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OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
THE SANITARY CONGRESS AT BRISTOL. REDISCOVERY OF Finlay's Comet (1906d).—A telegram from the Kiel Centralstelle announces the rediscovery of
THE twenty-third Congress of the Royal Sanitary Insti
was held at Bristol during the week ending Finlay's comet by Herr Kopf on July 16. The position July 14. Sir Edward Fry presided. The proceedings of of the comet at 13h. 14:4m. (Königstuhl M.T.) on that
the congress comprised the usual general meetings; meetdate was :
ings in three sections, (1) sanitary science and preventive R.A. = 23h. 38.3m., dec. = 14° 3' S.
medicine, (2) engineering and architecture, (3) physics, The object is stated to be a bright one. Subjoined is
chemistry, and biology; and meetings of conferences of an extract from the approximate ephemeris published by
various classes of persons interested in sanitary science. Herr Schulhof
This year there were conferences of municipal represent. in No. 4100 of the Astronomische Nachrichten :
atives, under the presidency of Councillor Colston Winile,
chairman of the health committee of the City of Bristol, 12h. M.T. Paris.
who took a prominent part in the proceedings of the con1906 a (true) & (true)
loga gress ; of medical officers of health, under Dr. D. S. Davies, h. July 16
medical officer of health, Bristol ; of engineers and surveyors 23 44 - 13 7 9'5443 18 2 : 57
to county and other sanitary authorities, under Mr. H. - I2 JO 9-5254 20
Percy Boulnois, of the Local Government Board; of 011
veterinary inspectors, under Mr. Frank Leigh ; of sanitary
inspectors, under Mr. A. E. Hudson, chief sanitary in-
spector, Cheltenham ; of women on hygiene, under Miss 28
Mary Clifford, in the absence of the Duchess of Beaufort ;
and also a conference on the hygiene of school life, under 30
94376 Aug. 1
the presidency of the Bishop of Hereford.
In the presidential address to the congress on Monday, A comparison of the observed and computed places on
July 9, Sir Edward Fry dealt clearly and concisely with July 16 will give an approximate value for the corrections
the general history of sanitary works and the regulation of to be applied to the ephemeris positions. When redis
public health. After pointing out the increase of duties and covered, the comet about degree north of
responsibilities which had devolved upon the heads of w Aquarii ; at present (July 19) it is presumably about five modern households and upon local authorities in consedegrees north of Ceti, and is travelling in a north
quence of the recent developments of sanitary science, he easterly direction, so that it now rises above the south- referred in turn to the sanitary ordinances of the Greeks, east horizon at about 11.30 p.m.
the Jews, and the Romans up to the disappearance of all The Orbit Of Castor.–An interesting paper on the
thought of sanitary science in the ruin of the Western quadruple system of Castor, by Dr. H. D. Curtis, appears ject in Great Britain since the middle of last century.
Empire. Finally, he referred to the legislation on the subin No. 5, vol. xxiii., of the Astrophysical Journal. The discussion is based on the results obtained from a
Sir W. J. Collins, president of Section 1., sanitary science number of spectrograms, of each of the two double systems,
and preventive medicine, was detained in London by urgent taken with the Mills spectrograph at the Lick Observatory.
parliamentary duties, and the address was read by Dr. For the fainter component, an of the visual system, the
Shingleton Smith. It protested against the too exclusive final elements deduced give the period as 2.928285 days,
consideration of bacteriology, and appealed for greater the eccentricity as 0.01 +0.0066, and the velocity of the
attention to be paid to the soil in which bacteria are system as -0.98 +0.15 km. The comparison of these
implanted, and upon which they depend for their developelements with the observational results shows a satisfactory
ment, In Section II., engineering and architecture, the agreement. Reducing the observational results for the
president, Mr. Edwin T. Hall, referred to a number of brighter component, Q,, Dr. Curtis obtained a final set of points in which the architect could assist the promotion of elements which give the period as 9.218826 days, the eccen
sanitation by the design of buildings. Dr. W. N. Shaw, tricity as 0.5033 + 0.0112, and the velocity of the system as
president of Section III., physics, chemistry, and biology, +6.20 +0.17 km.
