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AcCurding to Science, the investigation at Cornell French Jura Mountains to the Alpine system is then disUniversity of problems in fresh-water biology the year cussed, and it is pointed out that the Swiss-French plain through is made possible by a recent provision for a flanking the Western Alps presents the same essential division of limnology in the department of invertebrate features of structure in relation to the Western Alps on zoology in the University. Dr. James G. Needham, of its east side and the French Jura Mountains on its west Lake Forest College, has been appointed assistant pro- as those elucidated for the Rhine-Ticino cross-segment. fessor of limnology to take charge of that work. He will The strike-curve round the west formed by the Jura Moun. enter upon his duties at Ithaca in February of next year, tains and the ranges of Dauphiné is interpreted as the A site for a biological field station has just been selected peripheral plicational system in the Alps, showing that the on the Renwick Lagoon at the head of Cayuga Lake. region between the Hungarian basin and the mountainThe necessary station building and equipment will be pro- groups of Central France has been under the influence of vided in the spring.

the westward thrust. The general principle of structure The calendar of Tokyo Imperial University for 1905-6,

is the sagging of crust-blocks by means of normal faults a copy of which has just been received, shows that the towards bands or localities of crust-weakness or subtotal number of students enrolled in September, 1905, was

sidence, 'and the reverse or overthrust-movements which 4517 as compared with 3771 in 1903. These students were

may take place from within these bands or localities. "divided among the constituent colleges as follows:

The paper affords evidence of differential rates of move University Hall, 680; College of Law, 1545; College of

ment in different parts of a thrust-mass or fault-block Medicine, 641; College of Engineering, 549: College of undergoing horizontal displacement, both in respect of the Literature, 511; ollege of Science, 122 ; and College of laterally-adjacent parts of a thrust-mass and also of the Agriculture, 469. The number of students at the College subjacent layers. The maps and sections show that the of Science is small, probably because all scientific work of actual deformations which characterise a thrust-mass have an applied kind seems to be apportioned to the colleges

a different direction of strike on either side of an axial of engineering and agriculture, where such subjects as

band of maximum horizontal displacement. Several ex. applied chemistry, mining and metallurgy, and agricultural amples in the dolomites are described where there has chemistry are studied. The list of original scientific papers

apparently been a local reversal of the regional westward published by professors and students of the University is

movement. While each individual case demands special an imposing one, and fills more than forty pages of the

examination, an explanation that satisfies certain cases is calendar.

provided. At localities where the base of the thrust-mass

is open to inflows of igneous rock, the igneous material A copy of the prospectus of the agricultural department

may ascend and be carried onward with the gliding mass. of Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, for the

After consolidation of such igneous inflows, they present session 1906–7 has been received, Complete courses of resisting bodies within the thrust-mass, which, in the work are provided in all departments of agriculture and

same way as any massive developments of sedimentary forestry. The department is subsidised by the Board of

material, impede the advance of rock-material in the same Agriculture and by the education committees of the four

direction as before. The tendency is for the material of northern county councils. The Northumberland County Council Experimental Station is worked in connection with against a resisting body, widening out in a direction

the thrust-mass to be plicated and faulted as it is driven the department under the supervision of Prof. D. A. parallel with the resisting mass, and piling up the material Gilchrist. A special laboratory and the entire use of a

to such an extent that local reversal of the direction of byre for ten cows are available, at the Durham County overlapping is produced. --The influence of pressure and Council Dairy Station, for daily research work. By an arrangement with H.M. Office of Woods, the Chopwell porosity on the motion of subsurface water: W. R.

Baldwin-Wiseman, The author commences the paper Woods, which extend to about 900 acres, are now placed with a brief historical summary of the researches which under the control of the department, and are of great have been conducted since 1830 on the motion and behavious value in connection with the courses in forestry. Intend- of underground water. In discussing the influence of the ing students will thus see that the college possesses every porosity of a rock on the rate of flow of water through it

, facility for the practical study of agricultural science.

he describes the variations in porosity which may occur in restricted areas of the same rock, due to superincumbent

pressure, faulting, and the intrusion of dykes. He de. SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

scribes experiments on the rate of desiccation and soakage LONDON.

of rocks. A lengthy series of laboratory experiments, conGeological Society, June 27.-Sir Archibald Geikie,

ducted with specially devised apparatus to afford a constant Sec.R.S., president, in the chair.-Interference-phenomena

pressure and to eliminate all errors due to lateral Row, are in the Alps : Dr. Maria M. Ogilvie Gordon. The pre- explained, and it is demonstrated that there is not a sent paper, SO far as it deals with the general structure

uniform relation between Aow and pressure in rocks over of the Alps, was completed in April, 1905, but the author

a considerable range of pressure.

