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address to the Archbishop of Canterbury, signed by about 7,000 of the Clergy; whilst on the part of the laity another, mainly drawn up by Mr. Joshua Watson, was presented to the Archbishop in February, 1834, containing a declaration of attachment to the Church, and signed by upwards of 230,000 heads of families. From these two addresses may be dated the turn of the tide which had threatened to overwhelm the Church. The leading mind in the new movement was undoubtedly Newman, although he tells us he had no idea of heading a party. He himself calls Mr. Keble "the true and primary author of the movement.” “Having carried off as a mere boy the highest honours of the University, he had turned from the admiration which haunted his steps, and sought for a better and holier satisfaction in pastoral work in the country. Need I say that I am speaking of John Kebleo?” Wits of the day tried to fix upon the new movement the title of Newmania. Dr. Pusey was not fully associated with it till 1835 and 1836, when he published his Tract on Baptism, and started the Library of the Fathers. “I had known him well,” says Newman, “since 1827—1828, and felt for him an enthusiastic admiration; I used to call him ‘ó péryas.' Great was my joy when in the last days of 1833 he showed a disposition to make common cause with us.” The party after Pusey was

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associated with it obtained the name of "Puseyites." “My name," writes Dr. Pusey P, "was first used to designate those of us who gave themselves to revive the teaching of forgotten truth and piety, because I first had occasion to write fully on Baptismal Regeneration. But it was used by opponents and not by confederates."

The declarations of attachment to the Church found an echo at Court, and in May, 1834, King William IV. took occasion to address to the Bishops assembled on the anniversary of his birthday, a declaration of devotion to the Church, and his firm resolution to maintain its doctrines: “I have been by the circumstances of my life and by conviction led to support toleration to the utmost extent of which it is capable ; but toleration must not be suffered to go into licentiousness. ... It was for the defence of the Religion of this country that was made the settlement of the Crown which has placed me in the situation which I now fill; and that religion and the Church of England and Ireland it is my fixed purpose, determination, and resolution to maintain.”

p Eirenicon, Part III.



THE first of those Tracts for the Times

, from which

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the name “Tractarians” was given to the new party, appeared on September 9, 1833, exactly two months after Newman's return to England. The principal contributors were Newman, Pusey, Keble, all of them Oriel men, and Isaac Williams, Fellow of Trinity“. We learn their object from the first Tract, “Thoughts on the Ministerial Commission." It is addressed to the Clergy, and commences thus : “I am but one of yourselves, a Presbyter, and therefore I conceal my name, lest I should take too much on myself by speaking in my own person. Yet speak I must; for the times are very evil, yet no one speaks against them. .... Now let me come at once to the subject which leads me to address you. Should the government and country so far forget their God as to cast off the Church, to deprive it of its temporal honours and substance, on what will you rest the claim of respect and attention which you make upon your flocks?” The writer then proceeds to answer

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• The Tracts contributed by Newman were 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 19, 20, 21, 34, 38, 41, 45, 47, 71, 73, 75, 79, 82, 83, 85, 88, 90.

the question : “The Lord Jesus Christ gave His Spirit to His Apostles; they in turn laid their hands on those who should succeed them; and these again on others; and so the sacred gist has been handed down to our present Bishops, who have appointed us as their assistants, and in some sense representatives.

Every one of us believes this ... for it is the doctrine of the Ordination Service.... Whence does the Bishop derive his right? ... He could not give what he had never received. It is plain that he but transmits; and that the Christian ministry is a succession. ... This is a plain historical fact; and therefore all we, who have been ordained Clergy, in the very form of our Ordination acknowledged the Doctrine of the Apostolical Succession. ... A notion has gone abroad that they can take away your power.... They think it lies in the Church property, and they know that they have politically the power to confiscate that property. . . . Enlighten them in this matter. Exalt our Holy Fathers, the Bishops, as the representatives of the Apostles, and the Angels of the Churches; and magnify your office, as being ordained by them to take part in their ministry b." This is the great centre doctrine on which all others hinge. This doctrine, which has been handed down to us from the Reformation (the Tracts go on to tell us), “ although forgotten by us for the last fifty years, is the only ground on which we can boldly meet Romanism and Dissent, which are the places of refuge of those whom the Church stints of the means of Grace, the foster-mother of her abandoned children. The neglect of the daily service; the desecration of festivals ; infrequent Communions, and like deficiencies; as they lead on the one hand the feverish mind, desirous of a vent to its feelings, to Prayer and Bible meetings, lead others to the captivating Services by which Rome gains her proselytes.”

b Tract No. 1.

During the early part of the movement nothing could be stronger than the language of the Tractwriters, one and all, against Rome. We must deal with her,” says Mr. Newmanç, “as we should towards a friend who is visited by derangement; for in truth she is a Church beside herself, abounding in noble gifts and rightful titles, but unable to use them religiously; crafty, obstinate, wilful, malicious, cruel, unnatural, as madmen are. Or rather, she may be said to resemble a demoniac; ... the system itself, so called, as a whole, and therefore all parts of it, tend to evila."

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• Lectures on the Prophetical Office of the Church.

• Compare the following Tracts : Tract 7, Popery Incurable ; 73, A falling off ; 7, Pestilential ; 15, 64, Malicious and Cruel ; 75, Rebellious ; 1, 67, 72, Tyrannical ; 64, An insanity, an evil spirit ; 3, 7, 8, 20, Heretical ; 7, 14, 28, 50, 66, 84, 88, Irrecon

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