took for his subject climate and health. After referring to Combining these results with those obtained for the
the work of Sir Arthur Mitchell, Dr, Buchan, and Dr. visual system, it should become possible to obtain values
Longstaff, he indicated the climatological material available for the parallax, masses, and other physical constants of
for the study of questions upon the relation of health to this remarkable quadruple system, but the visual results,
climate, and discussed the methods of using it. In the as shown in a table given by Dr. Curtis, are as yet so
course of the address he showed a meteorological section indeterminate that any values so obtained could not be
of the British Isles from north to south, Sumburgh Head as being in any
to Hastings, and another from west to east, Valencia to
way final. The relative velocity of the two components as derived from Dr. Curtis's
Margate. He also exhibited some interesting diagrams of discussion is 7.14 +0.23 km., and, taking Prof. Doberck's
the average diurnal variation of relative humidity for certain
selected period of 347 vears for the visual system, this would
months four observatories in the United indicate a parallax of o".05. On a similar assumption the
Kingdom, and some autographic records of the same semi-major axes of the two systems are as follow :
element at Cambridge, showing remarkable Auctuations of
humidity within the period of twenty-four hours. a, Geminorum, a=1,435.000 km.
The subjects of the addresses at the various conferences ag a=1,667,000
and of the papers and discussions were for the most part Although these results are
of a technical character. Questions concerning milk supply mere hvpotheses, they give and its regulation were raised in Section 1. by Dr. J. some idea of the magnitude of each systein, and show that
Fortescue-Brickdale and by Mrs. C. Hamer Jackson, at they are probably of about the same dimensions.
the conference of medical officers of health by Prof. H. PLANETS AND PLANETARY OBSERVATONS.-In the first of Kenwood, and at the conference of veterinary inspectors a series of articles on “ Planets and Planetary Observ- by Dr. W. G. Savage and by Mr. J. S. Lloyd. The qupsation which he is contributing to the Observatory, Mr. tion of dust, particularly of motor dust, also came up in Denning discusses the general problems to be attacked various forms. In the conference of engineers it was raised and also the instrumental equipment necessary for the work. by a paper by Mr. A. P. I. Cotterell, and in Section III. After discussing the relative merits of refractors and re- the influence of dust on hralth was a subject of discussion flectors, he points out that no amateur observer should be opened by Dr. P. Boobhver. Of the suggestions made for discouraged because he possesses only a relatively small dealing with the question, some of them could only be instrument, and states that none of the largest telescopes, called fantastic. The discussion of various aspects of the yet employed in this branch of astronomy shows anything : barterial treatment of sewage also found a place in several beyond what is readily distinguishable in an 8-inch glass. | sections or conferences. The necessity for the extension of
employment of women as health visitors or in other ways type, but possess that of the Iranians. At any rate, if we in connection with the carrying out of provisions for public put the Brâhùis out of consideration for the present, it is health also appeared on more than one occasion.
better to name the ethnic type Mundâ-Dravidian," i.e. Subjects to be treated from the more specially scientific the type common to the people known as Mundâs and to standpoint fall, as a rule, to Section I., sanitary science the people known as South-Indian Dravidians. The and preventive medicine, or to Section III., physics, chem- type is almost certainly a mixed one. Judging from the istry, and biology. In the former, Fleet-Surgeon Bassett- fact that all Mundâs possess it, and that it is not possessed Smith suggested various ways in which disease might be by all Dravidians (witness the Brâhûîs), the probability is disseminated in a paper on present knowledge of the that the Mundâ-Dravidian ethnic type belongs mainly to etiology of Mediterranean fever, with special reference to the Mundâs, and has been acquired through intermarriage the Royal Navy. The other papers were by Dr. R. S. by Dravidians originally endowed with a less persistent Marsden, on scarlatina and certain other diseases in rela- type. tion to temperature and rainfall; by Dr. J. Fletcher, on When the Aryans entered India they found it inhabited post-scarlatina diphtheria and its prevention ; and by Dr. by people of the Mundâ-Dravidian type. The Aryans were F. T. Bond, on some points of interest in the treatment of the more highly civilised, but as they migrated further and outbreaks of diphtheria. In Section III., besides the dis- further into the country they intermarried with the people, cussion on the influence of dust, may be mentioned a paper
and themselves commenced to acquire their physical by Prof. M. Travers, F.R.S., on the absorption of gases characteristics while they retained their own language and in solids, which showed how, following the analogy of the customs, which they in turn imposed upon the Munda
We see traces absorption of carbonic anhydride by carbon, the absorption Dravidas with whom they came in contact. of water vapour by wool and by cotton varied with the of the same interchange occurring even at the present day pressure of the vapour up to saturation point, and also between the Dravidians and the Mundâs. The Naháls of how the absorption of water vapour by cotton at the same
the Mahâdeo Hills were once a Mundâ tribe. They came pressure diminished with increase of temperature.
