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Average Number of Kinsfolk in each Degree. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
I was glad to read the first paragraph of the reply by
Prof. G. H. Bryan to my letter, in which he acknowledges (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions
his mistake, but I cannot allow the second paragraph to expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake
pass without protest, in which he says “the discrepancy to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected can be accounted for more simply still ” in a way he demanuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. scribes. I do not wholly understand his present view, but No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
only enough of it to be assured that it is vitiated by some fundamental misconception.
In these circumstances it is Archebiosis and Heterogenesis.
best to re-state my original argument in different words.
We agree to start on the assumptions that boys and girls The columns of the daily papers have during the last two are on the average equally numerous, and that all other weeks contained many references to the question of the conditions are to be ignored. Then, if an individual be origin of life. One of the most recent utterances has been taken out of a family of 2d children, 2d- I children will be that of Lord Kelvin, who has roundly declared himself an left, of whom d- will, on the average of many experiences, unbeliever in the natural origin of living matter either in be girls and d-) will be boys. The sex of the individual the present or in the past. We must suppose, therefore,
who was taken out in the first instance is quite unimportant; that in reference to this question he is content to believe the result will be the same whether that individual be a in miracles.
boy or a girl. Prof. Ray Lankester and Dr. Chalmers Mitchell, how
Prof. G. H. Bryan thinks, if I understand him rightly, ever, proclaim themselves, as followers of Huxley, believers that the sex of the individual in question is of importance. in evolution generally, and in the natural origin of living
Some persecuting demon must have again caused my pen to matter in the past. They, like many others, refuse to write and my eye to overlook an absurdly erroneous figure believe that it takes place at the present time, because un
in my last letter. The faulty passage runs “... is so doubted proof of its occurrence cannot be produced by (=2} x16, as it should be)"; the 16 ought to be replaced laboratory experiments. The uniformity of natural pheno- by 32. It is intended to be quoted from the right hand mena would certainly lead us to believe, as Sir Oliver Lodge
column of line (5) in the table which accompanies that letter. has intimated, that if such a process occurred in the past, it
FRANCIS GALTON. should have been continually occurring ever since-so long as there is no evidence to show cause for a break in the
Misuse of Words and Phrases. great law of Continuity. Certainly no such evidence has In the preface to my book on
“ Cubic and Quartic ever been produced, and if the origin of living matter takes Curves " I have stated my views on the matters referred place by the generation in suitable fluids of the minutest to in the last paragraph of T. B. S.'s letter. I am a strong particles gradually appearing from the region of the in- advocate of the use and, if necessary, the invention of visible, such a process may be occurring everywhere in words of classical origin to express new ideas, and I consider nature's laboratories, though altogether beyond the ken the phrase self-cutting inelegant. of man.
My objection to the phrase non-singular cubic or quartic My_point may be illustrated thus. Bacteriologists all curve is that no such curves exist, since Plücker has shown over Europe and elsewhere have been working for the last that all algebraic curves, except proper conics, possess a thirty years by strict laboratory methods, and notwithstand determinate number of singularities. Thus anautotomic ing all that they have made out and the good that has quartics possess 52 simple singularities, viz. 28 double and thereby accrued to suffering humanity, they have apparently 24 stationary tangents. It is also possible for such curves never yet seen the development from Zooglæa aggregates to possess compound singularities, formed by the union of of Fungus-germs, of flagellate Monads, or of Amebæ. If, one double and two stationary tangents. however, they would only examine what goes on in nature's With regard to the use of an, the rule is that before a laboratory when a mixed bacterial scum forms on suitable word beginning with a vowel an is to be used instead of a fluids, they would have no difficulty in satisfying themselves for the sake of euphony, but when a word beginning with as to the reality of these processes. I described such pro- a vowel is pronounced as if it commenced with a consonant, cesses in your columns in 1870, more fully in the Proceedings a must be used instead of an. The phrases such an one, an of the Royal Society in 1872, and finally in my “ Studies uniform rod, an wonderful sunset, an yew tree, are all in Heterogenesis" (pp. 65-84, pls. vi. and vii., Figs. 53—71). equally incorrect.
