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there were conflicting opinions, and human science or polity, but whether men were led to choose between them, it is innocent in our own religion, and and range themselves in parties for the consistent with the principles of Chris. support of their favourite systems. tianity. It is nol, whether it be a mal
The secondary signification of tipeals, ter of little consequence to the lives of therefore, was that of a sect or party. inen that physicians, in gratifying their Thus Galen, as cited by Welstein, own choice, should be divided into speaks of the two sects or parties, into sects and parties on the theory and which the physicians of his day were practice of medicine ; it is not, whether divided, Metode aiperia-MTHIPURA
) the conflicting and contradictory senoperis; $0 Josephus designated the timents of the porch, the lyceum, and pharisees, the sadducees, and the es- the academy tended to make the heasenes, as the three principal aspérons, then world wiser; it is not, whether sects or parties in the Jewisla philosu- the parties in the Jewish church, conply; and by the same term it was tinuing as they did in the bonds of coinmon among the heathens to dis- external union, did not draw the minds tinguish the secls or parties formed of men aside from practical boliness, among them by the almost innuinerable and weaken the commonwealth by the varieties of opinions whicls an apostle intestine commotions to which they gave has so aptly fermed “ the oppositions birth ; it is not whetber the political of science falsely so called.” On the parties which now agitate, and often meaning then of the terin heresy, both distract and convulse human governiu its primary and its derivative sense, ments, be in themselves salutary or there cannot, we are persuaded, be hurtful, unnecessary or unavoidable ;any diversity of sentiment; and we but it is, whether the individuals, who are gratified that we are able to take compose the Christian church, have a Dr. B's own definition of it. “ The right to indulge in that licence of literal meaning of heresy, in the choice on the subject of religious docoriginal, is choice. Among different tripe and discipline, which leads them persuasions, an individual makes bis to divide into sects and parties. Now election.” Serm. xxii, p. 309. here is the difference between Dr. B. But this brings us a very short way and us.
He first assumes that men, in our argument. Dr. B. las assumed, from the exercise of choice, or what as usual, the very point to be proved. he elsewhere calls private judgment, The question is not, whether yeri, have a right to separate into different heresy, be innocent in its application sects. We maintain, on the contrary, to the healing art, or to philosopby, that they have no such right; that the or to the parties existing in the Jewish great design of our Saviour and his church, or to any of the diversities of apostles was to preserve unity ; that opinion now prevailing og subjects of every thing which tended to produce
schism was branded with opprobrium; the inseparable preposition, corresponding and hence, that heresy, under which with iĚ, and derived the noun from ma secuit, term we include every thing which in in the sense which it assumes with noza, of itself tends to separation, is, in a Chrismaking a covenant or agreement. We are tian, deeply criminal.
Being thus aware that it aipio tas aútãy may be rendered, "agresably to their own will," that is, they fairly at issue, let us proceed to try did as much injustice as they pleased : and so the question by the authority of scripit is rendered by Biel, ex proposito suo, pro ture, and the practical results furnished Iubilu suo. Lex. in Lxx. etc. v. Aspects by experience. But if this translation should be admitted in
The noun deperis, translated somethe present case, we should be at a loss how to account for the translation of brangly times heresy and sometimes sect, ocαρίσιος.
curs nine times in the new testament;
the adjective aiperisos, a beretick, it was proper for him to disclaim.
