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some Priors.

these methods have become stereotyped. But the late Mr. A class in experimental psychology, including practical Stirling, as an engineer, had to think for himsell, and, work and demonstrations, will be held by Prof. C. S. moreover, his occupation removed him to places far from Myers on Saturdays in the psychological laboratory of the busy crowd. He could scarcely have had the oppor- King's College, London, beginning on October 6. tunity of esamining and testing his opinions by comparison with those of others who have been differently trained, for

Mr. V. H. BLACKMAN has been appointed lecturer in he passed much of his life in furthering railway enterprise plant cytology in the department of botany of University in Chili and Peru. There he was free to follow the lines

College, London. In view of the new relationship between of thought that his uncurbed fancies suggested. His book

the college and the University oí London, and in order to is therefore marked with much freshness, but also with

avoid confusion with the principal of the liniversity of In many respects it is interesting, since it

London, the title of the Principal of University College shows the confusion which an intelligent mind may create

will be changed to that of Provost of C'niversity College. for itself when it disregards the trammels of authority and MR. CLARENCE H. MACKAY and Mrs. John W. Mackay attacks problems for the study of which it is not fitted have given 20,000l. to the University of California, to by previous training.

endow the chair of electrical engineering. It will be We get the first insight into this mutinous disregard known, says Science, as the John W. Mackay, jun., profor authority when we find our author describing, in his fessorship,' in memory of Mr. Mackay's brother, and will first chapter, the experiments which the late Sir George be filled by Prof. C. L. Cory, head of the department of Airy carried out at the Harton Colliery. It cannot be mechanical and electrical engineering. denied but that these experiments are open to some objection, though possibly not entirely on the grounds on which

The Board of Education has issued its instructions for the author insists. But there is a certain refreshing keen

the year August 1, 1906, to July 31, 1907, to technical ness in his criticism which one can read and enjoy. We

schools, schools of art, and other day and evening schools next find our author hopelessly blundering over thai

and classes for further education. As is becoming common terrible question of the moon's rotation, and we cannot

in the Board's publications, the volume begins with a help thinking that the late Mr. Stirling must have had

prefatory memorandum, and in it great stress is laid upon in his nature a considerable spice of obstinacy. He was

the value to the student of science and technology of what far too intelligent not to have recognised the true character

is commonly called “ general education. Steps are deof the problem and to have found its solution. It is to be

tailed by which the Board proposes to encourage this side regretted, perhaps, that he did not rely upon his own good

of the work of these schools and classes. It is pointed out sense, and that he consulted so many authorities. He has

that the lower classes of a good evening school afford to our sympathy to the extent that these authorities have pupils, who have just left an elementary school, both a not always expressed themselves with clearness, and in

continuation of their general training and instruction in some cases not even with accuracy. But with perverted

the application of that training to matters that come before ingenuity he seems to have fastened upon any looseness of

them in their daily work. It is where, savs the memorexpression he could find, and has endeavoured to give it

andum, this double aspect of evening schools is best dea construction that it will not legitimately bear. But

veloped, and where the lower and higher classes are most when we find the centrifugal force due to the moon's

fully knit together, that the best records of attendance and rotation introduced as a cause to explain the transference

of real progress are to be found. A distinct advance is of air and water from the visible hemisphere of the moon

recorded, we are glad to find, in the preliminary education to the hemisphere that we do not see, we are disposed to

of students entering higher classes in day technical schools, give up our author as incorrigible. It is not at all sur

and this is to be traced to more efficient evening continue prising after this that he should turn his attention to the

ation schools. These regulations also make provision for nebular hypothesis, that he should find its explanation

an inclusive grant to local education authorities, other than inadequate, and to need some finishing touches which he

London, in place of the separate grants assessed by taking is ready to supply. For this is a subject that attracts those

into consideration the number of hours of instruction most keeniy who are least qualified to handle it intelli

received by registered students in approved subjects. An gently. l'infettered by close reasoning :ind unfamiliar with

authority wishing to receive such an inclusive grant must the bearing of material facts and deductions, they lose

submit to the Board particulars of the manner in which themselves in apparently plausible intricacies, and hope.

it is proposed to make provision for the educational needs lessly puzzle those who attempt to follow thiem.

of the area and for the coordination of the several types W. E. l'.

and grades of this instruction with the other forms of education available for the area. All such endeavours

to prevent overlapping and duplication of educational faciliUNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

ties, and to bring about economy and efficiency, are

welcome. It is to be hoped the new plan proposed by the INTELLIGENCE.