A. B. BASSET. Even during the last week I have again obtained photo- November 4. micrographs demonstrating the origin of flagellate Monads from Zooglæa aggregates forming in a bacterial scum, and
The Coming Shower of Leonids. if you will admit an illustrated communication on this sub- The pretty abundant shower of Leonids witnessed last ject to your columns, proving by such a test case my position year encourages the hope that a fairly rich return may be as to the reality of heterogenesis, I shall be happy to present observed this year. There will be no moonlight to interfere it, and to show that something beyond the recognised strict with the brilliancy of the display should it occur, and the laboratory methods of the day is needed if we are to fathom most probable time of its apparition will be before sunrise some of nature's deepest secrets.
on November 15. The councils of the Royal and Linnean Societies are In 1903 the maximum occurred between 5 and 6 a.m. guided in the acceptance of papers by referees who are on November 16, and, allowing for leap year, the ensuing wedded, on biological questions, to laboratory methods. It maximum should take place on November 15 at about noon. is useless for me, therefore, again to attempt to submit The shower seems likely to be observed to the best advantage such a communication to them. Their referees (probably not at American stations, as in 1901, but it should be carefully having worked at such subjects themselves) would not advise watched everywhere, and with a special view to 'ascertain the acceptance of the paper, and my communication might the hour of greatest abundance. simply be consigned to their archives. The Royal Society It is to be hoped that some further attempts will be made " for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge on two to determine the place of the radiant by photography. We occasions would not even allow me to submit my views to have already a sufficient number of eye observations of the the consideration of, and discussion by, its fellows. In these position, and the work of ordinary observers will be better circumstances, Sir, I appeal to you, in the interests of directed to counting the number of meteors visible at regular science, to allow me to send you an illustrated paper proving, intervals during the night, and registering the most brilliant so far as such proof can go, the heterogenetic origin of objects. The meteors from other showers should also be Hagellate Monads and of Fungus-germs.
noted, and especially any conspicuous Taurids that may
H. CHARLTON BASTIAN. appear. The latter by their slow long flights and yellow Manchester Square, October 31.
trains are readily to be distinguished from the swiftly moving
Leonids with their green streaks. W. F. DENNING. [In reply to Dr. Bastian's appeal we will print his communication, and also any important replies from competent Owing to the large numbers of shooting stars visible on workers on the subject which may be sent to us.--Ev.] the night of November 15, 1903, the expectation of witnessing a meteoric spectacle on perhaps a more extensive scale
antelopes' horns, nor are they arranged homonymously, as will probably be revived on the near approach of the Leonid in most sheep's horns, but the twisted petals have the same epoch of 1904. Reasons have already been given for sup- direction on each side, and in the cases above mentioned posing that last year's display was connected by the nine
the right-handed spiral is always present. In trying to teen years' period with a very similar phenomenon observed find a cause for the direction, I expected it to appear that on November 13, 1865, the interval between the two events before and during the unfolding of the flower the petals representing two complete revolutions of the meteoric cycle. were twisted when lying together, and thus took the bias, The present epoch, therefore, which is thus associated with which continued during growth. If two strips of paper the historic meteor shower of November 14, 1866, will be be laid together and twisted into a pipe-lighter, each, when liable to reproduce its brilliant prototype, though only to a separated, would exhibit the same spiral twist. limited extent.
Examination of the still-folded flower proves that this The anticipated shower, however, if it takes place, will simple explanation is not the true one, and, at least in not occur on the night of November 14, as it might naturally S. grande, the petals are straight when they show at first have been expected to do, owing to 1904 being a leap year. (two inches or more in length), and become afterwards The meteor-swarm, according to calculations made by the spirally twisted during growth and elongation. present writer, has undergone considerable retardation since The necessary bias to determine the direction of the spiral 1903, and as a result of this perturbation the Leonid meteor evidently acts after the unfolding of the flower, and is a shower becomes due in 1904 on the night of November 15. slight force acting continuously during growth, such as It is on the latter night, therefore, that the maximum will would be made by the circulation if there were a difference take place, whether it culminate in a shower or not. There in the circulation of the sap in the two edges of each petal. will occur, however, on November 14, 15h., an interesting This difference would act alike in each, and would make miniature meteor display. The shower on the night of each petal twist in the same way; but, of course, this is a November 15, though not so intense, will be more extensive mere conjectural suggestion.
GEORGE WHERRY. than that of 1866, as maxima fall due at gh., 12h. to 15h., Cambridge, October 30. and 17h. zom. G.M.T. JOHN R. HENRY.