“ But this I confess unto thee, that after Acis v. 17. “Then the high priest the way which they call heresy, (in rose up,and all they that were there with aérovoso cipeou—itwould have been bethim, which is the sect (důru ep€r16) ter to have rendered it as in the 5th ver. of the sadducees,” &c. The bistorian which they call a sect, so worship I the here uses a lerm which, as we have God of my fathers," &c. Though Ter seen, had become a common appella- tullus might call the Christian church a tive of the parties in the Jewish sect or heresy, putting it on a level with church; but common sense inust teach all the Jewish and heathen parties, St. every one that this can have no bear. Paul would not call it so. The Chrising on the question respecting the ap- tian church, in his view, was designed plication of the term to Christians. to embrace all men, and therefore
Acts xv. 15. “But there rose up could not be a sect. It was the state certain of the sect (oñs cipíceas heresy) of relationship between God and his of the pharisees which believed, say- creatures, in wbich pardon was pro. ing that it was needful to circumcise vided for the guilty through a Redeemthem, (the gentiles, and to command er, not a sect of religious philosophers them to keep the law of Moses.' ranged under the name, and obeying Some of the sect or heresy of the the laws, of a great human teacher of pbarisees had become Christians, but morality. We have in these words of retained the notions of their party re- the apostle, an evident disapproval of specting the perpetual and universal the use of the term, with regard to obligation of the law of Moses. This the Christian religion. was the great source of discord, to stop The next mention of the term heresy which the apostles bad to exert all occurs in St. Paul's celebrated speech their authority ; so that if this passage to king Agrippa, Acts xxvi. 5. " proves any thing, it is against, rather manner of life know all the Jews, ihan in favour of heresy. If it be con- which knew me from the beginning, strued into an approbation of heresies (if they would testify,) that after the or parties in the Christian church, we most straitest sect of our religion (ring may on the same principle infer that ósxps6eotátnu cipro, the sect most there ought to be Christian phari- punctilious in observing every jot and
tittle of the Mosaick law.) I lived a Acts xxiv. 5. 6 For we have found pharisee.” It is bardly necessary to this man (Paul) a pestilent fellow, and observe that St. Paul was speaking of a mover of sedition among all the Jews his unconverted, not of his Christian throughout the world, and a ringleader state, and he uses the appellative airporis, of the sect (rñs aipérews) of the Naza. sect, as it was commonly used among renes. These were the words of the Jews. Tertullus, a Roman and heathen ora- In chap. xxviii. of the Acts, it is tor, and the relation of them by St. mentioned that when St. Paul arrived Luke proves the fidelity and accuracy in Rome, he assembled the chief of of the historian, but expresses no senti- his countrymen to inform them of the ment, either of approbation or disappro- reasons why he had been sent thither bation. The Romans felt a great con. a prisoner; to which they answered, tempt for the Jews and their religion, (21, 22,)“ We neither received and they considered the Christians as letters out of Judea concerning thee; only a Jewish sect. Tertullus express- neither any of the brethren that came ed himself, therefore, as a Roman and showed or spake any harm of thee. a heathen. In St. Paul's answer, (14,) But we desire to hear of thee what be alludes to the contemptuous lan- tbou thinkest: for as concerning this guage of the orator, as a calumny wbich sect (viño ásperiwg raúty) we know
that every where it is spoken against.” mean by the title, or as an approval of The Jews at Rome looked upon Chris- their doctrine. tianity, either as a sect of their own In a historical book, like the Acts, religion, or as a purer kind of hea- when the object of the historian is not thenism. Their answer shows that they to express his own opinions, but to rehad regarded it with unconcern, and late facts, no inferences of a doctrinal taken
up the common prejudices against nature can properly be drawn from it. St. Paul, however, did not expound the use of common appellatives. We 10 them the doctrines of the sect, but must look for expressions of com“ be expounded and testified the king- mendation or censure to the epistles dom of God, persuading them concern- only, because they were addressed to ing Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, Christians, and treated exclusively of and out of the prophets.” ver. 23. the affairs of Christians. But here Dr.
