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Church, Trinity, St. John's, and Wadham Colleges, and St. Mary Hall, in respect of lectures in Modern History.

(7) Between Exeter, Brasenose, St. John's, Jesus, Wadham, and Keble Colleges in respect of certain lectures for the School of Theology.

Any member of the Colleges which have entered into these several combinations is free to attend any lectures which are given by the lecturers who have entered into the combination. Other members of the University, whether they are or are not attached to a College or Hall, are also usually admitted to these lectures on the application of their Tutors, and on payment of a fee which varies from £1 to £3 35.

§ 3. Of Private Tuition. Before the recent extension of Professorial and College teaching most candidates for University Honours were practically compelled to avail themselves of private help. This help was given, partly by College Tutors during the hours which were not employed in College lectures, partly by other resident Graduates. Many of the most distinguished members of the University were thus employed, and much of the best teaching was only thus to be obtained. But although there are still some cases in which a candidate for Honours may find it advisable to supplement in this way the help which he can derive from public sources, private tuition is no longer practically indispensable to the attainment of high distinction.

For students of another class private tuition prevails to an even greater extent than formerly. Nearly all the instruction which is given by College Tutors to candidates for ordinary degrees is necessarily adapted to the average requirements of such candidates : and consequently those students who, from defective preliminary training or other causes, fall below the average standard of attainment, usually require more full and individual help than College Tutors afford. This help is more necessary on first entrance than afterwards : and it is often a mistaken economy not to seek it.

For whatever purpose a private Tutor be required, it is very desirable that a student should seek the advice of his College Tutor or of the Censors of Unattached Students, before selecting one. Among private Tutors are many Graduates of high attainments and wide experience, but it should be remembered that the attainment of academical distinction is not always an indication of the power of communicating knowledge, and also that where a subject of study has many branches it is not always easy for a student to find out without guidance the particular branch in which a particular Tutor excels.

The fee of a private Tutor has been for a long time fixed by custom at £20 for an hour's lecture on six days in the week for eight weeks, or £10 for an hour's lecture on three days in the week. Some private Tutors receive their pupils in small classes, the fee for which varies both with the particular Tutor and the particular subject of study. The average fee for each member of a class is £5.


Oxford has long been singularly rich in the means of acquiring literary information; it has lately become rich also in the means of acquiring scientific knowledge. It is less rich in Antiquities and objects of Art; but what it does possess is both interesting and valuable. Most of these means, whether literary, scientific, or artistic, are readily accessible to all members of the University.

§ 1. The Bodleian Library. The Bodleian Library consists partly of the original collection of the founder, partly of collections which have been from time to time bequeathed to the University, partly of copies of every copyright work published in England, and partly of purchased books and MSS. It contains at present between 300,000 and 400,000 volumes.

For purposes of reading it is divided into two parts.

(1) The Library proper, which contains the greater part of the collection, is open between 9 A.M. and 4 P.M. from Lady-day to Michaelmas, and between 9 A.M. and 3 P.M. from Michaelmas to Lady-day. It is entirely closed on Sundays, on the Epiphany, from Good Friday to the end of Easter-week, on Ascension-day, on the Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun-week, on Commemoration-day, the first seven days of October, on November 7 and 8, and from December 24 to January i inclusive. On days on which a University sermon is preached it is not opened until the sermon is concluded. • (2) The Camera Radcliviana, which occupies the building originally erected for Dr. Radcliffe's Library, is open on every day on which the Library itself is open, but for longer hours, viz. from 10 A.M. to 10 P.M., except during the Long Vacation, when it closes on Saturdays at 4 P.M. It contains most of the newest additions to the Bodleian Library, and also a large number of standard works of reference, especially upon the leading subjects of academical study. Its tables are covered with the chief periodicals, literary, scientific, and religious, both British and

foreign, and most of its shelves are accessible to all readers without the necessity of making a formal application for each book. Any book which is contained in the Bodleian Library may be read in the Camera, provided that application be made on one of the written forms which are provided for the purpose : a student who commences his reading in the Library proper, but wishes to continue it at an hour when that building is closed, may, on giving proper notice, have his books transferred to the Camera: and a student who wishes to continue his reading of particular books from day to day can have them kept for him on application to one of the attendants.

Both the Library proper and the Camera Radcliviana are open to readers on the same conditions: that is to say,

(1) All Graduates whose names are retained on the books of the University, and all Students of Civil Law or Medicine, are admitted as of right.

(2) Undergraduates are admitted on presenting a written recommendation from their Tutor, to be countersigned by the Librarian.

(3) Strangers are admitted on presenting a written recommendation from a Graduate of the University, or on other sufficiently respectable introduction. (Strangers who wish not to use but merely to view the Library are admitted, without introduction, on payment of a small fee to the attendant.)

All readers in the Library proper are required to consult the catalogue, and write down the exact title of any book they require. This requirement does not however extend to the bibliographical works, which will be found in a case near the Librarian's chair, or to the dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and larger works of reference, which will be found at the further end of the principal room. Those who experience a difficulty in finding any books which they may require will find the Librarian and his assistants ready to give them efficient help. The catalogues which are accessible to the student are as follows:

1. CATALOGUES OF PRINTED Books. 1. The General Catalogue, which is in process of completion, and in which the full titles of every edition of an author which the Library possesses are arranged in chronological order under the author's name. So far as this catalogue is completed it renders the consultation of the other catalogues unnecessary for printed books; but where it is not yet completed, the student should consult(a) The catalogue which was published in 1843 of books (with the

exception of certain collections) which existed in the Library up

to the year 1835. (6) The supplemental catalogue which was published in 1851, of

books acquired by the Library between the years 1835 and 1847. Annotated copies of both these catalogues will be found on the

desk in the window behind the Librarian's chair. (c) The • slips' containing the titles of all books which have been ac

quired since 1847. These may be consulted on application to an

attendant. For special subjects, the special catalogues mentioned below should

also be consulted. 2. The Catalogus Dissertationum Academicarum, i.e. a list of about 43,000 dissertations, which were purchased in Germany in 1827.

3. The Catalogue of the Gough Collection, which consists of about 3,700 volumes, (I) of maps and topographical prints [of these a more detailed account exists in MS.), (2) of books and MSS. relating to general, ecclesiastical, and English county topography, (3) of books and MSS. bearing on Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian literature, (4) of Early English service-books, (5) of drawings of monuments in French churches.

4. The Catalogue of the Douce Collection, which consists of 16,840 printed volumes, besides MSS., prints, and charters. The collection is especially rich in history, antiquities, Bibles and liturgical works, and early French literature.

5. The Catalogue of the Hope Collection, which consists of 760 specimens of English newspapers and essayists, chiefly of the eighteenth century.

6. The Catalogue of the Oppenheimer Collection, which consists of about 4,300 printed works, and 780 MSS., all relating to Hebrew literature.

7. The Catalogue of the Mortara Collection, which consists of about 1,400 volumes of Italian literature.


The general catalogue is in course of completion, and eight parts have already been published: they are as follows:

I. Codices Graeci : a catalogue of all the Greek MSS. in the Library which are not included in the special collections mentioned below.

2. Codices Laudiani : a catalogue of the Latin, Biblical, Classical, and Miscellaneous MSS. of the collection which was given by Archbishop Laud. The Greek MSS. of the same collection are described in the catalogue of Codices Graeci, and the Oriental in the various catalogues enumerated below.

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