The story of the cat that saved the cook, in your last issue, From time to time controversies have appeared in various
is certainly remarkable, but surely it is not unusual for journals regarding that most difficult of all physical con
cats to find out how to direct attention when they want to ceptions-entropy. I have purposely avoided passing any
get into or out of a house, or for them to conceal their
kittens in curious places. opinions as to the merits of the views of different writers, as
Two instances of the former occur to me among many. I have considered the question far too large a one to be dealt with satisfactorily by destructive criticism directed
A cat in my father's house used to rattle the letter-plate at towards particular points. I have, however, now found a
the front door (it was in a window near the door) whenever definition of entropy which certainly appears to meet most
it was shut out, and another, in my own house, would come of the objections to the conventional treatment. That
to any lighted window, even on the top storey, and tap at definition may be stated somewhat as follows:
the glass if it was shut out at night. In the same house a Let the available energy of any system at any instant
cat hid its kittens, after one family had been destroyed, relative to a refrigerator of temperature T, be defined by
under the boards of a lead flat, so that, as they grew, it could the condition that it is the maximum amount of energy
not get them out, and directed our attention to them by that could be obtained from the system at that instant by running backwards and forwards. They were released by reversible thermodynamic engines working between the
taking up the boards. **stem and the refrigerator To, the remaining portion of
From cats to birds seems a natural transition. I have a the energy being, of course, called non-available energy. curious instance, at this moment, of a pair of robins misThen in any change of the system the increase of entropy
taking their own importance. Last spring they built, and is the quantity obtained by dividing the increase of non
reared their family, in a hole in the wall of an old country available energy by the temperature T, of the refrigerator.
mansion, which was being rebuilt under my supervision. I hope to publish a detailed treatment shortly, but in the
The wall was inside the house, in the great hall, and the meantime I would mention that this definition overcomes female sat on her nest, looking out at the workmen, amid all the difficulties inherent in the conventional treatment of
all the noise and disturbance of building. They disappeared at least the more ordinary irreversible phenomena, such as
in the summer, but now that the house is finished and friction, impact, gas rushing into a vacuum.
occupied, the pair have returned, and Ait about the same If we adopt the principle of degradation of energy as the
hall and the adjoining drawing-room, evidently under the fundamental second law of thermodynamics (as I suggested | impression that the house was built for them. in the Boltzmann Festschrift), Clausius's statement that the
R. LANGTON COLE. entropy of the universe tends to a maximum now follows at once. So, too, do his inequalities. For every irreversible
Change in the Colour of Moss Agate. transformation in the interior of a system produces loss of A FRIEND of mine possesses a penholder the handle of available energy, and therefore (since it does not affect the which is made of moss agate. Originally the colour of the Exital energy) increase of non-available energy, and there
handle was bluish throughout, but recently the upper part fore increase of entropy. We may say that entropy can be of the handle has become very much lighter in colour and generated, but never destroyed. It follows that the total much more transparent. increase of entropy in the system is greater than the quantity I thought perhaps some of your readers could tell me of entropy entering from without. This is Clausius's in- whether it is usual for moss agates to undergo changes of quality for an irreversible non-cyclic process. If the process
this kind after having been cut and polished, and, if it is medic the total gain of entropy is zero, and therefore the usual, to what agent or agents the change is ascribed. entropy generated in the system must be exported during
W. A. WHITTON. the cycle. This is Clausius's inequality for a cyclic process. County School, Bridgend, November 7.
The introduction of the refrigerator presents no real difficulty. If non-available energy, instead of being given
The Origin of Life. to the refrigerator T., is worked down reversibly to a re- MR. HOOKHAM ingeniously argues that experiments to frigerator at a lower temperature T, its amount will be evolve living out of non-living matter are inconclusive and decreased in the ratio T, : T..
G. H. BRYAN. must probably always fail because the sterilising agent
used, which is commonly heat, “ eliminates not only life, The Direction of the Spiral in the Petals of but its potentiality at one stroke." Selenipedium.
Most of us believe that the earth was at one time an inIs Selenipedium grande, S. longifoliuni, and S. conchi- candescent globe. Neither life nor the potentiality of life ferum, the iwisted petals are so arranged that the direction
could have existed in such circumstances. How would Mr. of the spiral is right-handed on each side.