Here are six places out of the nine B. can find no use of the term heresy, in which the word aspetig occurs. And which does not imply criminality. hence Dr. B. draws the inference that The first place where it occurs, is “in most of the passages, the word 1 Cor. xi. 19. St. Paul is sharply re(heresy) does not imply criminality in proving the Corinthians, for their disthose to whoin it refers !” “St. Paul, orderly conduct, their contentions where he uses it,” he adds, “is com- about trifles, their spirit of insubor. mending bis practices !" Serm. p. 310. dination, and their profanation of the We appeal to our readers whether Lord's supper. " In this that I de. this is sound criticism, or sound logick. clare unto you, I praise you not, that In three instances out of the six, the ye come together not for the better, word is used in speaking of the phari. but for the worse. For, first of all, sees and sadducees. In two, it is used when ye come together in the church, concerning the Christian religion in- I hear ihat there be divisions, (xiruara deed, but used by a heathen and by schisms,) among you, and I partly beJews. In the remaining instance, lieve it, (mai mipos 1 riskua, of a wliere St. Paul, in the language of Dr. certain part of you I believe it.) B.," is commending his practices," he For there must be also heresies, (aipéreus takes especial care to disclaim the sects or parties,) among you, that they epithet. “ After the way,' says he, which are approved (Sóximo a word re“which they” not I “ call a beresy or lating to the purity and genuineness of sect.” Dr. B. and his friends are the precious metals, q. d. they wbich very much in the habit of calling all are genuine Christians) may be made those who worship the Lord Jesus manifest among you. Here the genuine Christ, a sect; and if we should reply, Christians are evidently put in opposi“ But this we confess unto thee, that tion to that certain part who cause after the way which ye call heresy, divisions. The necessity of there being so worship we ibe God of our fathers," beresiesor sects, springs from tbe corrupt we should undoubtedly commend our conduct of those who cause them. practices, but we should be very sorry Dr. B. indeed, puts a different conif any of our posterity should thence struction upon this passage, because infer that we considered ourselves as a he considers division and separation sect, or approved of beresy. We have among Christians as no crime. sometimes also mentioned those who different tempers, situations, and purcall themselves unitarians, under that suits of men considered," says he, appellation as the well known name of " difference in religious opinions among a party, but God forbid that our men- then must be expected ; and their tioning of them should be considered divisions afford opportunity to test as an acknowledgment of what they the integrity, the resolution, and con
stancy of the ingenuous friend of truth. who chooses his sect from selfish and Heresy, in all the above passages, wicked motives.” Who does not see.
a sect, a particular religious that in this be completely begs the denomination.' Serm. p. 310 question? It is surprising that after 311. All this is true but are we to having justly defined heresy to mean infer that heresy is no crime? We a sect, or particular religious denom cannot but ibink that the ancient ination, he should not have gone on to father, whose words we have placed the legitimate conclusion that the di. at the head of this article, reasoned vision of Christians into sects is one of much more correctly than Dr. B., the works of the flesh ; that it is therewhen he said that we might as well fore abhorrent from the spirit of Chriscall evil good, because in the divine tianity ; and consequently that all administration of the universe it is who cause such divisions have reason made subservient to good purposes. to fear the anger of God. Gal. v. 21. Certain
had 2 Peter. ii. 1. The apostle having taught the Galatian converts that uno spoken (chap. i. 16,) of the voice less they received circumcision and from heaven, and the miraculous transobserved the Mosaick law they could figuration of Christ, of which he was not be saved ; and they appear to have an eye and ear witness, as rendering been very successful in raising up a more firın the prophesies of the old secl or party in favour of Judaical ob. testament respecting the Saviour, ex.
This was the occasion of horts the persons to whom he writes St. Paul's epistle, and his fears that to attend carefully to those prophethe unity of the church would be sies in connexion with their fulfilment, destroyed, are very observable through as productive of clear conviction of the whole, and especially in the fifth the truth of the gospel ; remember. chapter. “ If ye bite and devour one ing, that the holy men who uttered another” (the natural effect of party them were excited thereto. by the Spirit)“ take heed that ye be not con- Holy Ghost. But though the prophets sumed one of another. —Walk in the spake by inspiration, they were not. Spirit and ye shall not fulfil the lust withstanding opposed, and often opposof the flesh. For the flesh lustethed successfully, among the people, by against the Spirit.—The works of the false prophets. From this opposition flesh are manisest, wbich are these ; to God's true prophets, under the law, adultery, fornication, uncleanness, las- the apostle draws an admonition with civiousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, regard to the false teachers who sbould variance, emulations, wrath, strife, sedi, oppose the ininisters of Christ, and tions, heresies, (cipévels
, sects,) envy- pervert the truths of the gospel. ings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, there were false prophets also among and such like : of the which I tell the people, even as there shall be you before, as I have also told you in false teachers among you, who privitime past, that they which do such ly shall bring in damnable heresies, things shall not inherit the kingdom (zipórtis arwasias, sects of destruction, of God." Heresies or sects are here sects tending to perdition) even deny. put in such goodly company that even ing the Lord that bought them, and Dr. B.js obliged to admit that they bring upon themselves swift destrucare criminal.
