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by the administrative departments of Government would and had further devoted to that purpose considerable sumns be more appropriate to a committee appointed by the from its own Donation Fund and Government grant. Council of the Association for this purpose than to the Further aid for it was also received from private sources. Presidential Address.

From this Observatory at last has sprung, in the beginning At the same time, I think the present occasion is one of the present century, the National Physical Laboratory on which attention should be drawn in general terms to in Bushey Park, a fine and efficient scientific institution, the fact that science is not gaining advancement in built and supported by grants from the State, and managed public and official consideration and support. The reason by a committee of really devoted men of science who are is, I think, to be found in the defective education, both largely representatives of the Royal Society. In addition at school and university, of our governing class, as well to the value of the site and buildings occupied by the as in a racial dislike among all classes to the establish- National Physical Laboratory, the Government has conment and support by public funds of posts which the tributed altogether 34,000l. to the capital expenditure on average man may not expect to succeed by popular clamour new buildings, fittings, and apparatus, and has further or class privilege in gaining for himself-posts which assigned grant of 6000l. a year to the working of the must be held by men of special training and mental gifts. | laboratory. This institution all men of science are truly Whatever the reason for the neglect, the only remedy / glad to have gained from the State, and they will rewhich we can possibly apply is that of improved education member with gratitude the statesmen-the late Marquis of for the upper classes, and the continued effort to spread a Salisbury, the Right Hon. Arthur J, Balfour, Mr. Haldane, knowledge of the results of science and a love for it and others—as well as their own leaders-Lord Rayleigh, amongst all members of the community. If members of Sir William Huggins, and the active body of physicists in the British Association took this matter seriously to heart the Royal Society-who have carried this enterprise to they might do a great deal by insisting that their sons, completion. The British Association has every reason to and their daughters too, should have reasonable instruc- be proud of its share in early days in nursing the germ a: tion in science both at school and college. They could, Kew which has at length expanded into this splendid by their own initiative and example, do a good deal to national institution. put an end to the trifling with classical literature and the I may mention also another institution which, during absorption in athletics which is considered by too many the past quarter of a century, has come into existence and schoolmasters as that which the British parent desires as received, originally through the influence of the late Lord the education of his children.

Playfair (one of the few men of science who have ever Within the past year a letter has been published by a occupied the position of a Minister of the Crown), and well-known nobleman, who is one of the Trustees of the later by the influence of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamber. British Museum, holding up to public condemnation the lain, a subsidy of 1000l. a year from the Government and method in which the system laid down by the officials a contribution of goool, towards its initial expenses. This of the Treasury and sanctioned by successive Govern- is the Marine Biological Association, which has a labor ments, as to the remuneration of scientific men, atory at Plymouth, and has lately expended a special applied in an individual case. I desire to place on record annual grant, at the spontaneous invitation of His here the Earl of Crawford's letter to the Times of Majesty's Treasury, in conducting an investigation of the October 31, 1905, for the careful consideration of the North Sea in accordance with an international scheine members of the British Association and their friends. devised by a central committee of scientific experts. This When such things are done, science cannot be said to have scheme has for its purpose the gaining such knowledge vi advanced much in public consideration or Governmental the North Sea and its inhabitants as shall be useful ir support.

dealing practically and by legislation with the great fisheries To the Editor of the Times.

of that area. You will, perhaps, not be surprised to hear Sir.-The death, noted by you to-day, of my dear friend and colleague,

that there are persons in high positions who, though Dr. Copeland, His Majesty's Astron mer for Scoiland, creates a vacancy in

admittedly unacquainted with the scientific questions af the scientific staff of Great Britain.

issue or the proper manner of solving them, are discon. Will you permir me, Sir, to offer a word of warning to any who may be

tented with the action of the Government in entrusting asked to succeed him?

