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vented the growth and even the exclusively in the hands of protestants, istence of christian charity in these with the exception of the short-lived kingdoms, would he not paturally rule of the unfortunate James. ask with the utmost surprise, what connexion there could possibly ex

CAUSES WHICH PRODUCED THE ist between a speculative belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation, This plain siatement of facts inand an actual incapacity to serve our contestibly prove, that during the country in the cabinet, or to defend space of a century and a half from her cause in the field? We should the commencement of protestantism, find great difficulty in persuading a the catholics were in possession of man thụs unprejudiced, that, be- those privileges which they claim at cause some furious bigots holding the present day, without any real among others this doctrine, had danger to the national church, in wielded without mercy the two- spite of the idle apprehensions of edged sword of persecution, whilst " No-popery” bigots; for, to their others, by the exercise of a proscrip- great credit, they were always fourd, tion little less rigorous on the pro- as I have hitherto observed, coafessors of their faith, had been driven lescing with the true friends of the into acts of treason and rebellion, constitution in church and state, it was therefore highly necessary and opposing the encroachments of that no person entertaining 'such an factious innovators. In the reign of opinion (innocent as every one James I. religious and party dissenmust admit it to be, however appa- sions began to distract the country ; rently ridiculous) should enjoy any the monarch, sensible of the fidelity civil office, even that of the lowest and fealty which swayed the conclerk in the treasury, or be enabled duct of his catholic subjects, employ, to bear the standard of his country ed many of them in places of trust; in the field of battle.” The passing this aroused the jealous and intoof this act caused the immediate re- lerant spirit of the various hordes signation of Thomas, first baron of puritan reformers, who assailed Clifford of Chudleigh, who, after the throne with clamourous repre. signalizing himself in the house of sentations against the increase of commons, as member for Totness, by popery and the consequent dangers several remarkable speeches in fa- which threatened the liberties of the vour of the royal prerogative, and country, by the employment of its evincing his courage and abilities adherents.-James thought to pa. under the duke of York, afterwards cify them with promises, but with James II. in a number of desperate out effect. Discontent and dissatisnaval engagements, was raised to faction continued to increase, which the

peerage, and advanced to the at length, in the reign of his son and dignity of lord high treasurer. Pre- successor, broke out into open re. ferring, howeyer, the rectitude of bellion and civil war. A reference conscience to the emoluments and to the recorded proceedings of those șank of office, he retired in conse: turbulent times will shew, that every quence of the operation of the act to complaint of the 6 puritan” faction a private station on his patrimonial then, like those of the intolerants” estates, in which example he was now, was grounded on the supposed followed by all the other catholics danger which threatened the constitu, who held situations under govern- tion, from the relaxation of the penal ment, leaving the reins of power laws against the papists, whom they and patronage from this period éx- represented as the abettors of arbi,


trary power and the enemies of li- ed all the unreasonable fears and jeaberty. But the test of experience lousies of the bigotted and intolerant proved, that those who were most faction, and he found himself beset vociferous in proclaiming their ap- with the same merciless remonprehensions for the fate of the con- strances to enforce the laws against stitution, were the most active in papists, which annoyed his predetheir endeavours to subvert it, and

Charles contented himself raising upon its ruins an odious with issuing proclamations, and oligarchy, afterwards moulded into granting indulgences to those who a protectorate, during which the did not obey them, on the appearnation was tyrannized over by a set ance of the outcry; and thus stood of upstart demagogues, and canting matters until the duke of York openhypocrites. Every semblance of the ly professed his conversion to the constitution, as derived from their catholic faith.

As he was heir apcatholic forefathers, under which parent to the throne, this circumthe people enjoyed happiness and stance added fuel to the already infreedom, was abolished, and a sys- tamed prejudices of the people tem of rule was substituted, if a sys- against popery, and favoured the tem it could be called, without jus- malignant designs of the republican tice, without law, and without mer- leaders to revenge themselves on the cy. To prevent these disasters, and catholics, whom they considered the to preserve the monarchal and ecking's steadiest friends. The duke clesiastical establishments, the ca- avowed his abjuration of protestanttholics patriotically offered their ism in 1671, and in 1673 he married property and their lives, but their

