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FRANCIS QUARLES, son of James Quarles, esq. clerk of the green cloth, and purveyor of the navy to queen Elizabeth, was born at Stewards near Romford in Essex, in 1592. He was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, and at Lincoln's Inn. He was subsequently preferred to the office of cup-bearer to Elizabeth, daughter of king James I. elec tress palatine, and queen of Bohemia; though he quitted her service, probably on the ruin of her husband's affairs, and went over to Ireland, where he became secretary to the learned archbishop Usher. On the breaking out of the rebellion in Ireland in 1641, he was compelled to fly to England again for safety, where he repaired to Charles I. then at Oxford. This circumstance, together with the

publication of a piece, which he entitled, "The Loyal Convert," gave umbrage to the republican party, which ruined his fortunes. But the injury he most regretted was, the plunder of his books, and of some valued MSS. he had designed for the press; circumstances which are said to have accelerated his death, which happened in 1644.

In his day he was most known as a poet; though he was also the author of a few prose works, of which the principal is his

"Enchiridion-containing institutions Divine {Practical. S Contemplative,

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If a kingdom be apt to rebellion, it is wisdom to preserve the nobility and commons at variance; where one of them is discontented, the danger is not great. The commons are slow of motion, if not quickened with the nobility; the nobility is weak of power, if not strengthened by the commons. There

is danger, when the commonalty trouble the water, and the nobility step in.

Chap. 55.

It is a perilous weakness in a state to be slow of resolution in the time of war. To be irresolute in determinations is both the sign and the ruin of a weak state. Such affairs attend not time. Let a wise statesman therefore abhor delay, and resolve rather what to do, than advise what to say. Slow deliberations are symptoms either of a faint courage, or weak forces, or false hearts.

Chap. 59.

It is dangerous for a prince to use ambitious natures, but upon necessity, either for his wars, or to be skreens for his dangers, or to be instruments for the demolishing insolent greatness. And that they may be the less dangerous, let him choose them rather out of mean births than noble; and out of harsh natures, rather than plausible. And always be sure to balance them with those that are as proud as they,

Chap. 61.

In a mixed monarchy, if the hierarchy grow too absolute, it is wisdom in a prince rather to redress it, than suppress it. All alterations in a fundamental government bring apparent dangers; but too sudden alteration threatens inevitable ruin. When Aaron made a molten calf, Moses altered not the government, but reproved the governor,

Chap. 62,

Before thou build a fortress, consider to what end. If for resistance against the enemy, it is useless. A valiant army is a living fortress. If for suppressing the subject, it is hurtful. It breeds jealousies, and jealousies beget hatred. If thou hast a strong army to maintain it, it adds nothing to thy strength. If thy army be weak, it conduces much to thy danger. The surest fortress is the hands of thy soldiers: and the safest citadel is the hearts of thy subjects.

Chap. 63.

It is a princely alchemy, out of a necessary war, to extract an honorable peace; and more beseeming

the majesty of a prince, to thirst after peace, than conquest. Blessedness is promised to the peacemaker; not to the conqueror. It is a happy state, whose prince hath a peaceful hand, and a martial heart, able both to use peace, and to manage war.

Chap. 66.

It is a great oversight in a prince, for any respects, either actively or passively, to make a foreign kingdom strong. He that gives means to another to become powerful, weakens himself, and enables him to take the advantage of his own weak


Chap. 67.

When the humours of the people are stirred by discontents, or popular grief, it is wisdom in a prince to give them moderate liberty to evaporate. He that turns the humour back too hastily, makes the wound bleed inwardly, and fills the body with ma lignity.

Chap. 75,

If thou be ambitious of honour, and yet fearful


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