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øv ån. 'I. Xp. Him whom thou didst send (see on i. 33),- Jesus Christ; or, Jesus as Christ. This portion of the truth the Jews failed to recognise. But the words are not without difficulty, even when we insert the 'as;' and the run of the Greek words rather against the insertion of 'as.' If Christ' were a predicate and not part of the proper name we should expect “Jesus, whom Thou didst send, as Christ.' Probably in this verse we have the substance and not the exact words of Christ's utterance. That He should use the name • Jesus' here is perhaps improbable; that He should anticipate the use of Jesus Christ'as a proper name is very improbable; and the expression “the true God' is not used elsewhere by Christ and is used by S. John (1 John v. 20). We conclude, therefore, that the wording here is the Evangelist's, perhaps abbreviated from the actual words.
4. Sótara. I glorified Thee on the earth, having perfected. In confident anticipation Christ looks back from the point when all shall be accomplished, and speaks of the whole work of redemption as one act. The A.V. is very capricious throughout this chapter, rendering aorists as perfects and perfects as aorists. Comp. vv. 6, 8, 18, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26. For Sébwkas see on iii. 35: Christ did not choose His work for Himself. The iva indicates God's purpose in giving it.
5. This and v. 4 are parallels: 'I Thee glorified on earth; glorify Me Thou in heaven;' the pronouns being placed side by side for emphasis. Kai vûy means 'now that all is completed ;' and Trapd geautą * side by side with Thee, in fellowship with Thee.' The imperfect, eixov, implies continual possession. The following great truths are contained in these two verses; (1) that the Son is in Person distinct from the Father; (2) that the Son, existing in glory with the Father from all eternity, working in obedience to the Father on earth, existing in glory with the Father now, is in Person one and the same.
6-19. THE PRAYER FOR His DISCIPLES. 6–8. The basis of the intercession;—they have received the revelation given to them. The intercession itself begins v. 9.
6. épavépwoa. See on i. 31. The manifestation was not made indiscriminately, but to persons fitted to receive it. Sometimes the Father is said to 'give' or draw' men to Christ (v. 24, vi. 37, 44, 65, x. 29, xviii. 9); sometimes Christ is said to 'choose them (vi. 70, xv. 16): but it is always in their power to refuse; there is no compulsion (i. 11, 12, iii. 18, 19, xii. 47, 48). For tetń pņkav see on viii. 51: the notion is that of intent watching. For τον λόγον And τα ρήματα (υ. 8) see on iii. 34.
7. Čyvwkav. They have recognised and therefore know (v. 42, vi. 69, viii. 52, 55, xiv. 9) that the whole of Christ's work of redemption in word and act was in its origin and still is (eio iv) of God.
8. έγνωσαν...επίστευσαν. They recognised that His mission was Divine (see on xvi. 28): they believed that He was sent as the Messiah, They had proof of the one; the other was a matter of faith.
9—19. The intercession for the disciples based on their need.
9. “For them who have believed I, who have laboured to bring them to this belief, am praying; for the world I am not praying.' 'Eyú, αυτών εnd κόσμου are emphatic. Περί indicates the subject of the petition: for épwt see on xiv. 16. Of course this does not mean that Christ never prays for unbelievers; v. 23 and Luke xxiii. 34 prove the contrary: but it is for the chosen few, in return for their allegiance, that He is praying now. He could not pray for unbelievers that they should be kept (v. 11) and sanctified (v. 17), but that they should be converted and forgiven.
10. rd éuá. All things that are Mine are Thine and Thine are Mine. This does not refer to persons only; it continues and also amplifies őri ool clow. The double mode of statement insists on the perfect union between the Father and the Son : what follows shews the perfect union between Christ and believers. Christ is glorified in them as the vine in its branches and fruit: they are the vehicles and monuments of the glory (1 Thess. ii. 20). Acdótaouai, I have been and still am glorified.'
11—16. In vv. 6—8 the disciples' acceptance of Christ is given as the basis of intercession for them: here another reason is added, their need of help during Christ's absence. This plea is first stated in all simplicity, and then repeated at intervals in the petition. Note the simple and solemn coupling of the clauses.
11. Tátep öyle. The expression occurs here only; but comp. Rev. vi. 10; 1 John ii, 20 and v. 25. The epithet agrees with the prayer αγίασον αυτούς (ν. 17), ίνα ώσιν και αυτοί ηγιασμένοι (υ. 19). God has given His name (see on i. 12) to Christ to reveal to His disciples; and Christ here prays that they may be kept true to that revelation of the Divine character. And even as (kabús) the Father and Son are one in the possession of the Divine nature, so the disciples are to be kept one by the knowledge of it. Comp. Rev. ii. 17, xxii. 4.
