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wards and put into Cape Cod But their troubles were not harbour. But they at once over. They had landed in found themselves face to face winter; and though it was a with a diffioulty. They were comparatively mild one, their outside the limits of the Vir- sufferings were great, and ginian Company, and their many of their number died. patent was useless. It was There were difficulties with the impossible at the time to com- London merchants who had munioate with the Northern financed the expedition, while Company, in whose territories certain “False brethren” they now were, and, in the severely tried the patience of circumstanoes, they determined Governor Bradford and his to form themselves into a civil colleagues. Then there were body politio, and chose John also the Indians, who naturally Carver as their Governor, Im- regarded the newcomers with mediately afterwards & small a certain amount of suspicion ; party was set on shore to ex- and though on the whole the plore the country, and suo- colonists dealt fairly and taotceeded in finding and bringing fully with them, they occasionbaok some Indian oorn. Mean- ally adopted measures which while a shallop which they had drew a protest from John brought with them was being Robinson at Leyden. “Congot ready, and in her another cerning the killing of these exploring party set forth, and poor Indians, of which we reported in favour of a spot heard at first by rumour and near the mouth of the Parret since by more definite report, river. The Pilgrims, how- oh! how happy & thing it had ever, were not satisfied; and been if you had converted on December 6th the shallop, some before you killed any. manned by "& few principal . . . Necessity of killing so mon and some sailors,” made many I cannot see.” Some a third expedition, which, after years later, in 1637, the difencounters with Indians and ferences with the Pequot muoh suffering from the cold, Indians and the settlers in ended in the famous “landing Connecticut led to a war on Plymouth Rock” on Deo. which is vividly described by ember 11th, "On Monday," Bradford. The enemy were says Bradford, “they sounded mostly in a fort, which the the harbour and found it fit colonists and the friendly for shipping; and marching Indians surrounded. The fort inland they found several oorn- was set on fire. “It burnt fields and little running brooks, their bowstrings, and made & place as they supposed fit for their weapons useless, and settlement." With this news they that escaped the fire were they returned to their chief, slain by the sword, some hown and on December 16th the to pieces, others run through Mayflower cast anchor in with rapiers, so that they were Plymouth Bay.

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few escaped. It is believed colony for which he had done so that there were about 400 muoh was firmly established. killed. It was a fearful sight to see them frying in the fire, While the Pilgrim settlewith streams of blood quenob- ment was still struggling ing it; the smell was horrible, against adverse oiroumstances, but the viotory seemed a sweet in the year 1629, six prominent sacrifice, and they gave praise English Puritans, who had to God, who had wrought so already formed a fishing stawonderfully for them,” &o. tion in Massachusetts Bay, No doubt the smell of frying obtained a grant of land from Indians was as the odour of a the New England Company, sweet sacrifice in the courts of and a royal charter incorporheaven.

ating the Governor and ComIt is interesting to notice pany of Massachusetts Bay, the system of industry adopted and a fleet was sent out with by the colonists. At first it 350 emigrants, inoluding three was a pure communism, but ministers of religion. This this was a failure, and, in Brad- movement appears to have ford's opinion, "proves the owed its original impulse to emptiness of the theory of John White, the Puritan Vioar Plato.” Then each household of Dorohester; among the was allotted & patch of oorn- partners was Roger Endioott; land; the grass-land was div- and the first Governor of the ided into oommon fields, where new colony was a Suffolk all had right of pasturage, and squire, John Winthrop. & second portion, where in. These men, it must be underdividuals had & temporary stood, were Puritans, but not right of ooonpanoy- & system Separatists. They regarded almost identioal with that themselves as members of the whiob prevailed in Eng- Churob of England, and indeed land in the Middle Ages. its only true members, anxious The industry of the colon- to purge away superstitious ists assured success, and their ceremonies, and to bring her material property rapidly in- to what they regarded as a oreased. In a few years, in purer condition. Loudly proaddition to the original settle fessing to be the viotims of ment, two new townships had perseoation, they soon proved been established, and a repre- that in temper and spirit they sentative assembly was formed and their “persecutors" were of delegates from the three at one. Among the memtowns. There were religious bers of the Council were two, disputes and dissensions which John and Samuel Browne, Bradford laments, fearing that “men of estates, and men of “they will be the ruin of New parts in the place,” who were England, at least of the dissatisfied at the disuse of the churohes of God there”; but Prayer Book by the ministers when he died in 1657 the whom they had brought out,

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wards and put into Cape Cod But their troubles were not harbour. But they at once over. They had landed in found themselves face to face winter; and though it was a with a difficulty. They were comparatively mild one, their outside the limits of the Vir- sufferings were great, and ginian Company, and their many of their number died, patent was useless. It was There were difficulties with the impossible at the time to com- London merchants who had munioate with the Northern financed the expedition, while Company, in whose territories certain “False brethren" they now were, and, in the severely tried the patience of oiroumstances, they determined Governor Bradford and his to form themselves into a civil colleagues. Then there were body politio, and chose John also the Indians, who naturally Carver as their Governor. Im- regarded the newcomers with mediately afterwards a small a certain amount of suspicion ; party was set on shore to ex- and though on the whole the plore the country, and suo- colonists dealt fairly and taotceeded in finding and bringing fully with them, they occasionbaok some Indian oorn. Mean- ally adopted measures which while a shallop which they had drew a protest from John brought with them was being Robinson at Leyden. “Congot ready, and in her another cerning the killing of these exploring party set forth, and poor Indians, of whioh we reported in favour of a spot heard at first by rumour and near the mouth of the Parret sinoe by more definite report, river. The Pilgrims, how- oh! how happy a thing it had ever, were not satisfied; and been if you had converted on December 6th the shallop, some before you killed any. manned by “a fow principal ... Necessity of killing 80 men and some sailors,” made many I cannot see.” Some a third expedition, which, after years later, in 1637, the difenoounters with Indians and ferences with the Pequot muoh suffering from the cold, Indians and the settlers in ended in the famous “landing Connectiout led to a war on Plymouth Rook” on Deo. which is vividly described by ember 11th. “On Monday,” Bradford. The enemy were says Bradford, “they sounded mostly in a fort, which the the harbour and found it fit colonists and the friendly for shipping; and marohing Indians surrounded. The fort inland they found several oorn- was set on fire. “It burnt fields and little running brooks, their bowstrings, and made a place as they supposed fit for their weapons useless, and settlement.” With this news they that escaped the fire were they returned to their chief, slain by the sword, some hown and on December 16th the to pieces, others run through Mayflower cast anchor in with rapiers, so that they were Plymouth Bay.