Hookham, on the theory of evolution, explain their first They are not heteronymous, i.e. the right petal with a introduction?
GEOLOGIST. lelt toist and the left petal with a right twist, as in all
I NATURE, December 12, 1901; Lancet, January 1, 1898.
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF WIDMANN- stituent is, of course, ferrite, in this case nearly pure STÄTTEN'S FIGURES IN STEEL CASTINGS. iron, and has obviously assumed that crystalline struc
ture characteristic of the Widmannstätten figures. SOM OME little time ago, during his inspection of the metallurgical laboratories
The lower half-section of Fig. 1 delineates the structhe University
ture of the metal after the operation of annealing. College of Sheffield, Sir Norman Lockyer exhibited
The two stages of annealing were carried out as considerable interest in the fact then communicated
follows :—first, the steel, protected so far as possible to him that almost invariably small steel castings exhibited in the first stage of their manufacture the Widmannstätten figures, provided that the carbon was near the semi-saturation point of steel, namely, 0.45 per cent. The authors communicated the following brief note in the hope that it would be interesting to mineralogists and astronomers.
43° BROKE. For many years an exhaustive research into the properties of steel castings has been proceeding at the Sheffield College. This research necessarily involves a close investigation of the influence of mass; hence the weight of the experimental castings varies from about 28 lb. to 2 tons. In such heavy castings as those last named the Widmannstätten figures are seldom found, the slow cooling of the mass exerting an influence similar to that of annealing, an operation which, as will presently be seen, causes a change in structure so profound as almost always to destroy the
AFTER ANNEALING. 180° UNBROKEN. figures. The authors therefore selected for purposes of demonstration research casting No. 541, weighing Fig. 2.- Dimensions of test-pieces :-10" x 2" diam. ; bending radius, \". about 30 lb. The mean analysis of drillings from this metal, taken from a portion of the casting 18 inches in from the air, was maintained for about seventy hours diameter, registered the following figures :
at a temperature of about 950° C. ; secondly, it was Per cent.
allowed to cool very slowly, occupying, perhaps, Carbon
another seventy hours in falling to a temperature at Silicon
which it could be comfortably handled. The result Manganese
was a total re-arrangement of the pattern presented by Sulphur
the ferrite and pearlite, and a consequent elimination Phosphorus ...
of the figures. This change in structure was accomAluminium
panied by a profound change also in the mechanical Iron by difference
properties of the steel. The structure of the metal as cast is shown in the
Fig. 2 reproduces, before and after annealing, bendupper half-section of Fig. 1. As usual, it exhibits two ing tests made on bars 10 inches long and i inch in
diameter. The metal as cast snapped sharply, after bending through an angle of 43° over a radius of
inch. The annealed steel bent through an angle of 180° without exhibiting any signs of fracture. At the request of Prof. Lewis, of Cambridge University, the authors have submitted to him duplicate sections of the steels figured in this paper. Prof. Lewis considers that an interesting point raised is as to whether the occurrence of the Widmannstätten figures in pieces of metallic iron dug out of the earth necessarily proves them to be of meteoric origin.
The authors have to thank their colleague Mr. J. H. Wreaks, demonstrator of metallography at the Sheffield College, for his patient and precise reproduction of the structures figured in this note. J. O. ARNOLD.
FORESTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. AN
MONG the professional papers of the United
States Geological Survey we have already noticed AFTER ANNEALING
the first six reports dealing with the various forest reserves in the States of Oregon, Washington, and
California. The two latest reports, Nos. 7 and 8, now Fig. 1.-Research casting 541. Reduced from micrograph. Magnified
to hand, deal with the forest conditions in the San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve and the Black
Mesa Forest Reserve in the State of Arizona. The constituents, the magnification being too low to reveal former report is by John B. Leiberg, Theodore F. its third and fourth constituents, namely, the sulphides Rickson, and Arthur Dodwell, with an introduction of manganese and iron also present in minute quanti- by F. G. Plummer; while the latter report was preties. The dark etching constituent is pearlite pared by F. G. Plummer from notes by Theodore F. (21Fe + Fe,C), its colour being due to the liberation Rickson and Arthur Dodwell. Both forest reserves during etching of an automatic stain composed of that were first created by proclamation of President dark, carbonaceous colouring matter upon which the M'Kinley, dated August 17, 1898. The region in well-known carbon colour test depends. The pale con- which the San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve is situated forms a kind of plateau, traversed by This unsatisfactory condition is attributable to the numerous deep canons and dotted by several hundred numerous fires which have occurred in this region
within the last 200 years. In addition, to the destruction caused by fire, careless cutting and grazing have done much damage in the reserve.