Various attempts at has since endeavoured to strengthen her line of argument

determining the range of the cone of depletion in strata by taking as a type the series of structural changes under

are passed in review, and a method based upon an esperigone in the largely igneous mountain-massive of Bufaure

mental determination of the variation of internal pressUTE in the dolomites. After describing in detail the geology

in a rock-mass when charged with water and subjected of the Bufaure Massive, the structural relation of the

to a considerable difference of pressure on the two faces Western Alps and the Engadine to one another and to the is outlined. In the concluding portion of the paper data whole mountain-system are discussed. From the arrange

collected during various hydrological surveys are discussed, ment of overthrusts, as well as from the distribution of

and the influence of surface-configuration and stratithe igneous intrusions in the Western Alps and in the graphical sequence on the subsurface water-contours are Engadine, it is concluded that these were

areas where pointed out. leading cross-faults intersected the east-and-west Central

DUBLIN, Alpine band, and shows how the coalescence of these cross- Royal Irish Academy. Jude 25.–Dr. F. A. Tarleton, faults with E.N.E.-W.S.W. faults on the north side and president, in the chair.--Note on the action of emulsite W.N.W.-E.S.E. faults on the south side defined two

on B-glycosides : Prof. Hugh Ryan and G. Ebrill. This leading fault-curves, the one passing through the Enga- paper shows that emulsine hydrolyses the galactoside of dine, the other passing through the Western Alps. The a-naphthol in aqueous solution, but is inactive towards the cross-segment comprising the Rhine-Ticino district between

arabinosides of cresol, B-naphthol, and carvacrol, as well the Western Alps and the Engadine is regarded as anti- as the tetracetyl derivatives of the glucosides of B-naphthol clinal in character, segments having been down-thrown

and cresol.—The composition of a nitrogen mineral water from it both towards the west and east, and overthrust at St. Edmundsbury, Lucan, co. Dublin : Dr. W. E. masses have crept E. and S.E. from the Western Alps Adeney. The mineral water which forins the subject of and westward from the Engadine. The relation of the this paper flows from a spring which is situated in the

acetate.

to

demesne St. Edmundsbury. Lucan. The water is super- they do so. This can be shown not to be due to potassium Sturared with nitrogen, and as it rises to the surface of the spring large bubbles of that gas mixed with small quantities of carbon dioxide are constantly evolved, giving chair. -Obituary notice of S. P. Langley: Dr. W. Peddie.

July 13.-Dr. R. H. Traquair, vice-president, in the it the appearance somewhat of ebullition; hence the name of the ** Boiling Well" by which it is marked on the

-The recent epidemic of trypanosomiasis in Mauritius ; Ordnance maps. The dissolved gases were found to be

its cause and progress : Dr. Alex. Edington and Dr.

J. M. Coutts. The authors believe that the infection did as follows, espressed in volumes at o° C., and 760 mm. har, per 1000 volumes of the water :-carbon dioxide,

not come from India with a cargo of cattle, as has been

stated, but that it had been already in the island in a 140-77; orygen, 0.0; nitrogen, 27.13. The water contains about ninety grains of mineral matter per gallon. The

latent form. This belief is further strengthened by inrnjef constituents are :--calcium bicarbonate, 352 grains; actually existed on the adjacent French island of Réunion

formation recently obtained that a case of trypanosomiasis a drum chloride, 41-24 grains ; magnesium chloride, 9:4 grains; and magnesium sulphate, 3-24 grains, per gallon.

in August, 1901, which antedated the earliest date in

Mauritius. Cattle which had been made immune to the It also contains smal! quantities of ferrous bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and iraces of lithium chloride and of

trypanosome were found to be still susceptible to the brium sulphate. It is probable that the excess of nitrogen