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few osoa ped. It is believed colony for whioh he had done so that there were about 400 much was firmly established. killed. It was a fearful sight to see them frying in the fire, While the Pilgrim settlewith streams of blood quench- ment was still struggling ing it; the smell was horrible, against adverse oiroumstances, but the viotory seemed a sweet in the year 1629, six prominent sacrifice, and they gave praise English Paritans, who had to God, who had wrought so already formed a fishing stawonderfully for them," &o. tion in Massachusetts Bay, No doubt the smell of frying obtained & grant of land from Indians was as the odour of a the New England Company, sweet sacrifice in the courts of and a royal obarter incorporheaven.

ating the Governor and ComIt is interesting to notice pany of Massachusetts Bay, the system of industry adopted and a fleet was sent out with by the colonists. At first it 350 emigrants, including three was a pure communism, but ministers of religion. This this was a failure, and, in Brad- movement appears to have ford's opinion, “proves the owed its original impulse to emptiness of the theory of John White, the Puritan Vioar Plato.” Then each household of Dorchester; among the was allotted & patch of oorn- partners was Roger Endioott; land; the grass-land was div- and the first Governor of the ided into oommon fields, where new colony was a Suffolk all had right of pasturage, and squire, John Winthrop. & second portion, where in These men, it must be under. dividuals had a temporary stood, were Puritans, but not right of occupanoy- & system Separatists. They regarded almost identioal with that themselves as members of the which prevailed in Eng- Churoh of England, and indeed land in the Middle Ages. its only true members, anxious The industry of the colon. to purge away superstitious ists assured success, and their ceremonies, and to bring her material property rapidly in- to what they regarded as a breased. In a few years, in purer condition. Loudly proaddition to the original settle- fessing to be the victims of ment, two new townships had persecution, they soon proved been established, and a repre- that in temper and spirit they sentative assembly was formed and their "perseoutors” were of delegates from the three at one. Among the memtowns. There were religious bers of the Council were two, disputes and dissensions which Johp and Samuel Browne, Bradford laments, fearing that “men of estates, and men of “they will be the ruin of New parts in the place," who were England, at least of the dissatisfied at the disuse of the ohurohes of God there"; but Prayer Book by the ministers when he died in 1657 the whom they had brought out,

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as well as of the accustomed Hutobinson, were also banished services of Baptism and Holy for teaching doctrines which Communion. Accordingly they slightly differed from those of ventured to conduct services at the majority. But more was which the Prayer Book was to follow. In 1656 two Qaaker used. At this time Endioott women who had landed were was aoting as Governor, and arrested and imprisoned, and he lost no time in dealing with had the Governor, Endioott, these renegades. Summoning not been absent would also them before him, he told them have been soourged. Then apthat New England was no peared eight more members of place for them, and promptly the seot. The treatment of sent them back to their Quakers was & question in mother-country.

which all the New England Another instance of the Colonies were not of one mind; settlers' regard for liberty is but when others faltered, to be found in the regulations Massachusetts had no weak made for seouring the full soruples. An Aot imposing privileges of citizenship. The penalty of death in cases of politioal funotion was limited extreme obstinaoy was passed, to mon of religious charaoter and three Quakers were aotuunited in Church fellowship. ally hanged. Churoh membership thus be- It is unnecessary and indeed oame à necessary qualifica- impossible to dwell at length tion for citizenship. In short, on the various laws punishthere was a “Test Aot" ing “Sabbath-breaking” and of a particularly offensive similar offences. A distinkind. Moreover, the power of guished Nonconformist has the State was called in to recently written concerning enforce the decisions of the the Drink Question, “CongratChuroh by fino or imprison- ulations to the land that has ment. It was a system admir- rid itself of this deadly ourse, ably fitted for the produotion and has passed a law of Total of hypocrites.

Prohibition. This is part of Nor were the stiff Church- the harvest of which the May. men who contended for the flowers carried the seed. Prayer Book the only viotims basket.” of persecution. In 1631 « He is right. It does not Welshman, Roger Williams, appear, indeed, that the Plywas chosen minister of Salem. mouth Colony praotised perseContrary to the sentiments of oution; for, so far as one can the Paritans in general, he held judge, they had no trouble and taught that the secular with dissenters from their power should not meddle with own dootrines; but the conreligion. For these opinions tempt for liberty which is he was banished. A little displayed by the Prohibitionlater a clergyman, John Wheel- ists," and the endeavour to wright, and his sister, Mrs establish by force a narrow

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