Studen's or masters of astronomy are not, in the selfish sense, business the expenditure of public money to a body of scientific men mon. nor are they as a general rule overburdened with this world's goods. who give their services, without reward or thanks to It beboves them henceforth to take more care as to their future in case of illness or physical infirmity, and not to trust to the gratitude or generous

carrying out the purposes of the international inquiry impulse of the Treasury Department.

Strange criticisms are offered by these malcontents in rem In old days it was the custom when a man distingui-hed in science was gard to the work done in the international exploration of brought into a high position in the civil Service that he wa- credited with a the North Sea, and a desire is expressed to secure the certain number of years se vice ranking for pension This practice has heen don- away with and a bargain system sub-tituied. A short while ago

money for expenditure by a less scientific agency. I di the growing agonies of heart disease cau-ed Dr Copeland to fel that he

not hesitate to say here that the results obtained by the was less ahle to carry on the duties of his post, and he determined to resign ; Marine Biological Association are of great value and but he learnt that under the scale, and in the abserce of any special bargain, the pension he would receive would not suffice for the necessities of life.

interest, and, if properly continued and put to practical The only increase his friends could get from the Treasury was an offer to

application, are likely to benefit very greatly the fisher allow him about half-a-crown a week exira by way of a house.

industry ; on the other hand, if the work is cut short or Indignant and ashamed of my Government, I persuaded Dr. Copeland to entrusted to incompetent hands it will no doubt be the withdraw his resignition and to retain the official position which he has honoured till his death.

case that what has already been done will lose its value I trust, Sir, that this memorandum of mine may cause eminent men of that is to say, will have been wasted. There is imminen science who are asked to enter the service of the State when already of danger of this perversion of the funds assigned to the middle age to take heed for their future welfare. I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

scientific investigation taking place. There is no guaranter 2 Cavendish Square, October 28.

CRAWFORD.

for the continuance of any funds or offices assigned tn

science in one generation by the officials of the next. The It is more agreeable to me not to dwell further on the Mastership of the Mint held by Isaac Newton, and finally comparative failure of science to gain increased influence by Thomas Graham, has been abolished and its saları and support in this country, but to mention to you some appropriated by non-scientific officials. Only a few year instances on the other side of the account. As long ago

ago it was with great difficu that the Government of as 1842 the British Association took over and developed the day was prevented from assigning the Directorship my an observatory in the Deer Park at Kew, which was

Kew Gardens to a young man of influence devoid of all placed at the disposal of the Association by Her Majesty knowledge of botany! the Queen. Until 1871 the Association spent annually a One of the most solid tests of the esteem and ralur large part of its income--as much in later years as 600l. attached to scientific progress by the community is the a year--in carrying on the work of the Kew Observatory, dedication of large sums of money to scientific purposes by consisting of magnetic, meteorological and physical observ- its wealthier members. We know that in the United ations. In 1871 the Association handed over the Observ- States such gifts are not infrequent; they are rare in this atory to the Roval Society, which had received an endow- country. It is, therefore, with especial pleasure that I ment of 10,00ol. from Mr. Gassiot for its maintenance, call your attention to a great gift to science in this

etuntry made only a few years ago. Lord Iveagh has Prof. C. V. Boys will act in an advisory capacity from endowed the Lister Institute, for researches in connection the astronomical and scientific point of view. The reprewith the prevention of disease, with no less a sum than a quarter of a million pounds sterling. This is the largest Prof. J. A. Ewing and Lord Rosse.

sentatives appointed by the Admiralty on the committee are gift ever made to science in this country, and will be productive of great benefit to humanity. The Lister Institute The seventy-fourth annual meeting of the British Medical took its origin in the surplus of a fund raised by Sir James Association will be held at Toronto, Canada, on August 21. Whitehead when Lord Mayor, some sixteen years ago, for

The president-elect is Dr. Richard A. Reeve, of the the purpose of making a gift to the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where many English patients had been treated,