into contact with the relatively more civilised Dravidians, Mr. J. H. Johnston described some experiments upon the
and adopted a mixed speech in which Dravidian predetermination of the amount of organic colloids in sewage dominated. Nowadays this tribe is coming under Aryan and their partial removal by surface action. Mr. J. W.
influence, and is adopting an Aryan language. Lovibond sought for a more precise chemical definition of It is impossible to say whether the Mundâs or the "pure beer," and indicated the use of his tintometer to Dravidians, or both, were aborigines of India or not. identify the quality of beers. Dr. Rideal described the Assuming that the Dravidians were immigrants, the probeffect of copper sulphate in preventing the growth of algae ability is that they entered the country from the south, and in water supplies, and proposed the use of electrolytic not from the north-west, as was maintained by Caldwell chlorine for the purpose. The other papers were of a
and others. Relationship has been alleged, with some technical character.
appearance of truth, between the Dravidian languages and In an evening lecture Prof. Lloyd Morgan set forth very
those of New Guinea and Australia. This subject has not clearly the distinction to be drawn between the deterioration yet been thoroughly gone into, and is at present under of the individuals composing a race and the degeneration examination, but the above seems, to be the conclusion of the stock, and dealt with the bearing of the theory of which will most probably be reached. evolution upon the question of degeneration. A popular
As for the Mundâs, if they were immigrants, they must evening lecture was also given by Baillie Anderson, of certainly have entered India proper from the north-east. Glasgow, on the wastage of human life.
Pater Schmidt, of Vienna, who attacked the question from Ample provision was made for the entertainment of those without, and the Linguistic Survey of India, which has attending the congress by visits to works and institutions approached it from within, have arrived at the same result. in the neighbourhood, as well as by garden-parties or
There was once a race spread widely over Further India of excursions to the numerous places of interest in the district.
which we find remains amongst the forest tribes of Malacca, The excellence of the arrangements and the smoothness of in Pegu and Indo-China, and along the Mé-kong and Middle the working were effective testimony to the admirable
Salwîn. The languages which they speak are members of organisation of the congress as carried out by a local what is known as the Môn-Khmêr family. Forms of speech committee with Councillor Colston Wintle as chairman and closely connected with Môn-Khmêr are Nicobarese, Khasi Mr. T. J. Moss-Flower as secretary, in conjunction with (spoken in the central hills of Assam), and the various the officers of the Sanitary Institute, of whom Colonel Lane Mundâ tongues of India proper. That there is an ultimate Votter is chairman of council, Mr. W. Whittaker, F.R.S.,
connection between these widely separated languages must chairman of the congress committee, and Mr. E. White- now be taken as firmly established by the latest researches Wallis secretary.
of comparative philology. The matter admits of no further doubt. But this is not the limit of the discoveries. The
languages of the Himalaya are, it is well known, TibetoMIGRATIONS INTO NEARER AND FL'RTHER Burman in character. Nevertheless, there dialects INDIA.
spoken on the southern slope of these mountains, from was philologists who first borrowed the
Kanâwar in the Punjab almost to Darjeeling, which have * Dravidian” from Sanskrit and applied it to a well
a basis similar to this old Munda - Nicobar-Môn-Khmêrknown family of languages, mostly spoken in southern
Khasi language, that has been, so to speak, overwhelmed, India, but of which an interesting member, Brâhúî, is found
but not entirely hidden, by a laver of Tibeto-Burman. far to the north-west, in Baluchistan.' In the hills of Then, on the other side, Pater Schmidt has shown an Central India, to the north of the main Dravidian group,
intimate connection between Môn-Khmêr and the languages itore is another and totally distinct family of languages
of the south-eastern Pacific, so that there is evidence to which philologists call “ Mundà."