12. étýpovy. The imperfect expresses Christ's continual watching. 'Eyú is emphatic: 'I kept them while I was with them; but now do Thou keep them.! Mark the change to é úlaga, I guarded: this is the protection which is the result of the watching.
ó viòs T. árwielas. The phrase occurs twice in N.T.; here of Judas, and 2 Thess. ii. 3 of the man of sin.' See on xii. 36 and comp. Tékva årolelas (Is. lvii. 4), viòs Davátov (2 Sam. xii. 5). The connexion between arróleto and åtonelas cannot easily be shewn in English. 'H ypaoń refers to Ps. xli. 9: see on x. 35, xiii. 18, xii. 38.
13. vûv Sé. But now. Hitherto He has been with them to guard them, but now He is going away: and He is praying thus aloud in order that His words may comfort them when they remember that before He went He consigned them to His Father's keeping. Comp. xi. 42. For T. Xapdv t. čuñv see on viii. 31.
14. ¢ya ses. I, in emphatic opposition to the world, have given them the revelation of Thee; and the world hated them. The aorist expresses the single act of hate in contrast to the gift which they continue to possess. These are the two results of discipleship; Christ's protection with the gift of God's word and the world's hate.
15. ék T. Trovnpoû. From the evil one : comp. 1 John ii. 13, 14, iü. 12, and especially v. 18, 19. The world and the Gospel are regarded as in ceaseless opposition in S. John's writings, and the evil one is 'the ruler of this world' (xii. 31, xvi. 11). Just as Christ is that in which His disciples live and move, so the evil one is that out of which (èk) He prays that they may be kept. Believers are ¿v TẬ å noivo, ¿v τώ υιώ αυτου Ιησού Χριστό (1 John ν. 20): but the world εν τω πονηρά κείται. . In 1 John iv. 4 we have the opposite mode of statement; Christ is in believers and the evil one is in the world. All these pas. sages seem to shew that toù movnpoù must be masculine.
16. What was stated in v. 14 as the reason for the world's hate is repeated as the introduction to a new petition for not merely protection but sanctification.
17. dylacov. Sanctify or consecrate. It expresses God's destination of them for their work and His endowment of them with the powers necessary for their work. The word is used of God's consecration of Jeremiah, Moses, and the Chosen People (Jer. i. 5; Ecclus. xlix. 7, xlv. 4; 2 Macc. i. 25). This prayer has been called “the Prayer of Consecration.” The Truth in which they are consecrated is the whole Christian revelation, the new environment in which believers are placed for their sanctification; just as a sickly wild plant is strengthened and changed by being transplanted into a garden. For ó lóyos ó cós see on viii. 31: God’s revelation as a whole is meant, not any single utterance or collection of utterances: see on üii. 34.
19. Christ does for Himself that which He prays the Father to do for His disciples. In x. 36 He speaks of Himself as consecrated by the Father; set apart for a sacred purpose. But only thus far is the consecration of Christ and of His disciples the same. In them it also implied redemption and cleansing from sin; and in this sense åviášw is frequently connected with kabapiśw (2 Cor. vii. 1; Eph. v. 26; 2 Tim. ii. 21; Heb. ix. 13). The radical meaning of the word is not separation, as is sometimes stated, but holiness, which involves separation, viz. the being set apart for God. În 0. T. consecration is a ritual act; in N. T. à spiritual act, the consecration of the heart and will to God. 'Ev aandela, in truth and reality, not in mere name, is different from év tñ åndela in the Truth (see on v. 17). As a Priest consecrated by the Fatk. 36) He consecrates Himself as a Sacrifice (Eph. v. 2), and thereby obtains a real internal consecration for them through the Paraclete (xvi. 7).
20-26. THE PRAYER FOR THE WHOLE CHURCH. Christ having prayed first for the Author of salvation, and then for the instruments of the work, now prays for the objects of it. The limitation stated in v. 9 is at an end: through the Church He prays for the whole race of mankind (v. 21).
20. TLOTEVÓVTWv. Present: the future body of believers is regarded by anticipation as already in existence : the Apostles are an earnest of the Church that is to be. The order emphasizes the fact that those who believe on Christ believe through the Apostles' word.
21. &v Wol. This is the purpose rather than the purport of the prayer: Christ prays for blessings for His Church with this end in view—that all may be one.