University of Toronto. Addresses will be delivered in without charge, after being bitten by rabid dogs. Three

medicine by Sir James Barr, in surgery by Sir Victor thousand pounds was sent to M. Pasteur, and the surplus Horsley, F.R.S., and in obstetrics by Dr. Walter S. A. of a few hundred pounds was made the starting-point of Griffith. The business of the meeting will be carried or a fund which grew, by one generous gist and another, until in thirteen sections, dealing respectively with anatomy, the Lister Institute on the Thames Embankment at Chelsea dermatology, laryngology, medicine, obstetrics and gynæ. was set up on a site presented by that good and high-cology, ophthalmology, pædiatrics, pathology and bacteriminded man, the late Duke of Westminster.

Many other noble gifts to scientific research have been ology, physiology, psychology, State medicine, surgery, and made in this country during the period on which we are therapeutics. Several receptions and soirées have been looking back. Let us be thankful for them, and admire arranged, and the last day of the meeting is to be devoted the wise munificence of the donors. But none the less we

to outings. must refuse to rely entirely on such liberality for the development of the army of science, which has to do battle On Tuesday the Natural History Museum received, from for mankind against the obvious disabilities and suffer- Mr. Rowland Ward's establishment, a mounted specimen ings which afflict us and can be removed by knowledge. of a wild male African elephant, standing 11 feet 4 inches The organisation and finance of this army should be the

at the shoulder. The animal was shot in Rhodesia. The care of the State.

It is a fact which many of us who have observed it specimen could only be brought into the museum by taking regret very keenly, that there is to-day a less widespread down the doors, and, after considerable difficulty, was duly interest than formerly in natural history and general installed in the central hall, facing the entrance. This is science, outside the strictly professional arena of the school the first wild African elephant's skin that has ever been and university. The field naturalists among the squires mounted. The architect should be congratulated upon his and the country parsons seem nowadays not to be so numerous and active in their delightful pursuits as formerly,

clever achievement in one of the largest buildings in London and the Mechanics’ Institutes and Lecture Societies of the

with really one of the largest doors until he had artistically days of Lord Brougham have given place, to a very large obliterated it. restent, to musical performances, bioscopes, and other entertainments, more diverting. but not really more

The contents of Nos. 7 and 8 of Naturen include articles capable of giving pleasure than those in which science was

on the habits of humble-bees, Chilian nitre, squirrels' nests, popularised. No doubt the organisation and professional and “ animalcules.” character of scientific work are to a large extent the cause

IN

the development of the cusps of this falling-off in its attraction for amateurs.

paper on

But perhaps that decadence is also due in some measure to the

mammalian cheek-teeth, published in the Proceedings of the increased general demand for a kind of manufactured Washington Academy (vol. vii., pp. 91–110), Mr. J. W. gaiety, readily sent out in these days of easy transport Gidley points out that, in his opinion, the tritubercular from the great centres of fashionable amusement to the

theory cannot be maintained in its original form. It provinces and rural districts. In conclusion, I would say a word in reference to the

appears that the three main cusps of the upper tritubercular associations of our place of meeting, the birthplace of our

molar are by no means always homologous. Despite the Society. It seems to me not inappropriate that a Society

want of homology in the cusps, the author deprecates any for the Advancement of Science should have taken its change in Prof. Osborn's nomenclature for tritubercular origin under the walls of York Minster, and that the

molars, which is found to be exceedingly convenient in clergy of the great cathedral should have stood by its

practice. fradie. It is not true that there is an essential antagonism between the scientific spirit and what is called the religious

A COLLECTION of skulls of Californian Indians forms the sentiment. "Religion, said Bishop Creighton,

subject of an elaborate paper by Mr. A. Hrdlicka constithe knowlrdge of our destiny and of the means of fulfilling tuting No. 2 of vol. iv. of the Archæological and Ethnoit." We can say no more and no less of Science. Men of Science seek, in all reverence, to discover the Almighty, logical Publications of the University of California. These the Everlasting. They claim sympathy and friendship with

ancient Californian Indians, like those of Santa Barbara those who, like themselves, have turned away from the Island, show no affinity to the aborigines of Arizona and more material struggles of human life, and have set their Sonora, but appear akin to the Otomi of the States of hearts and minds on the knowledge of the Eternal.

