from the directors of the Philadelphia Zoological Society state that interest on which there is to be offered quinquennially a they are considering a plan for lectures on animals to be prize of 20,000 francs to the French investigators who, in

given in the gardens at such times as they are the opinion of the Academy, have best contributed to the frequented by children. Special attention is directed to the progress of physical science.

valuable results attained by the introduction of a patho

logical laboratory. 'No monkey is now placed upon Pupils and friends of the late Prof. August Kekulé, who

exhibition unless it has successfully passed the tuberculin died in 1890, have handed over to the University of Bonn

test, and it is hoped that by the employment of every a sum of 31,500 marks, the yearly interest on which is

practicable measure of prevention within the building, into be given to a young investigator of the exact sciences, cluding prohibition of feeding by visitors, the occurrence more especially chemistry and physics, on July 13 of eac;

of tuberculosis in these susceptible animals may be brought year, the anniversary of Kekulé's death. The first pay

under control. A temporary result of the rigid system ment is to be made after the relatives of the deceased

which has been put in practice is that the collection in chemist have no further claim on the income of the fund

the Monkey House is less complete than is usually the as arranged.

Of those procured a considerable number failed Tue Deutscher Verein für öffentliche Gesundheitspflege to pass the tests and have not got beyond the quarantinewill hold the annual general meeting this year on Sep- room. tember 12

in Augsburg immediately before the beginning of the meeting of the Deutsche Naturforscher

In a paper on additions to the exhibited series of fossil

vertebrates in the U.S. National Museum, published in the und Aerzte in Stuttgart which begins on September 16. The subjects to be proposed for discussion include :-(1) Pre

Proceedings (No. 1460) of that institution, Mr. C. W. cautions against hydrophobia, (2) the milk supplies of

Gilmore figures another specimen of a pterodactyle from

Eichstatt showing the impressions of the wing-membranes, towns, with special reference to the milk supplies f

and also the skull of a new horned dinosaur of the genus young children, (3) invalid homes, (4) the dust plague in

Triceratops. Japanese fishes form the subject of a paper the house and on the streets, (5) the hygiene of small

in the same serial (No. 1462) by Messrs. Jordan and houses.

Starks, while in No. 1464 the former writer reviews the 1x No. 55 of the Chemiker Zeitung will be found some sand-lances (Ammodytidæ) of Japan, and in No. 1470 he interesting details of the imports and exports of Germany describes, in conjunction with Mr. R. C. McGregor, a for the year 1965; the estimated total value of the former new threadfin-fish of the genus Polydactylus from Japan.


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Dr. Stejneger in No. 1471 describes a new tree-frog (Hyla) be more suitable for cultivation than Hevea in parts of the from Costa Rica; East African birds, by Mr. H. C. West Indies, considerable interest attaches to the preOberholser, form the subject of No. 1469 ; while in No. liminary results outlined in the West Indian Bulletin (vol. 1472 Mr. E. S. Miller discusses mammals from Engano vii., part i.) by Mr. J. C. Moore for St. Lucia and Mr. Island, off Sumatra. Certain American moths are de- J. Jones for Dominica. A variation in the semi-circumscribed in Nos. 1463 and 1465 by Mr. A. Busck.

ferential method of tapping is described, where, instead In a paper contributed to part iii. of vol. xxv. of of a continuous cut, a series of incisions are made with a Gegenbaur's Morphologisches Jahrbuch, Mr. J. E. V. Boas chisel. Castilloa is found to thrive on land suited to cacao, makes the startling announcement that a pleural cavity

and may be grown on a shade tree for cacao; it possesses is absent in the Indian elephant. The author believes the

the further advantage of being able to withstand severe feature to be constant, and that it will be found to hold good also for the African elephant, in which case we shall It is interesting to note how the trade of each of the have a feature distinguishing the group from all other West Indian Islands possesses its own special features. mammals. This paper is followed by one by Prof. G. Dr. F. Watts reviews the changes that have occurred in Ruge on the shape of the thoracic cavity in the Indian the agricultural industries of Montserrat in the West elephant, and the relations thereto of the lungs. In a Indian Bulletin, vol. vii., No. 1, of which the most third paper Mr. A. Rauber contrasts the skull of Immanuel prominent facts are the decadence of the sugar industry Kant with that of a member of the Neanderthal race. А and the marked fluctations in the production of lime und striking difference between the two crania is to be found lime-juice. The raising of cattle and stock for export in the extreme brachycephalism of the one and the equally shows a steady increase, and a papain industry has been marked dolichocephalism of the other. If it be suggested developed, which, however, is threatened by competitive that the shortness of the savant's skull was due to inherit- production in the East. Cotton is regarded by Dr. Watts ance—from his ancestors in Scotland and Nürnberg—this as the most hopeful industry for the future, but the peasant is merely evading the main question, namely, When did the population has not, so far, taken to the cultivation. la first brachycephalic man appear? It is noteworthy that if the course of another article, Dr. Watts outlines the deKant's skull be plotted on the dolichocephalic lines of that velopment of the cotton industry in the Leeward Islands of the Neanderthaler, and the Neanderthaler's cranium since 1900, the greatest changes having been effected drawn on the brachycephalic proportions of that of Kant, thereby in Nevis and Anguilla. the normals from a line connecting the “ ophrion" with