The reproductive capacity of the yellow pine in the reserve is extremely small, there being a great deficit in seedling and sapling growth. There has apparently been a complete cessation of reproduction over large areas during the past twenty or twenty-five years. This low reproductive capacity is attributed to various causes-some depending on the operation of natural agencies, others on human intervention. The grazing value of the reserve was at one time very great. As the gramineous flora of the region is a rich one, there was formerly a luxuriant growth of grass, but owing to the persistent and excessive pasturing, especially by sheep, the turf-formi grasses were reduced in size and vegetative activity, which led to various changes in the character of the subsequent vegetation. What was formerly pasture land is now covered by exuberant growths of various low desert shrubs and herbaceous Compositæ, particularly species of sunflowers.
The agricultural value of the region is not great, there being only some 2500 acres under the plough, and these occur in the now dry beds of what were formerly Stone-man and Mormon lakes, or at the foot of ridges where local areas of seepage exist. The crops consist of oats, wheat, and potatoes. There is no fruit culture in this region. This reserve, like the others, is subdivided into townships and ranges, the detailed descriptions of which are included in the report. At the end we have a very useful summary, showing in tabular form a classification of lands in the reserve by townships. The maps and photographic illustration's are of the same high standard as those which accompany the other reports of this series.
The Black Mesa Forest Reserve comprises an area
of 2786 square miles, made up as follows :Fig. 1.-Fire Scars on Yellow Pine.
Square mil Timbered area 2248.5
5.5 volcanic cones, which vary in height from 100 feet to Woodland
391 Logged area 1000 feet. The soil is various, but gravelly loam is Timberless area 140 the prevailing type. On the slopes of the volcanic cones and ridges in their neighbourhood seoriaceous soils prevail. The water-retaining capacity of the latter class of soil is not very great. The loamy soils are best adapted for forest growth. As regards drainage, the visible run of permanent surface flow is smail. Most of the precipitation sinks either within the reserve or in the desert or semi-desert tracks which border it.
Electric storms do considerable damage to the standing crop in the reserves, and it is estimated that in some places as many as 5 per cent, of the trees have been struck and killed by lightning. There are twelve coniferous species in the reserve, but the yellow pine predominates, producing more than 99 per cent. of the merchantable timber, and forming 90 per cent. of the total lorest. About the same number of broad-leaved species occur, but
Fig. 2.-Large Growth of Alligator Juniper. a complete list of them is not available. All over the reserve the stands of yellow A very striking feature of the report is the depine do not carry an average crop of more than 40 per crease in the water supply due to successive seasons cent of the timber they are capable of producing. | of drought, which have practically destroyed the value
• of the grazing and agricultural areas in the reserve. instruction at that time. To take the case of the laborThree years ago the wheat crop yielded 5000 bushels. atory accommodation for the teaching of chemistry. The following year it fell to 2500 bushels, and last | In 1893 there appear to have been about fourteen season the yield was only 800 bushels. A cattle ranche chemical laboratories in London open in the evening in the range, which used to graze more than 100,000 for instruction; since that time well equipped depart. head, will now support not more than gooo head. As ments for teaching practical chemistry have been a remedy it is suggested to adopt stringent rules, opened in eleven new polytechnic institutions. The regulating the number of stock and the areas on which total volume of instruction in evening classes in they shall be grazed on each permit
. Very little chemistry in 1893 was only about 38,000 student-hours lumbering has been carried out within the reserve, per session, and in polytechnics under 15,000 students which is apparently due to the difficulties and expense hours. In 1893, after omitting the attendances of of transport. The timber species, coniferous and students who did not attend for more than twenty broad-leaved, number fifteen, the yellow pine being the hours during the session, the amount of time devoted principal timber tree. It is distributed uniformly to evening work in theoretical and practical chemistry throughout the extent of the reserve. In some ranges amounted to 64,554 student-hours in the polytechnics it forms a pure forest. Its average height is 125 feet, | alone. with 24 feet of clear trunk with a diameter of 18 inches The result obtained by comparing the advance made at breast height. It varies in age from 125 to 150 in the teaching of electricity and electrical technology years.