Hidalgo and Mexico. “A large group of peoples in the

States of Puebla, Michoacan, and further south, even NOTES.

including the Aztecs, and finally the Tarahumare, in

Chihuahua, are all physically related to the Otomi as well Sir William CROOKES, Prof. Eduard Suess, Prof. Luigi

as to the Californians." Palazzo, and Prof. Orazio Marucchi were elected honorary

Corals from California and Brazil form the subject of members of the Royal Academy of Acireale (Sicily) at a

No. 1477 of the Proceedings of the C.S. National Museum, meeting on July 24.

a Californian Cænocyathus being described by Mr. T. W. The Highways Committee of the London County Council Vaughan, the author of the paper, as new.

In No. 1478 has taken the necessary steps in connection with the of the same serial Messrs. Evermann and Clark describe appointment of the committee suggested by the Admiralty certain new fishes from a small river in the centre of to inquire whether the working of the Greenwich electricity | Santo Domingo. Six specimens were obtained, referable generating station will have any injurious effect upon the 10 four species, three of which are regarded as new, two Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Sir Benjamin Baker will being assigned to the genus Platypæcilus and the third to act as the Council's representative on the committee, and | Sievdium.

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A NUMBER of new South African Palæozoic fossils—both

than the underground roads. These data, together with vegetable and animal-are described by Mr. E. H. L. the descriptions given in the report, form a permanent Schwarz in the sixth part of the first volume of the Records record of the Norseman mines up to the date of publi. of the Albany Museum. It is noteworthy that the plants, cation. The area dealt with in the report in to the ena which appear to be either of Upper Devonian or Lower of 1904 has yielded 266.004 ounces of gold, or 1010 ounces Carboniferous age, are referable to the “ Lepidodendron for every ton of ore treated. flora.” In the same issue Mr. J. E. Duerden reviews the

In the Engineering Magazine (July) Mr. Clarence Heller South African tortoises of the genus Homopus, and gives some interesting personal observations on the effert describes and figures, under the name of H. boulengeri, a of earthquake and fire on steel buildings at San Francisco. species regarded as to science. In regard to the His photographs give a graphic record of the failure of tortoises of the Testudo geometrica group, the authoz

structural materials and systems under various conditions. points out that some of the named species appear to later- Riveted connections showed their superiority over bolts grade, thus suggesting that in this group we may have when called upon to resist twist by earthquake. The great species in course of evolution. A fourth coriribution, by losses by fire were due to poor material, bad mortar, and Mr. P. Cameron, on the Hymenoptera in the Albany miserable workmanship. Museum, completes this issue.

In his presidential address to the Norfolk and Norwich The first issue of the Memoirs of the National Museum, Naturalists' Society at the meeting held on March 27, Melbourne, consists of a paper by Dr. A. Smith Woodward which is published in the second part of vol. viii. of the on a Carboniferous fish-sauna from the Mansfield district, Transactions of that body, Mr. Eustace Gurney, astet Victoria. It appears that the fish-remains described were surveying recent progress in “ limnology," directed atten. discovered so long ago as 1888, and that a brief notice of tion to the opportunities for research presented by the them was published by the late Sir F. McCoy in the Norfolk Broads. He pointed out that after the compilafollowing year.