show the existence in very early times of a people and a It happens that the speakers of the south-Indian group of speeches extending from the Punjab right across Dravidian languages and the speakers of Mundâ languages
northern India and Assam down to the extreme south of posse a common ethnic type--nose thick and broad, low
Further India and Indo-China, and thence across Indonesia, facial angle, thick lips, wide, fleshy face, low stature, figure
Melanesia, and Polynesia up to Easter Island, which is squat and sturdy, skin dark, and so on. This ethnic type
not so very far from the coast of South America. thnologists have called " Dravidian, an unfortunate piece
In India, Nearer and Further, the fate of these speeches of nomenclature, for (1) is language can ever be taken as
has been the same. In Nearer India the Mundâ languages, a criterion of race, speakers of Mundâ languages are
which were certainly once spoken in the northern plains, restainly different in racial origin from the speakers of
have been driven to the hills by Dravidians or Aryans. Dravidiin, and (2) some speakers of Dravidian languages,
In Assam and Burmah the Khasis and Môn-Khmers have the Brahuis, do not possess the so-called Dravidian ethnic
been either driven to the hills, where they survive as islands ! Extension of part of a paper on “The Languages of India and the
in a sea of alien tongues, or else to the coast of Pegu by Tinetune Survey" read before the Society of Arts on March 15 by
the Tibeto-Burmans, and in Indo-China the Môn-Khmers Dr. G. A. Grierson.
have again been driven to the sea-board by the Tais.
The earliest seat of the Tibeto-Burmans seems to have
RESEARCH IN TERRESTRIAL JAGNETISU. been the head-waters of the Yang-tse-kiang. From here they migrated in successive waves along the valleys of the THE Department of Research in Terrestrial Magnetism great rivers of eastern India, the Salwîn, the Irrawaddy, of the Carnegie Institution, if we may judge from the Chindwin, and the Brahmaputra. The first three led its report for 1905, does not intend to let the grass grow them to Burmah, which they conquered, and where they under its feet. The work it has on hand at present comfounded a comparatively stable kingdom. Down the prises, inter alia, an examination, partly theoretical, by Brahmaputra they entered Assam, peopling the river valleys | Dr. Bauer into the secular variation of terrestrial and the mountains in successive waves, failing only to i magnetism, a discussion of magnetic disturbances observer occupy the Khasi Hills. Some of those who had entered during the eruption of Mont Pelée, a general study of Burmah settled in the Chin Hills, and, finding no room for the laws of the diurnal variation, a special investigation expansion, were forced into becoming a backwash to the into magnetic storms, and a discussion of magnetic observnorth, entering Assam from the south-tribe after tribe, ations made during the eclipse of the sun on August 30, in raid after raid-until the migration was stopped by the strong arm of British authority. Other Tibeto-Burmans In some researches the cooperation of eminent foreigners went up the Brahmaputra into Tibet, which they peopled, has been
secured. The investigation into magnetic getting as far west as Baltistan and Ladakh, and also storms, for example, is being prosecuted under the diretoccupying the Himalaya between Tibet and India proper. tion of Dr. Ad. Schmidt, of Potsdam. The scheme, howIt was here that they found and partly gave their speech ever, which figures most largely on the programme for the to the Mundâ-Môn-Khmêr tribes already mentioned.
immediate future is a magnetic survey of the North Pacific The most recent Indo-Chinese immigration was that of Ocean. Arrangements have been made for observations in the Tais. They first appear in history in Yunnan, and countries adjacent to it, e.g. China, and a wooden sailing thence they began to occupy Upper Burmah some vessel, the brig Galilee, has been specially adapted for thousand years ago. A great wave of immigration occurred work at sea. The brig, of which a general idea will be in the sixth century A.D. Not only did they effectively conquer Upper Burmah, but they invaded Assam. They peopled the Shan States, and in the fourteenth century established themselves in the delta of the Mé-nam, driving the Môn-Khmêrs before them so as to form a Tai wedge between those of Tenasserim and those of Cambodia. This was the foundation of the Tai (or Thai) kingdom of Siam. At the present day the Tais are represented in British India by the Shans, the Khamtis, and other tribes of north Burmah and Assam.
