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9. All Europe had shuddered at the atrocious and prolonged cruelty with which Damiens, who had attempted the life of Louis in 1757, was executed.

10. The proud spirit of Charles could not submit to a rigour that had never been exercised against any of his predecessors.

11. The future proceedings of the parliament, if a fanatical junto entirely under the direction of the army can deserve that honourable name, were worthy of the members who composed it.

12. But while this monarch persecuted the French Protestants, in opposition to all the principles of humanity and sound policy, he was no dupe to the Court of Rome.



The learner is to write sentences constructed like the following models :


[Subject qualified-passive proposition-time-place


Examples. 1. This beautiful nosegay was bought in Covent Garden yesterday afternoon by my brother.

2. The art of printing was invented in Germany, about the year 1445, by Guttemberg of Mainz.

3. A great sensation was produced in the House of Commons last night, by the speech of a new member.


[A passive, followed by an active proposition (a consequence of the former), the two connected by the' or 'such,' and 'that.']

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Examples. 1. The king was so displeased at this conduct of the parliament, that he refused positively to give his consent to the Bill.

2. The town was defended with such vigour by the inhabitants, that the hostile army soon abandoned the enterprise in despair.

3. Their cause was pleaded so eloquently by the advocate, that the prisoners felt sure of their immediate acquittal.


[Principal subject (inserted complementary explanatory proposition), principal copula and predicate conjunctions, second proposition (subject understood), complement, &c.]

Examples. 1. The young marquis, who had been entered at King's College, Cambridge, was seized with the smallpox, and died at the early age of sixteen.

2. This terrible disaster, which filled the whole nation with alarm, was after all productive of no serious consequences, and served but to render the government more on the alert for the future.

3. The war, which had been protracted to an unusual length, languished for a few years longer, and was at length brought to a close by the Treaty of Westphalia.


The following models are to be imitated in sentences of the pupil's construction :


[An impersonal passive form, beginning with “it' or there; '--the conjunction that,' followed by a second proposition (subject expressed).]

Examples. 1. It has been often remarked, that there is generally a wide difference between the principles and the practice even of the best men.

2. There is no doubt that the adoption of this plan would have eventually secured success.

3. It is of the greatest importance that we contract our desires to our condition ; and, whatever may be

l our expectations, that we should live within the compass of what we actually possess.


[Two propositions connected by the conjunction 'and,' the second being a consequence of the first, and having a different subject.]

Examples. 1. The Marquis of Newcastle, by his extensive influence, had raised a considerable force for the king, and high hopes were entertained of success, from the known loyalty and abilities of that nobleman.

2. Fears were now entertained for the safety of the party, and an expedition was fitted out at the expense

of government, to go in search of the missing navigators.

3. The Spanish commerce, so profitable to England, was cut off, and a great number of vessels fell into the hands of the enemy.


[1. An introductory proposition (a concession); 2. a second proposition (an opinion).]

Examples. 1. Though it would be folly to deny the great talent which the writer has displayed in this work, I am still of opinion that he has utterly failed to establish his theory.

2. However great may be the difficulties to be encountered in this undertaking, you may rest assured that they are not insuperable.

3. Whatever opinion we may entertain of the power of his intellect, no one will venture to assert that he has a strong claim on our respect on the score of his morality.




[Subject—inserted relative clause-copula and predicate, complement;—a second proposition expressing intention, coupled to the first by the words that,' or in order that.']

Examples. 1. The people, who had long been clamouring for war, organised meetings in all parts of the country, in order that the public opinion might be clearly expressed upon the subject.

2. The magistrate, who had a strong suspicion of the prisoner's guilt, deferred the examination till the next day, that the police might have more time to collect evidence against him.

3. The minister, who had received secret information of the plot during the night, commanded that the houses of the principal conspirators should be watched, in order that their persons should be arrested on the first opportunity.


[Two propositions, the second being an inference drawn from the first, each having an adjective of the comparative form, preceded by the.']


Examples. 1. The more we allow indolence to take possession of the soul, the more likely are we to fall into innumerable vices.

2. The older we grow, the more anxiously should we endeavour to fulfil our duties.

3. The longer he remains in such depraved society, the more contaminated will he become, and the less able to rid himself of these pernicious habits.


[The antithetical sentence. Two propositions, the second of which is in contrast with the first.]

Examples. 1. The brighter hues of colours represent cheerful states of the mind; whilst the graver or more serious

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