Coloured plates were, moreover, prepared tion of complete lists of the fauna, much might be done in under that palæontologist's direction, and these have been regard to a knowledge of the life-history of many species utilised in the present issue. Of the six generic types by keeping them in tanks. In addition to this, we ought recognised, one is too imperfectly known for its affinities to be acquainted with the physical and chemical character. to be exactly defined, four others, Acanthodes, Ctenodus, istics of each sheet of water, the nature of the bottomStrepsodus, and Elonichthys, occur in the Permian and deposits, and so on. The papers in the same issue include Carboniferous of Europe and the Carboniferous of North one by Mr. T. Southwell on the share taken in former America, but the sixth, Gyracantlides, although related times by Lynn and Yarmouth in the Greenland whaleto a northern Carboniferous type, is altogether peculiar fishery, one by Mr. T. J. Wigg on last year's herring. and of exceptional interest. It appears, indeed, to be an fishery, and a third, by Mr. W. G. Clarke, on the classifiacanthodian referable either to the Diplacanthidæ or a cation of Norfolk fint-implements. kindred family group, but of a highly specialised nature, In the Annual Report and Proceedings of the Bellast the specialisation displaying itself in the enlargement of Naturalists' Field Club for 1905-6, the secretary announces the pectoral fins, the reduction and forward displacement small excess of expenditure over receipts. The two of the pelvics, and the absence or modification of the inter- most important papers in this issue are a résume of the mediate spines. A restored figure of this remarkable club's recent work with regard to local glaciation, by shark is given.

Madame Christen, and account of the Carnmoney In the annual report of the U.S. National Museum, 1904,

chalcedony, by Mr. J. Strachan. As the results of his Mr. G. P. Merrill, whose writings on geology are always

investigations on the latter subject, the author is disposed acceptable, has produced a treatise entitled “ Contribu

to reject the theory that deposits in lava of chalcedony of

the nature of the one in question are due to decomposition tions to the History of American Geology.” Sir Archibald Geikie and the late Prof. Zittel have already provided

changes in favour of the idea that they are contemporaneous geologists with historical accounts of the growth of their

products of the rock, and that they were formed during

the final stages of cooling and drying. subject, mainly from the European standpoint. In these

He is also of Contributions " Mr. Merrill takes up the story from

opinion that the associated zeolitic or calcitic layer, as

well as the siliceous contents of the veins or cavities, owes the American point of view, thereby filling a serious gap in a manner that will earn the gratitude of everyone

its origin, not to the decomposition of the parent rock, but

to the last stages in its formation. interested in the science. The mode of presentation of the subject is the chronological one, but several topics that

According to the observations of Mr. A. Toyama, of were at one time of outstanding prominence are treated

the College of Agriculture, Tokyo University, published separately; such are the Laramie question, the Taconic

in the June issue of Biologisches Centralblatt, Mendel's succession, and the Eozoon problem. Not the least

law of heredity is strictly applicable, in a very large interesting feature in this extremely interesting work is number of cases, to cross-bred silkworms. The colours the assemblage of portraits of American geologists, in

of the cocoons and the larval markings are, for instance, cluding many early workers whose names must be almost

strictly Mendelian, while other features appear to conform unknown in this country.

to certain laws not yet formulated. No single instance

observed in which an irregular development of The latest addition to the publications of the Geological

Mendelian phenomena took place. In another article issued Survey of Western Australia is an exhaustive report in the same number Dr. H. Simroth urges that the (Bulletin No. 21) on the geology and mineral resources of sporadic development of a black phase of the hamster the Norseman district, Dundas goldfield, by Mr. W. D. affords instance of undoubted mutation among Campbell. The mining plans and sections, of which five mammals. In giving Cricetus vulgaris miger as the accompany the report, mark an advance on any of the equivalent of Schreber's " Mus cricetus Linné niger," the official mining plans yet issued in that their

author is unwittingly founding a new subspecies, as no prominent features are the lodes, faults, and dykes, rather · C. v. niger occurs in any of the published lists.