a catholic princess of the Modena efforts, united to those of their pro- family In the interval of these two testant brethren who espoused the events, namely in 1672, the king issame cause, proved unavailing, and sued out a proclamation, whereio be they became the joint victims of re- granted an indulgence for liberty of publican fury. Tired with the op- conscience to all who dissented from pressions and injustice of the Crom- the established church, which still tellian sway, the people returned to further increased the malignancy of a sense of duty, and the son of their the intolerants, and moved them to former monarch was recalled to fill strong measures of opposition to the the throne of his ancestors, and re- monarch's benevolent intentions. store the constitution to an oppress. Accordingly, addresses were sent ed nation. It must here be up to him by both houses protesting noticed, that Charles owed his against the lenity shewn by his malife, after the fatal battle of Wor- jesty to papists as fraught with im. cester, to the fidelity of his ca- minent danger to the protestant retholic subjects, and he also found ligion, and so well did the houses an asylum in the dominions of ca- play their part by refusing the suptholic sovercigus, when tanished plies required, that Charles at last from his rightful estate by, his pro- found himself under the necessity of testant people; it was therefore na- recalling his proclamation of indultural, on his restoration, that he gence, notwithstanding he was at should feel a bias towards those who one time warmly bent upon its exehad so faithfully served him, and cution. From this time the easy honour them with a share of his con. monarch resigned up his tried friends fidence and favours. This inclina- to be vilified and persecuted by their tion of the monarch, however, pror- enemies, without making any further „ęd fatal to his repose, for it awaken- effort to stem the torrent which was

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rashing on them. The first fruit of who transgressed against and viothis victory was the passing of the lated these statutes. Test act, in which the papist and dissenter were each involved in its A Catholic KING CANNOT DISpenal and disqualifying operations. PENSE WITH THE TESTS. This took place in 1673, but not Twelve years after the test act having the effect which iis framers was passed, and seven after the and abettors enticipated, a plot enactment of the declaration against was devised, as the surest expedi- popery, the nation found a popish ent of inlaming the people, and it sovereign on the throne, who, conwas not long before one was found, ceiving himself authorised, by virtue which for the absurdity and incon- of his kingly prerogative, as head of sistencies of its ramifications, can the church and state, to exercise the oaly be exceeded by the infamy of dispensing power, very naturally those by whom it was supported, used it in favour of some of his owu and the stupidity of the people who religion, and gave commissions in gave credence to it. In August, the army to several catholics, with1678, the couspiracy of Oates was out, of course, their qualifying themangounced by means of a deposition selves under the former statute, or before a magistrate, so little did the complying with the conditions of the king and privy council believe the latter. Such proceedings soon at. existence of the tale, and care having tracted the notice of the protestants, been taken to make the most of it and several noblemen and gentle among the people, the nation was men of that persuasion highly represently in a state of delirium, from sented them. This induced the the dread of popery, during which king on the first meeting of parliaphrensy, that is, in the November ment after the rebellion of the duke following, the act to disquali- of Monmouth, to notice the appointfy papists from sitting in parlia- ment of catholic officers in his ment, by enacting a declaration speech, in the following words :against transubstantiation and the “Let no man take exception, that invocation of saints, to be made there are some officers in the army by every member previous to the not qualified according to the late taking his seat, received the royal tests for their employment. The

This concise detail of oco gentlement I must tell you, are most currences will enable the reader to of them well known to me; and, form a just conclusion of the causes having formerly served me on seveand motives which produced the ral occasions, and always approved Test act and Declaration against Po- the loyalty of their principles by pery, both_which now form a part their practice, I think them fit now of the statute law of the land, and to be employed under me, and will are considered by many as the pillars deal plainly with you, that after and bulwark of the constitution.- having had the benefit of their serIt is not my design here toenter into vices in time of such need and danthe merit of these two productions ger. I will neither expose them to of protestant legislation ; this part disgrace nor myself to the want of of the subject must stand over for them, if there should be another reanother opportunity, that I may bellion, to make them necessary to proceed to shew how short a period me.” This intimation of James elapsed before our protestant law- did not please the members, and givers found it necessary to grant warm debates arose upon the subindulgences and absolutions to those ject; an address, however, was at length agreed to by the commons, leration, which is more than can be in which they represented to his said of the evangelical reformers majesty that those officers could not, and demagogues of that or the preby law, be capable of employments, sent age. But James, in pursuing and that the incapacities they were his wish to establish liberty of conplaced under could in no way be science, so honourable to the feeltaken off but by an act of parlia- ings of a British sovereigo, so conment. Therefore, out of reverence genial to the spirit of christianity, and duty to him, they offered to and so necessary to the happiness of prepare a bill, for his royal assent, a free people, assumed a power into indemnify those who had incur-compatible with the principles of red penalties by not qualifying them the constitution, aud proceeded to selves agreeable to the statutes, but grant a general indulgence to his at the same time they entreated the people to break the statute law of king to dispense with their future ser- the land, and to absolve them of his vices, that all jealousies might be own royal authority from all the removed from the hearts of his ma- penalties thereby incorred. This jesty's loyal protestant subjects.- assumption of power was set forth These sentiments did not please the in the following words, taken from king, and two days after he pro- the before-mentioned proclamation rogued the parliament, which never for liberty of conscience, which was sat again, it being subsequently dis- re-issued in 1688:-"And as he solved. Following the practice of (the king) is desirous to have the his predecessors, since the church benefit of the service of all his subbecame united with the state, James jects, which by the law of nature continued to dispense, and in some is inseparably annexed, and inherent cases to suspend the operation of the to royal person; and that none laws, until his protestant subjects of his subjects may be, for the fu. thought proper to dispense with their ture, under any discouragement or oaths of allegiance, and his regal disability, who are otherwise well services. By most writers, whether inclined, and fit to serve him, by political or historical, this unfortu- reason of some oaths, or tests, that nate monarch is branded as a tyrart hare usually been administered on and a bigot. That many of the such occasions: he hereby further measures of James's reign savoured declares, that it is his will and pleaof despotism and cruelty it must be sure that the oaths of supremacy confessed; but these were the acts and allegiance, and the several tests of his ministers, particularly the and declaratious mentioned in the harbarities of the protestant judge acts of parliament made the 25th Jeffries and colonel Kirk, as and 30th year of his brother's reign, have it from the king's own mouth, shall not hereafter be required to be that he did not know of the pro- taken, declared, or subscribed by ceedings of these mercenaries until any persons whatsoever, who are, it was too late to prevent them.- or shall be employed in office, or That he was not an intolerant bigot, place of trust, civil or military, his proclamation issued on the 4th of under him, or his government. – April, 1687, granting to every Bri- And it is his intention, from time to tish subject entire freedom to follow time hereafter, to grant his royal that mode of worship which con- dispensations to all his subjects to science should dictate, is a demon- be employed, who shall not take the strative proof, and clearly shews said oaths, or subscribe or make the that he was a friend to religious-to-, said tests and declarations. Audhe



