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Roman family names: Bassus; Cotta (for cocta?); Natta; Pansa, splay foot? (pand-ĕre).

(b) Feminine: buxus, box-tree; taxus, yew.

ǎlūta, leather; ǎmita, a father's sister; ansa, a handle; antisti-ta, a priestess (ante, stăto-); ǎrista, the beard of corn; ballista, a military engine (Báλew); bēta, beet; blatta, a moth; capsa, a box (căp-ĕre?); catasta, a platform; causa, a cause; cērussa, white lead (as if knpócoσa?); charta, paper (xáprns); costa, a rib; coxa, the hip (comp. Koxwvŋ); crēta, chalk; crista, a crest; crusta, rind, shell, &c.; cucurbita, a gourd; culcita, a pillow; fossa, a ditch (födě-re); gutta, a drop; hasta, a spear; hospita, a guest; impen-sa (sc. pecunia), expense (impend-ĕre); instita, a flounce or band; jùven-ta, youth (jůvěn-); matta, a mat; mensa, a table; mēta, a cone; multa, a fine; nota, a mark (cf. § 647); noxa, hurt (noc-ēre); offen-sa, a striking against (offend-ĕre); orbita, a wheel track (orbi-); pausa, a pause (ñaveɩv); planta, the sole of the foot; porta, a gate; prætex-ta (sc. toga), a bordered robe (prætex-ĕre); prōsa (sc. oratio), prose (pro-vert-ere, cf. § 191. 2); repul-sa, a repulse (repell-ĕre); rixa, a quarrel (comp. épid-); rosa, a rose (comp. pódov); rota, a wheel; rūta, rue (comp. pvrý); sæta, a bristle; săgitta, an arrow; sec-ta, a party (secāre or seqvi?); sēmĭta, a path; sènecta, old age (sen-ec-); Sospita (epithet of Juno), Preserver; sporta, a basket (comp. σπupid-); tensa, a sacred chariot; testa, a potsherd (for tors-ta, from torre-re?); ton-sa, an oar (tund-ĕre); Vesta, hearth-goddess (comp. ur-ere, us-tum; 'Eoría); vindicta, (1) rod used in the ceremony of manumission; (2) revenge (vinděc-); vīta, life; vitta, a fillet (comp. viere); võlu-ta, a scroll in architecture (volv-ēre).

(c) Neuter: arbutum, wild strawberry; bus-tum, a tomb (comp. com-bur-ĕre); compitum, a crossroad (com-pět-ére?); cùbi-tum, the elbow (cubare); dēfrútum, must boiled down (defervere?); dic-tum, a saying (dic-ère); dorsum, a back; exta (pl.), heart, liver, &c. (for ex-sec-ta?); fa-tum, destiny (fa-ri); frětum, a sea strait; frustum, a broken piece (comp. Opavew, § 99.6); furtum, a theft (für-); lētum, death; lu-tum, mud (comp. lăv-are); lutum, a yellow dye; mentum, the chin (comp. e-minere, to project); ŏmāsum, bullock's tripe (a Gallic word); pas-sum, raisin wine (pand-ĕre, to spread out to dry); pen-sum, a task (pend-ěre, to weigh); pessum (only acc.), ground (pěd-, foot); porten-tum, a portent (portend-ère); prātum, a meadow; prosecta (pl.), parts cut off, e.g. for sacrifice (prosěcāre); pulpitum, a scaffold; punc-tum, a point (pung-ère, to prick); sæptum, a fence (sæp-ire); saxum, a rock; scortum, a whore (orig. a bide acc. to Varro; comp. cor-ium); scrūta (pl.), trash; scutum, a leather-covered shield (comp. σKUTOS); sugges-tum, a platform (suggĕr-ere); tec-tum, a house (těg-ĕre); tes-tum, a pot-lid (torrēre); vervactum, a fallow-field; virgultum, a thicket (virg-ül-a-); vō-tum, a vow (vŏv-ēre).

-us-to i. e. -to appended to a suffix in -os, -us (-or, -ur).

angus-tus, narrow (angōr-, ang-ère; comp. ayxew, to throttle); aug-us-tus, consecrated (aug-ur-); faus-tus, propitious (făvōr-); Ŏn-us-tus, laden (önés-); rōb-us-tus, strong (rōbōr-); věn-ustus, pretty (věnŭs-); větus-tus, ancient (vetés-).