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The Department of Agriculture in India has commenced end of the four sections of the British Academy, dealing the issue of a chemical series of memoirs. Part i. con

as they do with the different sciences of history, philology, tains an article by Dr. J. W. Leather, agricultural chemist philosophy, and law. These four branches of inquiry, to the Government of India, on the composition of Indian

he discovers, have to do with man, and his conscious rain and dew. The author points out that the amount of

activities in every direction, and the relations of men with ammonia and nitric or nitrous acid found in the annual

men and with other conscious beings; and the whole group rainfall by observers in different parts of the world has has as its differentia from the positive physical sciences varied within wide limits. The observations at Rothamsted

the fact that it takes consciousness as the point of view. during fifteen years, 1889–1903, show mean quantities of

So the ulterior aim of all the sections is the harmonising 2.78 lb. of “ ammonia nitrogen and 1.19 lb. of “ nitric

and organising into a system of the knowledge obtained nitrogen per acre per annum, the total being 3.97 lb.; in each section and subsection of those conscious activities but there has been a tendency among observers in the

which are its special province, with the further purpose East to attribute to tropical rainfall much greater amounts. of harmonising those conscious activities themselves into A record of these compounds was kept recently for twelve a concerted life of mankind on earth. The lecturer further months at Dehra Dun and Cawnpore, both stations being claims that internal organisation of the academical sciences nearly within the tropics, and is of interest as additional

can only be effected by connecting the sciences of history, evidence upon the subject. The results obtained were,

philology, and law with philosophy,

“ which

alone approximately, in lb. per acre :-Dehra Dun, ammonia possesses in its metaphysical department a secure found204, nitrate and nitrite 1.37, total 3.41 ; Cawnpore, 2.48 ation for any science whatever, being itself founded, alone and 0.77 respectively, total 3.25, the amount of ammonia among all, upon the analysis of consciousness, or experibeing less at both stations than at Rothamsted; of nitric ence, without initial assumptions of any kind." acid, the Dehra Dun rain contained somewhat more, the

The “ Year-book of Agriculture" for the State of Cawnpore rain a good deal less, than at the English station. Information regarding the quantity and composi

Victoria for the year 1905, recently issued under the super

vision of its new director of agriculture, Dr. Cherry, contion of dew is but limited. Observations were made at

tains a series of valuable articles on economic biology. It Cawnpore between September, 1904, and March, 1905; the arrount of dew was only 0.17 inch, and contained approxi- supplies an interesting case of the rapid spread of a

European plant in Australia, which is of value from the mat+ly 0.055 lb. of “ammonia” nitrogen and 0.056 lb. of

exact information available as to its rate * nitric" nitrogen per acre. Dr. Leather thinks it probable Some seeds of a species of St. John's wort (Hypericum that the method adopted at Cawnpore for registering the

perforatum) were planted at Bright twenty-five years ago amount of dew gave a low result.

by a lady who wanted the plant for medicinal purposes. The value of statistical researches in the subject of

From her garden it spread to the Bright racecourse, where heredity and variation is well illustrated by a paper lately it grew so luxuriantly that it gained the popular name of

the published in the Proceedings of the American Academy racecourse weed." Thence it has been carried by of Arts and Sciences, under the joint names of W. E. cattle, as shown by a map of the present distribution of Castle, F. W. Carpenter, A. H. Clark, S. O. Mast, and

the plant in Victoria, along all the main stock routes from W. M. Barrows, on the effects of inbreeding, cross-breed- Bright. Among other directions it has crossed the main ing and selection upon the fertility and variability of

water-shed of Victoria into Gippsland, and now occupies Drosophila, a genus of Diptera which feeds in the larval

more than 10,000 acres of good land. Methods proposed stage on over-ripe fruit. The experiments were conducted

for its eradication are engaging the attention of the Agriwith great care, and their results recorded with minute

cultural Department of Victoria, which has tried ness, the outcome being a valuable set of conclusions on

extensive series of experiments. Treatment of the ground various moot points connected with the subject. The

with pyrites, at the cost of more than 5l. an acre, has authors consider that their experiments prove that,

been the most successful. The cost of some of the methods although long-continued inbreeding (extending in one case