A few words may be devoted to the latest great migration into India proper, that of the Aryans from the north-west. We cannot tell when this commenced. All that we can say is that parts of their earliest literary record, the Vêda, which was composed in the Punjab, have been considered by competent scholars to date from so far back as B.c. 2000, while others date them a thousand years later. The main line of approach was over the most western passes of the Hindu Kush, and along the valley of the Kabul River into the Punjab. Thence they spread over northern India. The entry into the Punjab was a very gradual one, extending over centuries. When the latest comers arrived they found that the language and the customs of their earliest predecessors had developed to such an extent that the former was unintelligible, and the latter were unsympathetic to them. This is
Fig. 1.-The Galile. reflected in the condition of the Aryan languages of India from the earliest times to the present day. There obtained from the picture here reproduced, is of about have always been two sharply differentiated groups of 600 tons, and carries a crew of eleven in addition to Indo-Aryan languages, one representing the speech of the magnetic observers. The bridge shown between the masts earliest invaders, and the other that of the latest, while is intended to supply a specially favourable site for mag. between the two there is a band of intermediate forms netic observations. The vessei has already made preof speech which can be referred to the dialects spoken by liminary trips which are considered satisfactory. those who were neither first nor last.
The survey of the Pacific is primarily intended to furnish Some Aryan hordes entered the western Punjab from the data for researches in which Dr. Bauer is interested, but Pamirs directly to the north. Most of these settled en route the results should also be of immediate practical use in in the country round Gilgit, Kashmir, Chitral, and in the improvement of charts. In addition to terrestrial Kâfiristân. Here the inhospitable character of the moun- magnetism, the department is providing for work in atmotains in which they took up their abode, and their own spheric electricity, and cooperation is intended with the savage nature, hindered communication with their cousins new solar observatory of the Carnegie Institution, near Los in the plains, and their customs and language developed Angeles, in studying the correlation between solar pheni, on independent lines. The latter presents extremely archaic
and terrestrial magnetism. With the financial features. Words which were used three thousand years ago support which the department enjoys, it may look forward in India proper, and which have since fallen into disuse to an important sphere of usefulness, especially if it conin that country, have been preserved by it almost letter for i centrates its efforts, and prefers substantiality to rapidity letter. These Aryans from the Pamirs have lately been of achievement. identified with the Pisâclias or "'2uopánou, who in There are other institutions in America, e.g. the Coast later years became the subject of legend, and were looked
i Report of Department of Research in Terrestrial Magnetism, by L. A upon, in the time of Sanskrit literature, as
Bauer, Director. Extracted from the Fourth Year-book of the Carnegie demons.
Institution of Washington. (Wasbington, D.C., 1906.)
and Geodetic Survey and the Weather Bureau, the lines rupture of the earth with a relative vertical displacement of research of which, existing or proposed, do not seem along the rupture plane. Frequently small knolls or sharp wholly distinct from those indicated in the programme. little ridges are found to characterise this line, and these Even European magneticians might feel some slight un- are bounded on one side by a softened scarp and separated casines; lest a department of so novel a kind, and display- from the normal slope of the valley side by a line of deing such unusual readiness to " pay the piper," might not pression. In many cases these features have been so display a corresponding proclivity to call the tune." modified and toned down by atmospheric attack that only One can thus understand the occasion for the director's the expert eye can recognise their abnormal character ; but assurance that the general policy of the department is where their line traverses the more desert parts of the " not to supplant any existing organisation ... but rather coast range, as, for example, in the Carissa Plains, they to supplement and to cooperate in the most effective are well known to the people of the country, and the mannrr.
aggregate of the features is commonly referred to as the
This line, which can be traced from Point Arena to REPORT UPON THE CALIFORNIAN
Mount Pinos, in Ventura County, has a length of 375 EARTHQUAKE OF APRIL 18.