is just as striking as in the case of chemistry. In 1893 The Engelmann's spruce occupies the moister areas there were five electrical laboratories open for evening above an altitude of 9000 feet. It averages 70 feet in instruction, while in 1903 there were twenty-three inheight and 10 inches in diameter. Its age varies from stitutions giving evening instruction in electricity or 50 to 75 years. Its growth is extremely rapid, but the electrical technology, or both. In practical electrical tree is usually clothed with branches to the ground. engineering there were only four centres in 1893 availA variety of the Engelmann's spruce, Picea engel able for evening instruction, and only one applied for mannii, var. Franciscana, known as the Arizona aid from the Board, and at this institution there were spruce, gives much better results, averaging 100 feet thirty-eight students. During the session 1902–3 there in height with 20 feet of clear trunk and a diameter were, in polytechnics aided by the Board, a large and of 18 inches
. Red fir, white fir, western white pine, increasing number of students for electrical engineeralligator juniper, and Arizona cypress also occur ing, and the volume of instruction, omitting students within the area. The deciduous trees are confined to who attended for less than twenty hours during the the borders of streams and marshy areas. The repro- session, amounted to 43,909 student-hours. In addition ductive capacity of the various species is exceptionally to these, a large number attended classes in electricity good, especially where the young growth is afforded and magnetism in the physics departmenis of the shelter by the larger trees. The underbrush through institutions. The volume of instruction here reached out the areas in which the yellow pine predominates 32,872 student-hours. is very small, and consequently this region has not suffered much injury from forest fires. The report also London for pure technological teaching. From the list
Ten years ago there was scarcely any provision in embodies detailed descriptions of the various sub- of evening classes for 1903 it appears that technological divisions of the range, together with carefully prepared instruction is now available in a great variety of submaps and beautiful photographic plates. Of the latter | jects, of which the most important are :--bricklaying we have reproduced two as an example of the interest and brick-cutting in twelve institutions, cabineting way in which these papers are illustrated.
making in nine, carpentry and joinery in twenty, furniture design in nine, masonry in nine, metal-plate work
in eight, painting and decorating in twelve, photoTECHNICAL EDUCATION IN LONDON."
process work in four, plastering in nine, plumbing in
fifteen, printing in four, smithing in six, tailors' THE last report of the Technical Education Board cutting in seven, and upholstery in six. This rapid
of the London County Council, dealing with the increase in the number of polytechnics and technical year 1903–4, directs special attention to the progress institutes in which adequate provision is made for made in the provision of technical, secondary, and practical instruction in trade subjects has had a rehigher education in London during the past eleven markable effect in producing an interest in the scientific years. Under the recent Education Act (London), principles underlying the various trades concerned. 1903, the administration of the whole of the education As an example, the report quotes the case of the of London passed into the hands of the new Education Northampton Institute in Clerkenwell, in which district Committee, and the Technical Education Board ceased there is a very large number of special trades.. In to exist. The present report is consequently opportune, order to meet the demands of the neighbourhood, and serves to record the great services which have been classes were started in subjects in which no organised rendered to education in London by the late Board. technical instruction had previously been given in
The most striking features of the report are the London. Some of these have been remarkably evidences provided of the increase and rapid develop- successful, and in several cases it has been found ment of polytechnic institutions, the establishment and necessary to increase the number of evenings of success of London County Council schools and instruction in order to provide for the large number of technical institutes, and the improvement in the equip- students in attendance. ment and staffing of secondary schools. The extent of There has been also, says the report, a natural the advances made can be estimated satisfactorily by tendency during the past few years for sporadic comparing the number of educational institutions pro- classes in trade subjects to disappear in consequence viding good scientific and technical education at the of the increasing popularity of the polytechnics and time of the supersession of the Technical Board with larger technical institutes in which are found the number in existence in 1893, when Mr. Llewellyn thoroughly well equipped laboratories and workshops. Smith reported on the provision made for technical The number of distinct trades in which practical in1 "Annual Report of the Technical Education Board of the London
struction is provided, and also the number of centres County Council, 1903-1904." (Westminster : P. S. King and Son, 1904.)
where such courses of instruction can be obtained,
have more than doubled during the past nine years,
Price 28. 6d.