Trypanosoma brucei--the parasite of the tsetse-fly, which ufrich this water holds in solution was derived from the

is thus proved to be specifically distinct. The parasites iermentative decomposition of nitrates; 1.8 parts nitric

totally disappear in the blood of immunised cattle. In nitrogen per 100,000 parts of the water would, on decom

goats the infection is evinced by progressive emaciation position. vield 14 0.c, nitrogen, at n° C., and 760 mm.

and death after about two months; but although their bar, which represents about the quantity in excess of the

blood is virulent and produces trypanosomes in susceptible gas in solution. The fact that after several days of strong

animals, no trypanosomes could be detected in the blood frost, and at a time when the temperature of the air was

Huids or tissues of the goats. According to the report for 32° F., that of the water, as it rose to the surface of the

1904 of the director of the Health Department of Mauritius, spring, was 60°5 F., shows that the water

the epidemic is slowly but surely diminishing. The import

must rise from a considerable depth below the surface of the ground,

ation of mules, which are very susceptible to the disease, and this suggests an explanation as to how the water holds

tends more than anything else to maintain the disease in so large an excess of nitrogen in solution.

an active form.—Note on the smolt to grilse stage of the

A careful "xamination was also made of the water to ascertain

salmon, with exhibition of a marked fish recaptured :

W. L. Calderwood. whether it contained any matters which would render it

In 1905 the Tay Fisheries Company unfit to be drunk, but with negative results.

marked about 6500 smolts by the attachment of a small piece of silver wire to the dorsal fin. On June 1, 1906,

the first grilse marked with a wire was taken in the Tay. EDINBURGH.

Since then four other fish had been recaptured. The one Royal Society, July 2.-Prof. Crum Brown, vice-presi.

exhibited was 24 inches long; fully a year before, when dent, in the chair. The use of soluble Prussian blue in

marked with the wire, it was about 5 inches long. Its investigating the reducing power of animal tissue : Dr. growth during its residence in the salt water was estimated D. Fraser Harris. The method of experiment was

at from three to six ounces per month.—The effect of inject the blood vessels of either decerebrate cats and

precipitation films on the conductivity of electrolytes, rabbits or the isolated surviving kidney or liver of pig or

part i. : W. S. Millar and Dr. W. W. Taylor. The paper

contained an account of results obtained by use of the sheep. In the latter cases the blue of the potassio-ferric alternating current and telephone method with films of ferrocyanide is in the capillaries reduced to the pale green of colourless compound, the di-potassio-ferrous-ferrocyanide cyanide. The solutions compared

aluminium hydroxide, chromic hydroxide, and cupric ferro

the chlorides, -a vital reduction expressed, not by a deoxidation, but by change of trivalent iron into divalent iron. Irrigation with

bromides, and sulphates of potassium, sodium, and

ammonium ; sodium ammonium tartrate, and sodium H.O. restored the blue colour. In the experiments on the kidney, when the pressure of injection rose to 100 mm. of

ammonium racemate.---The theory of alternants in the mercury, a colourless, gelatinous artificial urine dropped

historical order of development up to 1860, and the theory from the ureter, and the pelvis of the kidney was filled

of circulants in the historical order of development up to with colourless gelatin; this leuco material at once be

1860 : Dr. Thomas Muir.-The length of a pair of tangents came blue on irrigation with H,O, Various considerations

to a conic : Prof. Anglin. showed that the green or leuco condition resulted neither

Paris. from the action of the alkaline salts of blood and tissues nor from putrefaction, but proved the existence within the Academy of Sciences, July 25.-M. H. Poincaré in the blood of " reducing substances.” The leuco compound ten chair.—The president announced the death of M. years after formation within capillaries can still be, by Brouardel. --The toxic action and localisation of the radium the H.0,, restorrd to the blue condition. The least perfect emanation : Ch. Bouchard and V. Balthazard.