-es-to

i.e. -to appended to a suffix -os or -us.

fun-es-tus, deadly (fün-us-); hon-es-tus, honourable (honō-s); intempes-tus, unseasonable (in tempos-); mod-es-tus, modest (modo-; comp.mŏd-ĕr-ā-ri); mŏl-es-tus, troublesome (exhausting, from mol-ĕre, to grind?); scel-es-tus, wicked (scělůs-).

-c-to

i.e. -to appended to the suffix -ěc, -ic.

1. Adjectives: umectus (comp. um-ōre).

2.

Substantives: car-ec-tum, reed beds (car-ec-); důmec-tum (Fest.), old for dumetum (§ 798. 2); frutec-tum (also in Col. frutetum; comp. fruticetum, § 798. 2), shrubbery (frůtěc-); sǎl-ic-tum, a willow bed (sălic-); vir-ec-tum, greenery (vir-ēre).

-en-to

1. Adjectives: cru-entus, bloody (comp. cru-or).

2. Substantives: (a) feminine: polenta, pearl barley (pollen-; comp. Táλn); plăcenta, a cake (probably from acc. of πλακοῦς).

(b) Neuter: arg-entum, silver (comp. ȧpyós, white); carpentum, a covered two-wheeled carriage; flu-entum, a stream (flu-ĕre); pilentum, a covered four-wheeled carriage; tålentum, a balance (Táλavrov); ungven-tum, ointment (ungvěn-).

So the names of towns: Agrigentum ('Aкрayavт-, nom. 'Akpάyas); Bux-entum, Boxgrove (buxo-; Пuέoevτ-, nom. Пugoûs); Grüm-entum, Hill-town? (grumo-); Laur-entum, Laurel grove? (lauro-); Tărentum (Tápas); comp. Sipontum (оûs).

-m-en-to i.e. -to appended to the suffix -měn (§ 850).

Substantives, neuter; usually derived from verbs. Many are used chiefly in the plural.

ǎli-mentum, nourishment (ǎl-ĕre); amentum, a javelin thong, (for ǎpi-mentum, a fitting? comp. ap-tus, anтew); argu-mentüm, a proof (argu-ĕre); arma-menta (pl.), tackle (arma-re); ar-mentum, a plough beast (ărā-re); atramentum, ink (atro-); auctōrā-mentum, hire (auctorã-ri); blandi-mentum, soothing (blandi-re); cæ-mentum, quarried stone (cæd-ère); calcea-mentum, a shoe (calceāre); căpillamentum, hair (capillo-); coag-mentum, a joining (coǎg-ère); cognomentum, a surname (cogno-sc-ère); comple-mentum (rare), a filling up (comple-re); dehonesta-mentum, a disgrace (dehonestā-re); dētri-mentum, a loss by wear (detĕr-ĕre; comp. detrī-tus); docu-mer