297 Hoes hereby give his free and ample generals were directed to enter into pardon to all non-conformists, re- negociations with the armed Irish, cusants, and others his subjects, for and by the treaty of Limerick the all crimes and things by them com- catholics of that country were allowmitted or done, contrary to the pe- ed the free exercise of their religion, nal laws, formerly made relating to and all the privileges granted to the religion, and the profession and ex- most favoured subjects. Catholics ercise thereof." This conduct of are accused of not keeping faith with James was most undoubtedly illegal heretics ; the practise of it, however, and

contrary to the principles of the seems confined to their protestant British constitution, but it cannot accusers. Although the treaty afore. be deemed tyrannical, with any de said received the sanction of the gree of candour or justice; he, how great seal of England, not 'two erer, paid dearly for presuming to months had passed over before it was dispense with the laws, as the loss of infringed and shamefully violated in his throne was the price of his folly, the face of the Irish' nation." Nor The people were too much in dread was this all; the English parliament of popery to entertain the same li- (now exclusively protestant) was beral sentiments exhibited in the not content with absolving the sodeclaration of James, they there- vereign from his engagements, confore withdrew their attachment to trary to his wishes, but it usurped him, and he withdrew himself from the right of legislating for Ireland, the country.

at that time an independent king

dom, and in the year 1691, passed DISPENSATIONS GRANTED BY PAR- an act to alter its laws upon the LIAMENT.

most essential and fundamental This important event formed a rights of the subject, by excluding new epoch in the annals of the coun- Roman catholics, who then compostry. The nation being left without ed the decided majority of the naao executive, the crown was confer- tion, from a seat in either house of red on the eldest daughter of James parliament. From this time the ca. and her Dutch husband. In doing tholics were shut out of the senate, this, a declaration of rights was and from the field of politics; laws submitted on the part of the people, were made, and offices were occuaod agreed to on that of the new pied wholly by protestants, and, sovereign, in which it was declared, lest the statutes already enacted to that the pretended power of suspend prevent the growth of popery should ing or dispensing with the laws, be considered by some of the antiby regal authority, without consent papal alarmists still insufficient for of parliament, is illegal. This “glo- the purpose, further galling ones rious” revolution, as it is termed, were added to the bloody catalogue, was compassed without bloodshed to harass and ruin those who per in Eugland, but in Ireland matters sisted in professing the ancient faith, did not proceed so smoothly. A while the principles of toleration strong resistance was made by the were called into action in favour of Irish to the claims of the new mon- of protestant dissenters from the arch, William HII. and several sana establishment. Thus, for more than guinary conflicts in the field were a century, the entire management of occasioned thereby. The warlike the kingdom has been confined to state of the continent at this time the protestant part of the communię rendering it inconvenient to send ty, who have multiplied its laws in supplies to Ireland, -the English | a ten-fold degree ; but, let me ask, ORTAOD. Jour, VOL. Y.


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