tested is prohibitive, ranging up to 471. an acre. Amongst

other valuable articles in the volume are those on the soils to fourteen generations) may possibly cause a decline in fertility, this effect may be more than counterbalanced by dams, by Mr. A. S. Kenyon; and on various branches of

of Victoria, by Dr. Cherry; on farm irrigation from small selection of the most productive among closely inbred pairs. No falling-off was observed in either strength, size,

dairy farming op variability in the inbred generations. Different degrees The report of the committee on ancient earthworks and of fertility are characteristic of different stocks; inherit- fortified enclosures, presented to the seventeenth conance of such differences does actually take place, and gives gress of archæological societies held at Burlington material for selection. Indications were found of a cyclical House on July 4, is now available. The committee change in fertility. This appeared to be due to external regrets that the archæological societies have not yet conditions, e.g. temperature. The quality of low pro- been able to undertake the systematic scheduling of the ductiveness was found to conform imperfectly with Mendel's ancient earth works and defensive enclosures in their relaw, but the alternative character of high and low fertility spective districts. The report contains a list of the addiis not sharply defined. Sexual maturity was shown to be tions to the literature of the subject of the committee's Teached at some time between twenty-four and thirty-nine inquiries, a list of recent cases of the destruction or mutilahours after emergence from the pupa, and a single male tion of defensive outworks, tumuli, and barrows, and some was proved to be capable of fertilising at least four account of the excavations during the year. females.

A VALUABLE memoir of the Geological Survey on “ Soils Dr. SHADWORTH H. Hodgson's paper on the inter- and Subsoils from a Sanitary Point of View, with especial Pelation of the academical sciences, read to the British Reference to London and its Neighbourhood," was issued Academy on March 14, has been published by Mr. Henry nine years ago. The second edition of this memoir has Frowde. Dr. Hodgson asks what is the common ulterior just been published by the Board of Agriculture and

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A NUMBER of new South African Palæozoic fossils—both than the underground roads. These data, together with vegetable and animal- Kare described by Mr. E. H. L. the descriptions given in the report, form a permanent Schwarz in the sixth part of the first volume of the Records record of the Norseman mines up to the date of publiof the Albany Museum. It is noteworthy that the plants, cation. The area dealt with in the report in to the end which appear to be either of Upper Devonian or Lower of 1904 has yielded 266.0.24 ounces of gold, or 1.019 ounces Carboniferous age, are referable to the “ Lepidodendron for every ton of org treated. flora." In the same issue Mr. J. E. Duerden reviews the

In the Engineering Magazine (July) Mr. Clarence Heller South African tortoises of the genus Homopus, and gives sorie interesting personal observations on the efieca describes and figures, under the name of H. boulengeri, a

of earthquake and fire on steel buildings at San Francisco. species regarded as to science. In regard to the His photographs give a graphic record of the failure of tortoises of the Testudo geometrica group, the author structural materials and systems under various conditions. points out that some of the named species appear to inter- Riveted connections showed their superiority over bolts grade, thus suggesting that in this group we may have when called upon to resist twist by parthquake. The great species in course of evolution. A fourth cor.iribution, by losses by fire were due to poor material, bad mortar, and Mr. P. Cameron, on the Hymenoptera in the Albany miserable workmanship. Museum, completes this issue.