But he relieves himself tion, (oraslav,) and many shall follow from the difficulties of this concession, their pernicious ways, (Griesb. ársby making the crime to consist, not in years, impurities,) by reason of whom the act of heresy itself, but in the the way of truth shall be evil spoken motive wbich leads to the act. The of, and through covetousness shall they criminal heretick, says he, " is the man with feigned words make merchan.
dise of you, whose judgment now of acknowledged that he was in the a long time lingereih not, and their wrong? Such an acknowledgment is damnation slumbereth not.' The false foreign from the very character of one teachers are described as introducing who causes divisions; and at this rate, their heresies or sects covertly, so as the apostle might have spared his not to alarm the people whom they counsel, since it would be questionateach, though their sects are in them- ble whether there ever had been a selves destructive. The consequence is heretick in the world. But if heresy that many follow their impurities, on be that exercise of private choice account of whom even Christanity ito which leads men to form parties in self shall be evil spoken of. We for- the church, then the heretick is obvibear any further comment, excepting ously self-condemned by the fruits of the single remark, that what was writ. his own conduct. His crime is now ten aforetime was written for our learn- palpable ; for, however sincere be may ing, and that it behoves every Christian, be in his opinions, and however conwho values his own salvation, serious. sistent he may think them with the scriply to examine whether the apostle's tures, he cannot but perceive that they admonition may not be applicable to have rent asunder the body of Christ, bimself.
and consequently is self-condemned Titus iii. 10. In the tiro preced. from the very nature of his own act. ing verses, the apostle requires Titus We have shown, we think, that to insist most strenuously upon the in every passage of the new tesnecessity of practical boliness in the tament in which the word beresy apChristian character, but to shun all plies to the Christian state, it is confoolish questions, and disputes about demned as inconsistent with the very the law, from the conviction that they character of our religion. To confirm are vain, and unprofitable. And then this view of the subject in the minds he proceeds : “ A man that is a bere. of our readers, we shall roceed to tick, (aipetixóv v Opatov, a man who is some of the passages in which the constantly raising these foolish, un word schism occurs ; for if it shall ap• profitable, and empty questions and pear that schism is inconsistent with controversies, dividing Christians in the obligations of the Christian life, to sects, and leading them off from it will be obvious that heresy, from practical holiness, such a man,) after which it inevitably proceeds, cannot ihe first and second admonition, reject, be innocent. (Fapaitou, avoid or shun ;) knowing Schism, (oxioua,) it is well known, that he that is such is subverted, signifies a division or separation. (igirt patta, literally is turned inside Our Saviour speaks of a rent (oxious out, a metaphor derived from so turnin a garment becoming worse, Alati. ing a soiled garment; in other words ix. 16. Mar. ii. 21; and St. Juhn uses has made manifest the perversity of his the same word to denote the conflict. mind. See Wetst. vol. 2. p. 378,) and ing sentiments of the Jews concerning sinneth, being condemned of himself.” Jesus. (John. vii. 43.) “ There was How self-condemned? If Dr. B.'s con- a division (xioua, among the people struction is to be allowed, “ he must because, or on account, of him." himself approve the sentence of ex- also ix. 16. x. 19. It occurs no where clusion." In other words, he must else, but in the first epistle to the himself allow that he is in the wrong. Corinthians; the church at Corinth Who will not exclaiın, “O lame and being greatly distracted by contending impotent conclusion !" for of all the parties. turbulent spirits that ever distracted 1. Cor. i. 10. Now I beseech you, the Christian church who has ever brethren, by the name of our Lord