789

790

791

792

tum, a lesson (dõcēre); ělě-menta (pl.), first principles (means of growth? comp. õlescere); êmõlŭ-mentum, gain (by grinding; emŏ1-čre); expěrī-mentum, a test (expĕrī-ri); fer-mentum, yeast (fervere); ferra-mentum, an iron implement (comp. ferrā-tus); fō-mentum, poultice, &c. (fövēre); frāg-mentum, a fragment (frang-ĕre); fru-mentum, corn (comp. fruges); funda-mentum, a groundwork (fundā-re); incītā-mentum, an incentive (incitare); incrē-mentum, increase, germ (incre-sc-ere); instru-mentum, stock of implements, a means (instru-ère); intertri-mentum, waste by rubbing (cf. detrimentum); irrītā-mentum, an incentive (irrītā-re); jù-mentum, a beast of draught (jung-ère; comp. jug-um); lā-menta (pl.), lamentation (for clamamenta? cf. § 110. 3); lěvā-mentum, a relief (lěvā-re); lō-mentum, a wash (lăv-āre); māchinā-mentum, a machine (machina-re); mō-mentum, motion, impulse (mŏvēre); mŏnůmentum, a memorial (monēre); nutri-mentum, nourishment (nutrire); ō-mentum, a fat membrane; Ŏpěri-mentum, a lid (õpĕrī-re); ornamentum, an ornament (ornā-re); pălūdāmentum, a military cloak; pǎvi-mentum, pavement (păvī-re, to beat, ram); pēdāmentum, a prop for vines, &c. (pědā-re, to put feet to); pig-mentum, a paint (ping-ere); pul-mentum, pulpā-mentum, meat (pulpa-); purgămentum, refuse (purga-re); rã-mentum, a scraping, chip (rād-ĕre); rudi-mentum, a trial, beginning (foil-exercise? rúdis, a foil?); sæpimentum, a hedge (sæpi-re); sar-mentum, a vine pruning, i.e. a branch requiring to be pruned off (sarp-ère, to prune); seg-mentum, a strip (secāre); sternu-mentum, sneezing (sternu-ère); strā-mentum, straw (stern-ĕre, strā-tus); strig-mentum, a scraping (stringere); suffi-mentum, incense (suffi-re); těg-u-mentum (integumentum), a covering (těg-ĕre); tempèrã-mentum, mixture, moderation (tempĕrā-re); testā-mentum, a will (testā-ri); tō-mentum, stuffing (clippings? comp. tondere); tor-mentum, a hurling engine (torqvēre); vesti-mentum, a dress (vestī-re); and others.

ül-en-to

Sometimes the older -ölento; sometimes the later -ilento. 793
From real or assumed derivatives in -to, -ti.

Adjectives: corpu-lentus, fleshy (for corpor-ulentus); escu-lentus, eatable (esca-); fraudu-lentus, cheating (fraudi-); grăcălentus, thin (comp. grăcilis); lucu-lentus, bright (luci-); perhaps also gainful for lucru-lentus (lucro-); lutu-lentus, muddy (luto-); măci-lentus, wasted (màcie-); òpŭ-lentus, wealthy (õpi-); potu-lentus, drinkable (pōto-); pulvĕr-ŭlentus, dusty (pulvis-); pür-ulentus, festering (pus-); sangvin-olentus, blood-stained (sangvěn-); tēmulentus, drunken (comp. tēm-ētum); trúcu-lentus, fierce (trăci-); turbu-lentus, riotous (turba-); vino-lentus, drunken (vino-); violentus, violent (vi- for visi-).

-ginta)

-ginti)

Indeclinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of 794 ten: ginti (or -tā) = decem-ti (or -ta).

vi-ginti, twenty (dvi-děcem-ti, two-ten-ty); trī-gintā, thirty (trl-); quadragintā (quatvor-, § 158); qvinqvāgintā, fifty (qvinqve-); sexāginta, sixty (sex); septuagintā, seventy (septem, see below); octoginta, eighty (octo); nōnāgintā, ninety (novem, see below).

Compare centum, supposed to be for decem-decem-ta.

The formation of the higher cardinal numbers is in some points very obscure. The final vowel-ī in viginti, ā in the others-is found also in Greek, but is there short; e.g. elkool, Dor. eikari: Tρlākоvтa, &c. The ǎ before the guttural in quadraginta, &c. is also found in Greek; e.g. Teσσapāкovтa, but the origin of none of these vowels is clear. The final i in viginti may be a dual form: the final a of triginta, &c. is by some considered to be the same as the ordinary ǎ of the neuter plural.

Septuaginta, seventy, is abnormally formed instead of septenginta, probably to avoid confusion with septingenti, seven hundred. Nonaginta is probably for novin-aginta, the m being assimilated to the initial n. (Schleicher derives it directly from the ordinal nōno-.)

-cento -gento

Declinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of a 795 hundred only used in plural: gento-= centum.

ducenti, two hundred (duo-centum); trecenti, three hundrea (tri-); quadringenti, four hundred (qvatvor, see below); quingenti, five hundred (for qvinqvigenti); sexcenti, six hundred (sex); septingenti, seven hundred (septem); octingenti, eight hundred (octo, see below); nongenti, nine hundred (non is for novem).

The -in in quadringenti and octingenti has perhaps been suggested by septingenti (where it has its justification in septem; for the i cf. § 204. 2. c) and qvingenti, where it is radical. It may have been adopted to increase the distinction of the hundreds from

the tens.