Board will effect the object in view.
CAMBRIDGE.-Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, of King's College,
demonstrator of anatomy in the University has been
appointed professor of biology at the Royal Veterinary

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
College, London.
At a meeting of the president and fellows of Queens'.

LONDON. held on Wednesday, July 18, Prof. H. T. Bovey, F.R.S.. Royal Society, June 21.-" The Transition from the Liquid

" professor of engineering in the University of Montreal, to the Solid State and the Foam-structure of Matter." was elected an honorary fellow'. Mr. Bovey was formerly By Prof. G. Quincke, For. Mem.R.S. a fellow of the society.

On June 19, 1905. the author laid before the Royal The master and fellows of Christ's College have elected Society the results of his researches on ice-formation and Mr. Francis Darwin, foreign secretary to the Royal Society, glacier-grains (see Nature, September 28, 1905, vol. Ixxii., honorary fellow. Mr. Darwin for many years held the p. 543). The further prosecution of these researches has readership of botany in the University and a fellowship shown that phenomena similar to those observed in the at Christ's. Dr. G. H. F. Nuttall. F.R.S., has been freezing of water occur in all bodies in nature, and are in elected a fellow of the same college. Dr. Nuttall has held agreement with the structure of metals as observed by the teaching posts at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, author and also by other investigators. Solid bodies, then, and at the l'niversity of Berlin. He is at present reader

homogeneous, but always exhibit a foamin hygiene at Cambridge and chief editor of the Journal structure. of Hygiene, which he largely helped to found.

All liquids in nature resemble water in forming, as they

cool, oily foam walls, which may be very thin and invisible Dr. G. C. BOURNE has been appointed Linacre professor The shape and position of these foam walls become visible of comparative anatomy at Oxford, in succession to the on freezing or thawing in the following ways :-(a) By late Prof. Weldon.

fissures or fractures at the surface of the foam walls,

are

never

mercury

at

at

on

whenev't the liquid contents of the foam cells contracted liquids, and are sufficient to explain the observed foam on solidification, or when the walls and the contents of structure of all solidified substances in nature. the foam cells contracted differently as they cooled. (b) By the bounding surfaces of the doubly refracting crystals

June 28.-“ On the Ultra-violet Spectrum of Ytterbium.” glacier-grains), which are differently orientated in neigh- By Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. bouring foam cells. (c) On illumination with sunlight or

The rare earth, ytterbia, was discovered in 1878 by clectric light, or on warming, when the doubly refracting Marignac (Comptes rendus, vol. Ixxxvii., p. 578). In 1880 contents of the foam cells melt and are transformed into

Nilson (Ber., vol. xii., p. 554), in purifying Marignac's singly refracting liquid. (d) By lens-shaped masses, foam ytterbia, found that it contained another earth, which he Aakes or air bubbles, suspended in the foam walls. (e) By

named scandia. Cleve, and more recently his daughter the furrows, or network of lines on the solidified surface

Astrid Cleve, have worked much on ytterbia, and within formed by the intersection with that surface of the foam

the last few years M. Urbain has taken up the subject, walls in the interior of the solidified mass. (1) By polish

and has succeeded in purifying ytterbia in larger quantiIng or etching the natural or artificial surface, in cases

ties. During the author's own work on the fractionation when the walls and the contents of the foam cells differ

of the rare earths he also has prepared and worked with in hardness or in the rapidity with which they are attacked

ytterbia. by chemical reagents.

M. Urbain's ytterbia was prepared by the fractional The surfaces of solidified drops of pure molten metals

crystallisation of the ethyl-sulphates of crude gadolinite show a network of straight lines or arcs of circles (usually

earths (Comptes rendus, vol. cxxxii., p. 136). The subinclined to one another at 120° or 90°), or foam walls with

sequent separation is by the fusing nitrate method. This embedded lens-shaped masses. This is so in the case of

after twenty series of fusions gave in the least basic porgold, silver, platinui, palladium, iridium, indium, copper,

tions a mixture of ytterbia and thoria, which are easily zinc, iron, nickel, cobalt, bismuth, sodium, potassium and

separated by Wyroubofi and Verneuil's method. Similar phenomena are to be observed on the

The examination for absorption bands in a strong solusurface of solidified drops of sulphur and selenium, or on

tion is a fairly good test for an earth such as erbia and the surface of carbon which has been distilled with the

thulia giving absorption spectra, but it is not so delicate electric are in a magnetic field, and deposited on the

as an examination of the spark spectrum photographed kathode.

through a quartz train, for dominant lines, which most The shapes of the bounding surfaces of molten metals,

elements show in some part of their spectrum.