miles, is remarkably straight, and cuts obliquely across the
cntire breadth of the Coast Ranges. To the south of A PRELIMINARY report of the commission appointed Mount Pinos the line either bends to the eastward, follow'.
by the Governor of California on April 21 to obtaining the general curvature of the ranges, or is paralleled by information concerning the earthquake of April 18 has a similar line offset from it en echelon ; for similar features reached us. The commission includes Prof. A. C. Lawson,
are reported at the Tejon Pass, and traceable thence, State University of California, chairman; Prof. G. K.
though less continuously, across the Mojave Desert 10 Gilbert, U.S. Geological Survey; Prof. Fielding Reid, i Cajon Pass and beyond this to San Jacinto and the southJohns Hopkins University; Prof. J. C. Branner, Stanford east border of the Colorado Desert. The probability is I niversity ; Profs. A. O. Leuschner and George Davidson,
that there are two such lines, and that the main line State University ; Prof. C. Burkhalter, Chabot Observatory ; traced from Point Arena to Mount Pinos is continued with and Prof. W. W. Campbell, director of the Lick Observ
the same general straight trend past San Fernando and atory.
along the base of the remarkably even fault scarp at the The scope of the work of the commission in its pre- foot of which lies Lake Elsinore. But, leaving the southern I'minary stages embraced the questions as to the origin, extension of the line out of consideration as somewhat position, and character of the disturbance in the earth's
debatable, we have a very remarkable physiographic line crust which gave rise to the Californian earthquake. extending from Point Arena to Mount Pinos which affords Having decided upon the scope of its work, the commission
every evidence of having been in past time a rift, or line appointed three subcommittees to deal respectively with of dislocation, of the earth's crust, and of recurrent differisuseismals, coseismals, and the geophysics of the earth- ential movement along the plane of rupture. The movequake. The cooperation of the San Francisco branch of the
ments which have taken place along this line extend far American Association of Civil Engineers was secured, and back into the Quaternary period, as indicated by the major, the work of its members greatly simplified the collection well-degraded fault scarps and their associated valleys; of data.
but they have also occurred in quite recent times, as is The committee on coseismals, being concerned with the indicated by the minor and still undegraded scarps. ProbTecords of times at which the earthquake was felt, had to ably every movement on this line produced an earthquake, depend largely upon correspondence for information, and
the severity of which was proportionate to the amount of jor times automatically registered the committee is in
movement. debted to seismologists in many countries. Numerous other
The cause of these movements in general terms is that bservations were supplied by officers in the various public stresses are generated in the earth's crust which accumulate servises. The committee on isoseismals has also received
until they exceed the strength of the rocks composing the assistance from many sources.
crust, and they find a relief in a sudden rupture. This Subjuined is a summary of the chief results obtained up establishes the plane of dislocation in the first instance, and to the present.
in future movements the stresses have only to accumulate One of the remarkable features of the Coast Ranges of to the point of overcoming the friction on that plane and California is a line of peculiar geomorphic expression which any cementation that may have been effected in the intervals siends obliquely across the entire width of the moun- between movements. tinous belt from Mendocino County to Riverside County. The earthquake of April 18 was due to one of these The peculiarity of the surface features along this line lies movements. The extent of the rift upon which the movein the fact that they are not due, as nearly all the other
ment of that date took place is at the time of writing not fe of the mountains are, to atmospheric and stream fully known. It is, however, known from direct field pronion of the uplifted mass which constitutes the moun- observations that it extends certainly from the mouth of lains, but have been formed by a dislocation of the earth's Alder Creek, near Point Arena, to the vicinity of San rrust, or rather a series of such dislocations, in time past, Juan, in San Benito County, a distance of about 185 miles. with a differential movement of the parts on either side of The destruction at Petrolia and Ferndale, in Humboldt the plane of rupture. In general, this line follows a system County, indicates that the movement on the rift extended O! long, narrow valleys, or where it passes through wide at least as far as Cape Mendocino, though whether the valleys it lies close to the base of the confining hills, and rift lies inland or off-shore remains as yet a matter of these have a very straight trend ; in some places, however, inquiry. Adding the inferred extension of the movement to it pases over mountain ridges, usually, at the divide its observed extent gives us a total length of about 300 separating the ends of two valleys; it even in some cases miles. The general trend of this line is about V. 35o W., goes over a spur or shoulder of a mountain. Along this but in Sonoma and Mendocino counties it appears to have line are very commonly found abrupt changes in the normal