The difference of the vowel before nt in the hundreds compared with the tens, e.g. quadringenti, quadraginta, is probably due partly to the desire for distinction, partly to the fact that the e of a suffix (decem) more easily passes into i (quadraginta) than the e in centum (quadringenti), which is apparently, though perhaps not really (cf. § 794), radical.

-āto

1. Participles from verbs with a stems (§ 697); e.g. 796
ǎmātus, &c. loved (amā-re); &c.: or adjectives formed
as such:

ăcăle-atus, furnished with a sting or thorn (acu-leo-); ădĬp-atus, fattened (aděp-); ær-atus, of bronze (s-); alb-atus, clad in white (albo-); ans-atus, with handles (ansa-); arm-atus, armed (armā

re); aur-atus, gilded (auro-); barb-atus, bearded (barba-); brāccatus, breeched (bracca-); căpill-atus, hairy (căpillo-); căpit-atus, with a head (căpăt-); cătēn-atus, chained (cătena-); centuri-atus, of the centuries (centuria-); cētr-atus, armed with a short shield (cetra-); cincinnatus, curled (cincinno-); column-atus, furnished with columns (columna-); cord-atus, having good sense (cord-); cothurn-atus, buskined, i.e. tragic (cothurno-); crépid-atus, sandalled (crěpida-); crēt-atus, chalked (crēta-); crist-atus, crested (crista-); curi-atus, of the Curie (curia-); delic-atus, charming, dainty (comp. delicia-); dent-atus, toothed (denti-); dimidi-atus, halved (dimidio-); Făb-atus, beaned, chiefly as surname (făba-); fæo-atus, made from lees (fæci-); falc-atus, sickle-shaped (falci-); ferr-atus, iron-covered (ferro-); gèniculatus, with knees, i. e. jointed (gění-culo-); gutt-atus, speckled (gutta-); hast-atus, armed with spear (hasta-); littĕr-atus, lettered, i.e. branded or learned (littĕra-); lúp-ātus, armed with jagged spikes like wolf's teeth (lŭpo-); mōr-atus, -mannered (mōs-); numm-atus, supplied with money (numm-); obær-atus, moneyed over, i.e. in debt (æs-); öcell-atus, with little eyes or spots (ocello-); Ŏcùl-atus, having eyes (öculo-); orbicul-atus, rounded (orbiculo-); palli-atus, dressed in a Greek cloak (pallio-); pălūd-atus, with the military cloak on (comp. paluda-mentum); palm-ātus, worked with palm-branches (palma-); penn-atus, winged (penna-); pil-atus, armed with a pike (pīlo-); pilleatus, bonneted (pīlleo-); pinn‐atus, feathered (pinna-); prætext-atus, wearing the bordered robe (prætexta-, § 790); torqv-ātus, wearing a collar (torqvi-); tråbe-atus, wearing the state robe (tră-bea-); tŭnicatus, in a shirt (tănica-); visc-atus, limed (visco-); vitt-atus, filleted (vitta-); ungvent-atus, anointed (ungvento-); and many others.

2. Substantives: arqv-atus, (1) the jaundice, (2) a jaundiced person (arquo-, the rainbow?); pălatum, the palate; victori-atus (sc. nummus), a victory-coin (victoria-).

-ōto

-ūto

ægr-ōtus, sick (ægro-). See also § 689.

1. Participles from verbs with -u stems (§ 690); e. g. ǎçu-tus, sharpened (ācu-ère); &c.; or adjectives formed as such, chiefly from substantives with -u stems:

ast-utus, crafty (astu-); cinct-utus, girdle-wearing (cinctu-); corn-utus, horned (cornu-); dēlīb-utus, smeared (comp. λeißew); hirs-utus, shaggy (comp. hirto-); nās-utus, with large, or, metaphorically, sharp nose (naso-); vers-utus, adroit (versu-, a turning); věr-utus, javelin-armed (veru-).

See § 528).

actutum (adv.), instantly (actu-. 2. Substantives: ǎluta, leather; cicuta, hemlock; Matuta, Goddess of dawn (comp. māne?); věrutum, a javelin (veru-).

-ēto

797

1. Participles from verbs with stems in -e ($ 692); 798
e.g. deflētus, lamented (deflere); &c.: also the adjective,
făc-ētus, witty,

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