For and the circular arcs in the network of lines on the surface

instance, the dominant lines of yttrium are at wave-lengths ruf metals raised to red or white heat, show that these

3600.9. 3710.4, 3774:5. 4177-7, and 4375-1. The dominant bounding surfaces must be regarded, not as they have

lines of erbium are it 3499.3, 3692.8, and 3906.5. They hitherto been, viz. as crystalline faces, but as solidified

are, however, not strong, and fortunately the absorption wily foam walls, which, as in the glacier-grains of ice,

bands of this element are striking and characteristic. The enclose foam cells with ccntents differing from the walls.

spark spectrum of thulium has only been slightly examined Just as the glacier-grains of ice run together and enlarge by the author, and he does not think it has any strong lines. hy the bursting of the foam walls, so also larger foam

Its absorption spectrum, as with erbium, is a very charactercells with fewer foam walls are formed in metals heated

istic one. The spark spectrum of ytterbium has strong

dominant lines Dearly to melting point.

3289.5 and 36944. Scandium has Pure molten metals after solidification exhibit

dominant lines

3572.7, 3614.0, 3630-9, 3642.9, and artificial polished and etched surfaces :1 network of lines

4247.0. or foam cells (similar to the glacier-grains of ice), which

The author's photographs were taken with the quartz are bounded by thin foam walls. These thin foam walls

apparatus already described, the spectrum of pure iron being themselves contain still smaller foam rells, as is proved

used as a standard. The ytterbium spark was taken from by the visible lens-shaped masses embedded in them, and

a strong solution of the nitrate between platinum poles, the ware-like furrows on their surface, which are capable

sufficient self-induction being introduced to eliminate nearly in reflected light of giving diffraction colours like mother

all the air lines. The ytterbium, by this very severe sperof-pearl. This foam structure of pure metals when solidified

trum test, is seen to be not absolutely free from impuriafter fusion has been demonstrated in the case of bismuth,

ties-thulium, copper, and calcium being present. Thulium cadmium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, indium. iridium,

is seen by its lines at 3020-7, 3131.4, 3425.2, 3441.6, 3462.4, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, palladium, platinum,

and 3848.2. Copper is seen by its dominant lines at 3247-7 potassium, rhodium, sodium, tin, and zinc.

and 3274.1, and calcium by its dominant lines at 3933.8 Molten metals solidify on cooling to a liquid jelly, and

and 3968.6. later to a solid jelly. The walls and contents of the foam

The platinum lines which are present are easily recogcells of such a jelly still consist of viscous liquid, i.e. the

nised, and are useful as an additional measure of identifijelly itself is still liquid-like ice-at temperatures lower

cation. Besides these, a number of fainter and indistinct than the melting points of the respective metals. The weld

lines are

These may be due to ytterbium or to ing of two pieces of metal corresponds to the running

traces of hitherto unrecognised impurities. together of the cell walls and cell contents of two lumps

The wave-lengths of all the recognisable lines of of jelly, or the regelation of ice.

ytterbium are given on the photograph, and also those of All the other substances in nature behave like these thulium, calcium, and copper, but the platinum lines are metals. The soft, plastic condition, which all bodies

not marked. assume for a larger or smaller interval of temperature on

PARIS. the transition from the solid to the liquid state, proves the presence of jelly, i.e, of oily, visible or invisible foam walls, Academy of Sciences, July 16.-M. H. Poincaré in th over this interval of temperature.

chair.-The absorption of nitrogen by organic substances, The heterogeneous oily liquid, which as solidification determined at a distance under the iniluence of radio-active occurs becomes visible in all substances in nature in the materials : M. Berthelot. The action of air upon celluform of thin foam walls of different surface tension, must lose in the presence of a radium salt has been studied ; also appear as a thin liquid skin on the surface of solidify the effects are comparable with those produced by the ing drops. This explains the variations in the measure- silent discharge.-A photometer specially designed for ments of the surface tension of molten metals and salts, and measuring the circumsolar light. Its use during the total of liquids in general.

eclipse of August 30, 1905: H. Deslandres and A. The walls and contents of the foam cells consist of hetero- Bernard The standard light used in the comparisons geneous substance. That foreign matter in very small was a small osmium lamp. Two diagrams are given showquantities-1'1000000 per cent. and even less-does forin ing the arrangement of the photometer and telescope. oily layers and foam walls in pure liquids is proved by The apparatus was used at Burgos during the last total the author's observations on ice and benzene. Traces of eclipse, but the meteorological conditions were unfavourforeign matter (gases, carbon, metals, &c.) too small to able.-Study of an apparatus designed by M. Lippmann for be shown in any other way are present even in the purest the photographic measurement of right ascensions : W.

seen.