a slight concavity to the north-east, and if this curvature slopr of the valley sides giving rise to what are technically be maintained in its path beneath the waters of the Pacific known as scarps. These scarps have the appearance of it would pass very close to, and possibly inside of, Capes low, precipitous walls, which have been usually softened Gordo and Mendocino. Along the 185 miles of this rift ind rounded somewhat by the action of the weather. where movement has actually been observed, the displaceSmall basins ne ponds, many having no outlet, and some ment has been chiefly horizontal on a nearly vertical plane, containing saline water, are of fairly frequent occurrence, and the country to the south-west of the rist has mover! and they usually lie at the base of the small scarps. north-westerly relatively to the country on the norther Trough-like depressions also occur, bounded on both sides of the rift. By this it is not intended to imple by scarps. These troughs and basins can only be explained north-east side was passive and the south.** as due to an actual subsidence of the ground, to an in the movement. Most probably the pl, uplist of the ground on one side or the other, or on both opposite directions. The evidence of sites. The scarps similarly can only be ascribed to a the differential movement along the !
clear and unequivocal. The surface soil presents a con- miles by 50 miles in extent, the intensity varied greatly. tinuous furrow generally several feet wide with transverse There
maximum immediately on the rift line cracks which show very plainly the effort of torsion within Water pipes, conduits, and bridges crossing this line were the zone of the movement. All fences, roads, stream rent asunder. Trees were uprooted and thrown to the courses, pipe lines, dams, conduits, and property lines ground in large numbers. Some trees were snapped ofi, which cross the rift are dislocated. The amount of dislo- leaving their stumps standing, and others were split from cation varies. In several instances observed it does not
the roots up.
Buildings and other structures were in exceed 6 feet. A more common measurement is 8 feet to general violently thrown and otherwise wrecked, though 10 feet. In some cases as much as 15 feet or 16 feet of some escaped with but slight damage. Fissures opened in horizontal displacement has been observed, while in one the earth and closed again, and in one case reported a cow case a roadway was found to have been differentially moved was engulfed. A second line of maximum destruction lies 20 feet. Probably the mean value for the amount of hori- along the floor of the valley system of which the Bay of zontal displacement along the rift line is about 10 feet, and San Francisco is the most notable feature, and particularly the variations from this are due to local causes, such as
1 in the Santa Rosa and Santa Clara valleys. Santa Rosa, drag of the mantle of soil upon the rocks, or the excessive situated twenty miles from the rist, was the most severely movement of soft incoherent deposits. Besides this general shaken town in the State, and suffered the greatest disaster horizontal displacement of about 10 feet, there is observable relatively its population and extent. Healdsburg in onoma and Mendocino counties a differential vertical suffered to a nearly similar degree. San Jose, situated movement not exceeding 4 feet, so far as at present known,
thirteen miles, and Agnews, about twelve miles from the whereby the south-west side of the rist was raised relatively rift, are next in the order of severity. Stanford Universitv, to the north-east side, so as to present a low scarp facing seven miles from the rift, is probably to be placed in the the north-east. This vertical movement diminishes to the same category. All of these places are situated on thr south-east along the rift line, and in San Mateo County valley floor, and are underlain to a considerable depth by is scarcely, if at all, observable. Still farther south there loose or but slightly coherent geological formations, and are suggestions that this movement may have been in the their position strongly suggests that the earth waves 35 reverse direction, but this needs further field study.
propagated by such formations are much more destructive As a consequence of the movement, it is probable that than the waves which are propagated by the firmer and the latitudes and longitudes of all points in the Coast
highly elastic rocks of the adjoining hill lands. Ranges have been permanently changed a few feet, and One of the lessons of the earthquake which seems that the stations occupied by the Coast and Geodetic peculiarly impressive is the necessity for studying carrfully Survey in their triangulation work have been changed in the site of proposed costly public buildings where large position. It is hoped that a reoccupation of some of these
numbers of people are likely to be congregated. In so far stations by the Coast and Geodetic Survey may contribute
as possible such sites should be selected on slopes upon data to the final estimate of the amount of movement.