Kabus depends on the second iva, not on the first (comp. xiii. 34): the unity of believers is even as the unity of the Father with the Son (x. 30); not a mere moral unity of disposition, but a vital unity, in which the members share the life of one and the same organism (Rom. xii. 4, 5). Mere agreement in opinion and aim would not convert the world; whereas the eternal unity of believers will produce such external results (see how these Christians love one another'), that the world will believe that God sent their Master Christian unity and love (Matt. vii. 12; Luke vi. 31; 1 Cor. xiii.) is a moral miracle, a conquest of the resisting will of man, and therefore more convincing than a physical miracle, which is a conquest of unresisting matter. Hence the quarrels of Christians are a perpetual stumblingblock to the world.
The parallel between this verse and 1 John i. 3 is remarkable. If amayyéMouev refers to the Gospel and not to the Epistle, as is probable, then S. John wrote his Gospel in order that this prayer of Christ might be fulfilled.
22—24. Having prayed for them with a view to their unity, Jesus passes to His final petition, a share in His glory for His disciples. In leading up to this He states what He Himself has done for them : Káyó is emphatic.
22. SÉSwkas. See on iii. 35. The meaning of this gift of obča is clear from v. 24; the glory of the ascended and glorified Christ in which believers are His ouvkampovbuou (see on Rom. viii. 17). In full assurance of victory (xvi. 33)," Jesus speaks of this glory as already given back to Him (v. 5) and shared with His followers.
23. The basis of the unity of believers is their union with Christ and through Him with the Father: in this way they are perfected into one, completed and made one. It is in the unity that the completeness consists. For Telelowo dal comp. 1 John ü. 5, iv. 12, 17, 18; for els év comp. xi. 52 (1 John v. 8).
yuvuoky. Come to know, recognise (v. 3) gradually and in time. This is the second effect of the unity of Christians, more perfect than the first. The first (v. 21) was that the world is induced to believe that God sent Christ; the second is that the world comes to know that God sent Christ, and moreover that He loved the world even as He loved Christ. The oú and fué in what follows are emphatic.
24. Tarnp. Comp. vv. 1, 5, 11, 25, xi. 41, xii. 27. The relationship is the ground of appeal; He knows that His will' is one with His Father's. The position of 8 Séwkás pol (see on v. 2) is remarkable: the fact of the gift is another ground of appeal.
Bw. The expression, as used here by Christ, is unique: but comp. xxi. 22; Matt. viii. 3, xxiii. 37, xxvi. 39; Luke xii. 49. It is His last will and testament, which the Christ on the eve of His death here deposits in the Father's hands. For 7. Sótav T. éuñv see on viii. 31 : it is not the glory of the Word, the Eternal Son, which was His in His equality with the Father, but the glory of Christ, the Incarnate Son, with which the risen and ascended Jesus was endowed. In sure confidence Christ speaks of this as already given, and wills that all believers may behold and share it. Thus two gifts of the Father to the Son meet and complete one another: those whom He has given behold the glory that He has given. See on xii. 24.
karabolñs kóopov. Christ thrice uses this expression; here, Luke xi. 50; Matt. xxv. 34. Two of those who heard it reproduce it (1 Pet. i. 20; Rev. xiii. 8, xvii. 8). Comp. Eph. i. 4; Heb. iv. 3, ix. 26, xi. 11.
25, 26. SUMMARY. 25. Tatip Sikale. The epithet (comp. v. 11) harmonizes with the appeal to the justice of God which follows, which is based on a simple statement of the facts. The world knew not God; Christ knew Him; the disciples knew that Christ was sent by Him. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?' Kal before ó kóduos may be rendered .indeed:' it is true the world knew Thee not, but yet, &c.'
26. éyvá ploa. Shew in translation that the verb is cognate with Byvwv in v. 25; made known. In both cases the aorist should be kept in English. Christ knows the Father and makes known His name, i.e. His attributes and will (see on i. 12), to the disciples. This imparting of knowledge is already accomplished in part, -'I made known' (comp. xv. 15); but the knowledge and the love which imparts it being alike inexhaustible, there is room for perpetual instruction throughout all time, especially after the Paraclete has been given,-'I will make known' (comp. xiv. 26, xvi. 13). With the double accusative, viv ñyangás te comp. vii. 24; Rev. xvi. 9; Eph. ii. 4: this love is to rule in their hearts as a guiding principle, without which they cannot receive the knowledge here promised; "be that loveth not, knoweth not God (1 John iv. 8).
keyw év aútois. These last words of Christ's mediatorial Prayer are the thread which runs through all these farewell discourses. He is going away and yet abides with them. His bodily presence passes away, His spiritual presence remains for ever; not seen with the eye without, but felt as life and strength within. Having known Christ after the flesh, now they know Him so no more: they are in Christ, a new creation (2 Cor. v. 16, 17).