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Ebert and C. Le Morvan. A description of the modifi

CALCUTTA. cations found necessary in the original apparatus, by Asiatic Society of Bengal, July 4.--Some freshwater means of which the error of a single point is less than Entomostraca in the collection of the Indian Museum,

The results are obviously free from personal error, Calcutta : R. Gurney. An account of the freshwate: and the deformations produced by the objective are phyllopods, cladocera, and copepods in the collection of the eliminated, since the images of the stars and the slit Indian Museum. Fourteen species new to the Indian fauna fixing the meridian, being produced by the same lens, are recorded; new species of Daphnia and Estheria, and a undergo the same deviations. The rigorous determination new variety of a Streptocephalus are described.-Preof two instrumental constants which intervene in certain liminary note on the chemical examination of the milk and meridian observations : H. Renan. A method for deter- butter-fat of the Indian buffalo : E. R. Watson. L'appel mining the exact angular relations between the two cross and Richmond found that the milk of the Egyptian buffalo wires of the micrometer and the plane of the telescope.- contains no lactose, but a different sugar that ther name The arbitrary character of developments of solutions, even tewfikose. This is not the case with the milk of the unique, of the problems of mathematical physics, and on Indian buffalo, which contains lactose. In the butter-lat new properties of generalised trigonometrical series : A. the Indian buffalo's milk proves to contain more butyric Buhl.-Measurements of wave-lengths in the iron spectrum acid than either the European cow or the Egyptian buitalo, for the establishment of a system of spectroscopic standards : and also apparently more palmitic or stearic acid.- new Ch. Fabry and H. Buisson. The measurements gecko from the eastern Himalayas : Dr. X. Annandale. made photographically by the interference method, the description of a new form of Gymnodactylus clogs green mercury line given by the Cooper-Hewitt lamp being allied to the Malayan G. marmoratus.—l reshwater fauna used as a basis. The measurements given fall between of India, No. viii., some llimalavan tadpoles : Dr. S. 41 3606.687 and 6494.994.-The photography of the infra- Annandale. The larvæ of Bufo himala vanus and Rana red rays : Walter Ritz. The author has subjected Abney's liebigii are described, and that of Megalophrys montana is method of preparing sensitive collodion films to a critical recorded from the Darjeeling district. Vores are given on examination, and gives details for the preparation of plates the different ways in which different tadpoles which inhabit highly sensitive to the infra-red radiations. Photographs mountain torrents in the Himalayas are protected against were taken of the spectrum from the blue decreasing sudden floods.-A parasite upon a parasite. A Viscumregularly to 1.4 M, none of the discontinuities inseparable apparently1. articulatum-on Loranthus estatus from the use of colouring materials being apparent.--The Quercus incana : 1. H. Burkill. The paper gives 10 reduction of molybdenum dioxide by boron, and the com- account of the double parasitism recorded in the title bination of boron with molybdenum : Binet du Jassoneix. together with it review of the geographical distribution of Previous work on this subject has been vitiated by the such double parasitism and the names of the associated use of carbon crucibles, the formation of carbides of plants in recorded cases.-Cientianacearum species Asiaticas molybdenum being unavoidable under these conditions. novas descripsit I. H. Burkill. Diagnoses of new specia The author uses a magnesia boat, and readily obtains pure of the genera Gentiana and Swertia from Asia.-Swertiam molybdenum by heating boron and molybdenum dioxide novam Japonicam ex affinitate Swertiæ tetrapterze, Maxim., in the electric furnace. By increasing the proportion of descripserunt S. le M. Moore and 1. H. Burkill. boron, products, free from carbide, and containing up to Diagnosis of a new Swertia from Japan. 46 per cent. of boron, can be prepared. These are attacked by dilute nitric acid, and show no trace of crystalline

CONTENTS.

PAGE structure. The electrical conductivity of colloidal ferric The Rand through French Spectacles. By F. H. H. 313 chloride : G. Malfitano.—The influence of non-electrolytes

A New Flora of Greece. By N..