The reduction is in the great vessels, the most perfect in the presence in the peritoneum of the guinea-pig of 2 grams thin-walled capillaries, i.e. in those vessels which are of barium sulphate containing about 5 mgr. of radium supplying material for anabolism to the living cells endowed sulphate proved fatal to the animal. In a control experiwith a high reducing capacity.-The viscosity of solutions, ment with the same quantity of barium sulphate free from part i. : C. Ranken and Dr. W. W. Taylor. The paper radium, the animal suffered no inconvenience. The discontained an account of the apparatus, and also the tribution of the radium emanation in the various organs measurements of aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non- of the animal after death was determined by an electrical electrolytes at various temperatures and concentrations. method. The suprarenal capsules showed the largest proOi the substances examined, mercuric cranide is the only portion of the emanation, the lungs, skin, liver, and one with a temperature coefficient smaller than that of kidneys showing decreasing amounts. The author points water. Dilute solutions of carbamide at low tempera- out that from the chemical inertness of the emanation this tures have " negative relative viscosity," being probably selective action the organs of the body is unexpected.the first example of a non-electrolyte in water which is The results of two deep borings in Picardy : J. Gosselet. known to exhibit it.-Two lecture experiments in illus- The boring at Saigneville was carried to a depth of tration of the theory of ionisation : Dr. W. W. Taylor. 425.95 metres, the Devonian being encountered at a depth (1) To show that the ionisation of an acid is diminished of 108 metres. The strata met with are compared with by addition of salts of an acid; addition of dilute nitric those encountered in the boring at Péronne, the latter acid or of strong solution of potassium nitrate does not having a depth of 500 metres.-The extension of vectorial coagulate albumen; together they do immediately. algebra with the aid of the theory of binary forms, with (2) To show that a weak acid turns out a strong acid froin applications to the theory of elasticity : Émile Waelsch. its salts; acetic acid solution

strong solution of -class of integral series : Michel Pétrovitch.potassium nitrate does not coagulate albumen; together Lagrange's projection applied to the map of European

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1 Russia: N. de Zinger.--The mobility of the ions pro- i cated five papers :-(1) The early development of the duced by the Nernst lamp : L. Bloch.---The experimental appendicular skeleton of the ostrich, with remarks on the study of telegraphic transmission : M. Devaux-Char. origin of birds. In the early embryo there are three wellbonnel. The relation existing between electrical resist. developed toes and two others rudimentary. In the pelvis

and the viscosity of electrolytic solutions : P. the pubis and ischium are directed downwards and united Massoulier. The conductivity of solutions of potassiuni by pro-cartilage. In the wing there are evidences of four chloride in glycerol has been measured for varying con- digits. The author holds that birds are descended from cenirations of glycerol. The resistance was not found to bipedal reptiles intermediate between the Pterosaurs and be strictly proportional to the viscosity, but there is the carnivorous Dinosaurs. (2) Sote on the lacertilian obviously a relation between the two magnitudes, since shoulder girdle. It is held that all the various cartilaginous while the viscosity varied from 1 to 5.6, the product of and bony bars found in front of the shoulder girdle are conductivity and viscosity only changed from

merely parts of the true scapula and coracoid, (3) Some Similar results were obtained on measuring the conduc- little-known bones in the mammalian skull. A number of tivity and viscosity of potassium chloride in sugar solu- bones typically present in the reptilian skull, but not tions.-The influence of pressure and form of discharge generally recognised as occurring among mammals, ain on the formation of ozone : A. Chassy. At pressures shown to be present occasionally. (4) A new cynodo below 6 cm. no ozone is formed, no matter how long the reptile from the Molteno beds of Aliwal North. A dr. experiment is prolonged. This effect would appear to be scription is given of a new cynodont, the first reptile thai due to a change in the nature of the discharge at this has been discovered in the Molteno beds. 151 A nex pressure.-Contribution to the study of ultramarine : C. rhynchocephalian reptile from the Cpper Beaufort beds auf Chabrié and F. Levallois. The prolonged action of an South Africa. A description of a lower jaw of a stall aquecus solution of silver nitrate at 140° C. upon ultra- reptile allied to Homæosaurus. This is the oldest trur marine gives sulphuric acid and silver nitrite, together rhynchocephalian known.-Notes on South Jírican creads with nitric oxide.-Zirconium silicide (ZrSi,) and titanium Prof. H. H. 11. Pearson. Field observations upon slicide (TiSi): Otto Hönigschmid. The reduction of Encephalarlos Friderici-Guilielmi, Lehm., E. l'illosus, z'rconium oxide and the double fluorides of zirconium and Lem., E. Altensteinii, Lehm., and a species of Stangeria. titanium by the alumino-thermal method in presence of a Evidence in support of the insect pollination of E. Villosua large excess of silicon gives the silicides TiSi, and ZrSi,. is adduced. In E. Friderici-Guilielmi and E. Allenstemu --The allors of lead and calcium : L. Hackspill. The the cones are laterally placed, and the growth of the stem best method of preparing these alloys is the electrolysis of is therefore monopodial. The importance of subterranean fused calcium salts with a molten lead kathode. Allor's branching as

of vegetative reproduction in containing from 7 per cent.

per cent. of calcium Stangeria and in E. Friderici-Guilielmi is discussed. were heated in a

to about 1000° C.; lead distilled off, and the alloy remaining had the composition Pb,(a, in each case.-Kathode phosphorescence spectra of

CONTENTS.