The completion of the Simplon Tunnel, 12} miles in the basion” will be very nearly the same in both cases.

length, at a cost of 3,100,000l., and at an average rate of The Bio-Chemical Journal for June (i., Nos. 6 and 7) two miles a year, has induced Mr. Lewis M. Haupt to contains several interesting papers. Prof. Moore and publish in the Journal of the Franklin Institute (vol. clxi., Messrs. Alexander, Kelly, and Roaf show that the secretion No. 6) some comparative notes on other great tunnels. of gastric hydrochloric acid is very sensitive to any The Hoosac Tunnel, Massachusetts, five miles in length, variation in general health of the body, any enfeeblement was begun in 1854 and completed in 1876, with an average leading to decreased percentage of the acid. This reduction progress of 5.5 feet per day. The Mont Cenis Tunnel, in acid-secreting power is much more marked in cancer eight miles in length, was begun in 1857 and completed than in any other condition. Prof. Moore and Mr. Wilson in 1871, with an average progress of 8 feet per day. The contribute a paper on a clinical method of hæmalkalimetry Sutro Tunnel, Nevada, four miles in length, was begun which seems to be a distinct advance on previous ones. in 1869 and completed in 1878, with an average progress

The longevity of Bacillus typhosus in natural waters of 10:24 feet per day. The St. Gothard Tunnel (1872and in sewage forms the subject of an important paper by 1881), 9} miles in length, was driven at the rate of Messrs. H. L. Russell and C. A. Fuller (Journ. of In- 14.6 feet per day. The Arlberg Tunnel (1880-1884), 6-38 fectious Diseases, Supp. No. 2, February,

p. 40). miles in length, was driven at the rate of 27.8 feet per Permeable sacs of celloidin, parchment, and agar were

day. employed to imprison the typhoid organisms while exposed The third number of Concrete and Constructional to the influence of water and sewage bacteria. When

Engineering (July) shows a marked improvement on the B. typhosus was exposed to the action of flowing lake

previous issues. The principal articles dea

with rewater (Mendota), the longevity of the organism ranged inforced concrete in France, reinforced concrete bridges, from eight to ten days; when exposed directly to the steel and concrete buildings in Scotland, reinforced action of sewage bacteria, its longevity was reduced to

concrete water mains, the theory of reinforced concrete, three to five days.

and hollow concrete blocks. The illustrations are excel. IN Bulletin No. 104 of the Agricultural Experiment lent, and the articles are written by recognised authori. Station, Morgantown, West Virginia, Mr. J. L. Sheldon ties. An editorial note deals with the need for interwrites on the ripe rot or mummy disease of guavas,

national standards in respect to reinforced concrete, and ascribed to the fungus Glomerella psidii. Brown spots

suggests that the International Association for Testing appear on the ripening fruits causing them to shrivel, Materials should form a committee to collect international whence the term mummy disease; if not identical with data. There is also a portrait and obituary notice of the the bitter rot of apples it is very similar, and it was found octogenarian Joseph Monier, who died in Paris on possible to inoculate apples with the fungus. Delacroix March 13 last, almost unknown, almost forgotten, and in assigned the fungus to the genus Glæoosperium, but on unfortunate circumstances, yet credit will always be due to account of the ascigerous stage observed by Mr. Sheldon

him as the inventor of reinforced concrete. he refers it to the genus Glomerella.