314 on the mutual precipitation of colloids of opposite electrical ubterranean Geography. By G. A. 1. c.

314 sign : J. Larguier des Bancels.—The composition of an Our Book Shelf:acetic ferment: E. Alilaire. Five 'rams of a very active

Bailey: “The Outlook to Nature."-A. D. H.

315 mycoderma were obtained from a vinegar works, the con- Smith : “Lecture Notes on Chemistry for Denial ditions allowing of the production of a pure culture on the

Students"

315 large scale. Alcohol extracted 1:56 per cent. of a fatty Howe: "A Study of the Sky”,

315 substance containing phosphorus, from which, after saponifi- Letters to the Editor :cation with soda, potassium iodide gave iodocholine

The Positive Charge carried by the a Particle. crystals. The substance thus freed from fat contained

Frederick Soddy 6.9 per cent. of nitrogen and 5.9 percent. of ash, the Stress in Magnetised iron. --Shelford Bidwell, analysis of which is given. The presence of a consider

F.R.S. able proportion of iron and copper in the ash is note- The Mixed Transformation of Lagrange's Equations worthy, the latter metal, according to the author's views, -A. B. Basset, F.R.S.

317 playing an important part in the process of acetification. Two Modifications of the Quartz Wedge. -Daniel -The microlitic rocks collected in Grahamsland by Dr. James Mahony

717 Charcot's Antarctic Expedition : Ernest Gourdon.—The Colour Phenomena in Boletus coerulescens. - Edgar presence of neon amongst the gases from some hot springs :

Trevithick Charles Moureu and Robert Biquard. Previous notes Strengih of a Beetle.-Charles R. Keyser published on the gases from twenty-two hot springs have The International Celebration of the Jubilee of the shown the general presence of argon and helium. A direct Coal-tar Industry. By Dr. J. C. Cain examination of these gases for neon gave negative results, The Sporadic Publication of scientific Papers. By owing to the fact that the neon spectrum is completely X.

319 masked by argon. By the application of the selective The York Meeting of the British Association 321 absorption of charcoal cooled to – 100° C., neon

Inaugural Address by Prof. E. Ray Lankester, proved to be present in every case.-The cyanogenetic prin

M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S., Director ciples of Phaseolus lunatus : M. Kohn-Abrest.-The estim

of the Natural History Departments of the ation of malic acid and some fixed acids in the juices of

British Museum, President of the Associa. fruits, fermented or unfermented: W. Mestrezat. The

tion

321 method is based on the insolubility of barium malate, Notes

335 tartrate, and succinate in dilute alcohol. - The phospho- Our Astronomical Column:humic compounds of soil : J. Dumont.-Remarks concern- Astronomical Occurrences in August ing the artificial development of Iscaris vitulorum : L. Finlay's Comet (1906a) Jammes and A. Martin.--The histological composition An Unexplained Observation. of the lymph of ruminants : E. Forgeot.--The pigment- The Rio de Janeiro Observatory ation of hair and beard by the X-rays : A. Imbert and Iron and Steel Institute

340 H. Marquès. Light hair darkens under the action of the Some Recent Astronomical Works. By W. E. P. 341

X-rays.- 'I he geology between Zinder and Tchad: René University and Educational Intelligence
Chudeau.

Societies and Academies

343

316

317

318 318

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Gives LURKECT Aliitu DES-Not Fancy Figures.

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TO WHICH IT IS DUE. By the Right Hon. LORD AVEBURY, gilt, 35. 6.1.
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MORE TALES OF THE BIRDS. By W. Warde Fowler, THE BEAUTIES OF NATURE. By Lord Avebury.

Illustrated. Crown 8vo, 34.

601, Crown 8vo, 6$. ; Globe 8vo, Ejition without Illustrations, Cloch, is. 6d. ; Paper, is.

A YEAR WITH THE BIRDS. By W. Warde Fowler,

M.A. With Illustratious by BRYAN HOOK. Third Edition, ENATURAL HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF SEL

larged. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. Prize Editions, 25. 6d. and 31. Od BORNE. By GILBERT WHITE. With Nores by FRANK BUCKLAND, a Chapter on Antiquities by LORD SELBÓRNE, and SUMMER STUDIES OF BIRDS AND BOOKS. By W. New Letters. Illustrated. Crown evo, 6s.

WAŃDE FOWLER, M.A. Crown 800, 35. 64.

M.A.

M.A.

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