PAGE terbium and dysprosium diluted with lime : G. Urbain. -Radic-active lead extracted from pitchblende: Jean The Determination of Orbits. By H. C. P.

345 Danysz, jun.--The constitution of herdenine : E. Léger. Induction and Conduction Motors. By Val. A Hordenine gives picric acid when treatrd with nitric acid,

Fynn and trimethylamine on the dry distillation of its jodomethylate. The formula (OHC,H,.CH.CH..N(CH), is

Subaqueous Tunnelling suggested as the most probable. The action of phenyl

Problems in Metabolism. By W. D. H.

349 magnesium bromide en the esters of the dialkylamido

Our Book Shelf:hinz vi-benzoic acids : J. Férard. -The introduction of the Constable : “ Poverty and Hereditary Genius; a d naphthopyril and xanthil radicals into electronegative Criticism of Dr. Francis Galton's Theory of molecules : R. Fosse and A. Robyn.-The diamino-acids

Hereditary Genius " derived from

350 ovalbumen : L. Hugouneng and J. Galimard. Egg-albumin has furnished 2.14 per cent. of

Clerke: “Modern Cosmogonies."--R. A. G. aroinine and 2.15 per cent. of lusine.—The mixed crystals Goudie: “The Geometry of the Screw Propeller"

350 of barium chloride and bromide : Jean Herbette.-The Burrows : “Geographical Cleanings” production of

elementary Species of maize by Letters to the Editor :traumatism: L. elaringhem.—The disease of wine

Chinese Observation of Nature.-W. Hoskyns. known as la graisse"; E. Kayser and E. Manceau. -New observations the retrocerebral apparatus of

Abrahall rotifers : P. Marais de Beauchamp.-.new method of

A Large Meteor.-W. F. Denning

jji obtaining crystals of haematin in the medico-legal diagnosis | Atmospheric Pressure Changes of Long Duration, of blood spots i MM. Sarda and Cattart.--The Gault and (With Diagrams.) Bv Dr. William J. S. Lockyer. 352 Genomanian of the Sevbouse basin : J. Blayac.--The Sir Walter Lawry Buller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. By F. 35 liquefaction of volcanic carbonic acid in Auvergne. The

The York Meeting of the British Association.. 355 poison spring of Montpensier: Ph. Glangeaud.— The resistivits of mineral waters. Their coefficient of variation

Section A.-Math, inalics and Physics. - Opening with temperature, and the differentiation of natural mineral Address by Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sc.D., from similar waters made artificially : D.

F.R.S., President of the Section .. Negreano.---The structure of the Fusilinideæ : Henri Section B. ---Chemise.t. ---Opening Address by Prof. Douvillé.-The formation of ground ice : J. de Schokal

Wyndham Durstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., sky. A detailed account of observations on the formation of ground ice in Lake Ladoga, near St. Petersburg.

F.C.S., Presiderto the Section

Notes
CAPE TOWN,

Our Astronomical Coln
South African Philosophical Sorietu. Tune 27.-Dr

Finlay's Comet (190601

371 J. D. F. Gilchrist in the chair. ---Opisthobranchiata of

Observation of a Bright Meteor South Africa: Prof. Berg. Forty nel species are des scribed, of which several represent new genera.

Both

Double-star Measuies tectibranchs and nudibranchs are well represented. Among

International Conference on Hybridisation and the former are eight new species of Iplysia. The differ- Flant. Breeding

37! ence between the fauna of the east and West

coast is Man and the Glacial Period. imiustrated.) By Prof. marked in these marine animals, the region west of the Sollas, F.R.S.

372 Cape Peninsula having forms of northern character; the

University and Educational Intelligence

373 region to the cast of the Cape of Good Hope has more

374 of a tropical Indian character. - Dr. R. Broom communi. Societies and Academies . .

346

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