The blackening of rocks in rivers has of late received EXPERIMENTS on the tapping and preparation of rubber some attention from geologists. Mr. A. Lucas, chief from Castilloa trees are in a less advanced stage than chemist to the Geological Survey in Cairo, sends us a experiments with Hevea latex. As Castilloa promises to paper on the blackened rocks of the Nile Cataract (National

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Printing Department, Cairo, 1905; for the Ministry of pewter was used by goldsmiths to take castings of certain Finance). The dark outer film is similar to that well articles. Benvenuto Cellini is said to have used it for this recognised as a characteristic of stones in deserts. The purpose in connection with his work. It appears from Mr. desert-film has been examined separately, and Mr. Lucas Cooke's article that dealers nowadays, to enhance the value agrees with Walther that the colour is much the darker of their wares, often point to the small marks in shields of the more the silica content of the rock." The depth of a lion rampant or a leopard's head crowned, and describe colour is dependent upon the amount of black oxide of articles bearing these as “silver pewter.” But such marks manganese in the film, and this is conditioned first by the indicate no special value in the metal, and except for the manganese content of the rock, and secondly by the oppor- infinitesimal quantity that there may be in the lead emtunities presented for the manganese salts to be brought to ployed, it is safe to assume that old pewter contains no

silver. the surface and oxidised.” “A hot climate and a small rainfall are necessary to the formation and preservation of the film.” In regard to the river-film, it is noted that

In a paper on the rapid measurement of geodesical bases

published in part i. of the Bulletin of the French Physical certain incised stones at the First Cataract are equally

Society, Dr. C. E. Guillaume gives details of the construcblack on their surface and in the hollows of the inscrip

tion and use of the standards and measuring wires referred tions. Silica is one of the minor constituents of the river

to in his article on invar (NATURE, vol. lxxi., p. 138). An film, but is absent from the desert-film. Mr. Lucas, after

account is given, in particular, of the rapid, direct measurediscussing previous literature and his own analyses, con

ment of base lines by means of stretched wires of invariable cludes that the river-film arises from material in the rocks

length. This process is extremely rapid as compared with themselves, as in the case of the analogous desert-film.

older methods; good country, ten or twelve men can Dr. W. F. Hume contributes a description of the microscopic characters of the rocks examined, with the general

measure up 5 to 6 kilometres per day, whereas with a

bimetallic scale fifty men are required, and the distance result that no connection can be established between the

covered per day does not exceed 400 metres. Formerly the surface-film and any special decomposition in the outer

number of bases directly measured was kept as small as layers.

possible, nearly all the values being obtained by trianguTHE June number of the National Geographic Magazine lation. The use of these measuring wires of invariable contains an account of a visit to Vesuvius after the erup- length affords a means of controlling the older data, and tion of April 8. The account is illustrated by a number will change the character of future surveys by increasing

the number of direct data at the expense of those obtained by triangulation.

The third volume of the contributions from the Jefferson Physical Laboratory of Harvard University for the year 1905 has been received. The previous volumes

described at some length in NATURE for March 1 last (vol. Ixxiii., p. 427). The results of the investigations published in the present volume were obtained largely by the aid of the Thomas Jefferson Coolidge fund for original research. Nine of the twelve papers have already appeared in the Proceedings of the American Academy, and most of the contribu

tions have been dealt with already Fig. 1.–The new cone of Vesuvius from the road to the observatory, covered with white volcanic ash. in notes published in these columns. From the National Geographic Magasine.

The Electrician Printing and Pubof reproductions from photographs, of which we reproduce i lishing Company, Ltd., is issuing a series of on showing the aspect of the cone after the eruption. Electrician primers at 3d. each, post free. A complete The scoring of the slope of the cone is due to slipping of list of the primers will be sent on application. From an the loose ashes, not to stream action.

examination of specimens dealing with thermopiles,

Röntgen rays and radiography, intluence machines, the The current number of the Home Counties Magazine

induction coil, the magnetic properties of iron and eleccontains an interesting article on old pewter by Mr. H. M.

trical units, it is clear that the series will prove of service Cooke. In a broad sense pewter is composed of tin alloyed

to technical students. in varying quantities with antimony and copper ; lead, bomuth, and zinc are sometimes also employed. The Tue édition de luxe of the Great Eastern Railway Comvarirty and constant change of colour are due to the pany's handbook, Summer Holidays," by Mr. Percy difference of alloys and to atmospheric influence. The Lindley, is provided with an excellent series of facsimiles colour is in some measure dependent on the surface being of water-colour drawings of places of interest in the eastern Quod. As a domestic article, pewter succeeded wood, and counties. In addition to the illustrations in colour, the pen was used almost universally until carthenware became and ink drawings, the letterpress, the list of golf links, cheap. It did not come into general domestic use until and other inforınation provided, combine to make the publithe seventeenth century. On account of its fusibility cation a useful holiday guide.




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