which sound rock foundation can be reached. It is probThe great length of the rift upon which movement has ably in large measure due to the fact of their having such occurred makes this earthquake unique. Such length
a rock foundation that the buildings of the State l'miimplies great depth of rupture, and the study of the ques- versity, at Berkeley, escaped practically uninjured. tion of depth will, it is believed, contribute much to current geophysical conceptions. The time of the beginning of the earthquake as recorded
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL in the observatory at Berkeley was 5h. 12m. 6s. a.m.,
INTELLIGENCE. Pacific standard time. The end of the shock
PROF. DOELTZ, privatdocent for metallurgy in the Berg5h. 13m. vs. a.m., the duration being im. 55. Within akademie in Klausthal, has been appointed professor of an hour of the main shock twelve minor shocks were observed by Mr. S. Albrecht, of the observatory, and their
metallurgy in the Charlottenburg Technical High School
in succession to Geheimrat Weeren, and will enter on his time accurately noted. Before 6h. 52m. p.m. of the same new duties on October 1. day thirty-one shocks were noted in addition to the main
The council of the University of Birmingham has disturbance. These minor shocks continued for many days after April 18, and in this respect the earthquake accords
approved of a scheme for the foundation of a department in behaviour with other notable earthquakes in the past.
of economic zoology, and has appointed Mr. Walter E. The minor shocks which succeed the main one are inter
Collinge the special lecturer on that subject.
By this preted generally as due to subordinate adjustments of the
arrangement, Mr. Collinge will vacate his lectureship in
zoology and comparative anatomy, and take over the new carth's crust in the tendency to reach equilibrium after the chief movement.
department at premises at present being fitted up at The destructive effects of the earthquake are in the main
55 Newhall Street. These comprise an inquiry office, distributed with reference to the line of rift. The exact
consultation room, research laboratory, and museum. limits of the area of destruction have not yet been mapped,
One of the most satisfactory features of American but it is known to extend out about twenty-five or possibly university, education is the keen interest shown by old thirty miles on either side of the rift. On the south-west
students in their respective colleges. We learn from side the greater part of this area to the north of the
Science that at the recent alumni meeting at Harvard Golden Gate lies in the Pacific. This area extends from
University it was stated that during the year graduates Eureka, in Humboldt County, to the southern extremity
had contributed about 360,310l. to the productive funds of Fresno County, a distance of about 400 miles.
of the University, and that 17,6231. had been received for Beyond this area of destructive shock the earthquake
immediate use. This sum does not include the more than was felt in its milder manifestations over a wide territory.
22,600l. that the class of one year has given to the l'ni
versity to be used Our reports to date show that it was felt in Oregon as
the corporation sees far north as Coos Bay, and on the south as far as Los
anonymous gift of 12,000l. from a graduate was also Angeles. To the east it was felt over the greater part of
announced. Another instance of the same enthusiasm 15 middle California and eastern Nevada, particularly along
shown by President Hadley's announcement at the Yale the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada. It was felt at
alumni dinner that the total of the alumni fund for the Lovelocks, and we have unconfirmed reports of its having
year amounted to 25,8471., as compared with the 10,700. been felt at Winnemucca. Far bevond the region within
announced a year ago." From our contemporary we also which it was apparent to the senses, however, the earth
learn that a fund of 30,000l., of which Mr. Carnegie con: wave was propagated both through the earth and around
tributed 15,0001., has been raised at Amherst College, and its periphery, and some of the most valuable and most
will be used to provide for the work in geology and accurate records of the disturbance which we have are
biology. Mrs. Louisa N. Bullard, too, has given Harvard those which were registered at such distant seismographic
L'niversity Medical School 10,4001. to establish a chair of stations as Washington, D.C.; Sitka, Alaska ; Potsdam, neuropathology. Germany; and Tokyo, Japan.
MR. Haldane, Secretary of State for War, distributed Within the area of destructive effects, approximately 400
the prices on July 13 to the students and nursing pro