In his presidential address to the Norfolk and Norwich The first issue of the Memoirs of the National Museum, Naturalists' Society at the meeting held on March 37, Melbourne, consists of a paper by Dr. A. Smith Woodward which is published in the second part of vol. viii. of the on a Carboniferous fish-íauna from the Mansfield district, Transactions of that body, Mr. Eustace Gurney, after Victoria. It appears that the fish-remains described were surveying recent progress in " limnology," directed attendiscovered so long ago as 1888, and that a brief notice of tion to the opportunities for research presented by the them was published by the late Sir F. McCoy in the Norfolk Broads. He pointed out that after the compilafollowing year. Coloured plates were, moreover, prepared tion of complete lists of the fauna, much might be done in under that palæontologist's direction, and these have been regard to a knowledge of the life-history of many species utilised in the present issue. Of the six generic types by keeping them in tanks. In addition to this, we ought recognised, one is too imperfectly known for its affinities to be acquainted with the physical and chemical character. to be exactly defined, four others, Acanthodes, Ctenodus, istics of each sheet of water, the nature of the bottomStrepsodus, and Elonichthys, occur in the Permian and deposits, and so on. The papers in the same issue include Carboniferous of Europe and the Carboniferous of North one by Mr. T. Southwell on the share taken in formes America, but the sixth, Gyracanthides, although related times by Lynn and Yarmouth in the Greenland whaleto a northern Carboniferous type, is altogether peculiar fishery, one by Mr. T. J. Wigg on last year's herringand of exceptional interest. It appears, indeed, to be an fishery, and a third, by Mr. W. G. Clarke, on the classifi. acanthodian referable either to the Diplacanthidæ or

cation of Norfolk flint-implements. kindred family group, but of a highly specialised nature, In the Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast the specialisation displaying itself in the enlargement of Naturalists' Field Club for 1903-6, the secretary announces the pectoral fins, the reduction and forward displacement a small excess of expenditure over receipts. The two of the pelvics, and the absence or modification of the inter- most important papers in this issue are a résumé of the mediate spines. A restored figure of this remarkable club's recent work with regard to local glaciation, by shark is given.

Madame Christen, and account of the Carnmoney In the annual report of the U.S. National Museum, 1904,

chalcedony, by Mr. J. Strachan. As the results of his Mr. G. P. Merrill, whose writings on geology are always

investigations on the latter subject, the author is disposed acceptable, has produced a treatise entitled “ Contribu

to reject the theory that deposits in lava of chalcedony of

the nature of the one in question are due to decomposition tions to the History of American Geology." Sir Archibald Geikie and the late Prof. Zittel have already provided changes in favour of the idea that they are contemporaneois geologists with historical accounts of the growth of their products of the rock, and that they were formed during

the final stages of cooling and drying. He is also of subject, mainly from the European standpoint. In these Contributions " Mr. Merrill takes up the story from

opinion that the associated zeolitic or calcitic layer, as

well as the siliceous contents of the veins or cavities, owes the American point of view, thereby filling a serious gap in a manner that will earn the gratitude of everyone

its origin, not to the decomposition of the parent rock, but

to the last stages in its formation. interested in the science. The mode of presentation of the subject is the chronological one, but several topics that

According to the observations of Mr. A. Toyama, of were at one time of outstanding prominence are treated

the College of Agriculture, Tokyo University, published separately; such are the Laramie question, the Taconic in the June issue of Biologisches Centralblatt, Mendel's succession, and the Eozoon problem. Not the least

law of heredity is strictly applicable, in a very large interesting feature in this extremely interesting work is

number of cases, to cross-bred silkworms. The colours the assemblage of portraits of American geologists, in

of the cocoons and the larval markings are, for instance, cluding many early workers whose names must be almost strictly Mendelian, while other features appear to conform unknown in this country.

to certain laws not yet formulated. No single instance

observed in which an irregular development of The latest addition to the publications of the Geological | Mendelian phenomena took place. In another article issues Survey of Western Australia is exhaustive report in the same number Dr. H. Simroth urges that the (Bulletin No. 21) on the geology and mineral resources of

sporadic development of a black phase of the hamster the Norseman district, Dundas goldfield, by Mr. W. D. affords instance of undoubted mutation among Campbell. The mining plans and sections, of which five mammals. In giving Cricetus vulgaris niger as the accompany the report, mark an advance on any of the equivalent of Schreber's " Mus cricetus Linné niger," the official mining plans yet issued in that their

author is unwittingly founding a new subspecies, as no prominent features are the lodes, faults, and dykes, rather : C. v. niger occurs in any of the published lists.

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