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SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

value, notwithstanding the extensive ring-formation, owing LONDON.

to the very high constant of the quaternary basic group,

which cannot suffer dehydration except through ringRoyal Society, May 31.-" The Affinity Constants of formation. The quaternary basic group of the betaine Amphoteric Electrolytes.' I. “Methyl Derivatives of

esters was proved to have basic properties comparable in Para-amino-benzoic Acid and of Glycine," by John John

strength with those of the caustic alkalies. ston. II. " Methyl Derivatives of Ortho- and Meta

June 21.-" On the Distribution of Radium in the amino-benzoic Acids," by A. C. Cumming. III.“ Methyl

Earth's Crust." By the Hon. R. J. Strutt, F.R.S. wied Amino-acids," by James Walker. The object of the present series of papers was to deter

In a paper read before the society on April 5, the author mine the influence of the substitution of the methyl group

gave determinations of the quantity of radium in igneous in VH, on the acidic and basic dissociation constants of

rocks. Similar data for sedimentary deposits will now be amino-acids. The methods employed for the determin- given to complete the survey of the radium content of the

earth's crust. ation of the dissociation constants were for the most part hidrolytic, i.e. the degree of hydrolysis in aqueous solu

The results for sedimentary rocks are given in Table I. son of both types of salts of the amino-acids was

TABLE I. estimated at given dilutions. For the basic constant methyl acetate catalysis, Löwenherz's solubility method

Rock zod Farmer and Warth's distribution method

Locality

gram, employed. In addition to these methods, the delicate diazo-acetic ester catalysis of Bredig and Fraenkel was used in a few instances. For the acidic constant, the Oolite

Bath ... electrical conductivity and Shields's saponification method Oolite

St. Alban's Head were utilised.

Marble

East Lothian Each substance investigated was subjected to careful Kimmeridge clay Ely purification, and many new methods were devised for the Oil-bearing sandstone Galicia preparation of the methyl derivatives required. It may be Koofing slate

Wales (?) noted that the monomethyl-meta-amino-benzoic acid' de- Silicified gritty slate St. Ives, Cornwall scribed by Griess is a mixture of the monomethyl and Gault clay

Cambridge dimethyl derivatives which it is practically impossible to Clay ...

Terling, Essex .. separate by recrystallisation.

Red sandstone
East Lothian

1.68 x 10-12 comparison of the acidic and basic constants of the Gravel (fine siftings) Terling, Essex ... various substances examined showed that they were in

Red chalk

Hunstanton general accordance with the following scheme. The Flint (large nodules) Terling, Essex...

I'06 x 10-12 primary influence of the substitution of methyl for hydrogen

White marble

Deccan, India 17 the amino group is to raise the basic and diminish the Marbie

East Lothian adic constant, the effect in both cases being, however,

Chalk

Bottom of pit, Cherry only slight. This primary influence is usually obscured by

Hinton, Cambridgeshire 078 x 10-19 greater secondary influences due to stereochemical changes. Chalk'

Top of same pit These changes may exert their influence (1) by mere approximation of the active groups ; (2) by change in degree

On comparing these tigures with those given in the rf hydration of the basic group; (3) by ring-formation.

former paper for igneous rocks (Roy. Soc. Proc., vol In the case of ring-formation the acidic constant is

lxxvii., A, p. 479, last column but one of the table), it will ciminished, speaking in general terms, proportionally to be observed that the average radium content of sedimentary t'he extent to which the ring-formation has taken place. deposits does not differ appreciably from that of igneous The basic constant, on the other hand, need not be so

rocks. This is what might be expected on the received riminished, because the basic constant in the bodies investi

view that sedimentary rocks derive their material from Lated is principally a function of the hydration constant the disintegration of igneous ones. r! the basic group, and the degree of hydration may not

The author has examined a number of specimens of In dininished by increased ring-formation. A comparison rock-formning minerals for radium. The results are given of the basic constants of the amino-acids with those of

in Table II. In some cases the quantity of material taken their methyl esters affords information regarding the s-ciprocal stereochemical influence of the active groups.

TABLE II.
When there is little stereochemical influence the basic
Constant of the acid is nearly equal to that of the ester.

Quantity Radium
Mineral

Locality where found taken. When the stereochemical influence is marked the basic

grams

in gratis minstant of the acid is much less than that of the ester. 7ize following table of the constants of ortho-aminoinnzoic acid and of para-amino-benzoic acid and their

Zircon
Ural Mountains

S65 * 10-12 rethyl derivatives may serve as illustrations. In the ortho

Zircon
North Carolina

658 10-12 Lories stereochemical influences are apparent, in the

Zircon
Brevis

0.690
para

139 wwpips they are nearly absent.

Zircon
Kimberley

117

Perofshite Magnet Cove,
Ortho Scries.

Arkansas

197
ky * 105 horici:
Ester ki 1012 Sphene

? Acid ..

14
13
17 Apatite

Sweden
Monomethyl
0'16... 09

33
Apatite
California ...

47

ITO 10Dimethyl 0'00023 O'28

60
Hornblende

? Bittaine

75
O'00000 028.
very great Tourmaline Devonshire

I13

3:32 Para Series.

Labradorile Labrador

17

10-1? key rok

Ester kx1012
White selspar... Nellore, India ...

0.6 10-1? Acid...

12
2.5

2'4

White mica Vellore, India ... nomethyl

0-92
17
Brown mica Deccar

PA? Dimethyl

0'94
32

3:3
Brown mica
?

W
Peiaine
O'00000 323
very great
Nellore, India ... 30

17!
Rutile

Wil The great drop in the acidic constant of dimethyl-ortho

Ilmenite

Nil 1.-1320ic acid is due to ring-formation. In the case of the I aines the ring-forination must be nearly complete, as

acid constant has practically vanished. The basic 1 This determination was made on 50 grams of material, i: orier to rmatant of the betainas still assume a comparatively high

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for the experiment proved insufficient to give a satisfactory Deductions from a study of the melting points of miss 3 quantitative measure of the amount of radium in the in varying proportions of silver and sulphur, silver .-4 mineral. This is indicated by a note of interrogation. selenium, and silver and tellurium. The complete citto In other cases no radium at all was detected. In all prob- for the last named can be traced experimentally, and shorn ability some traces would have been found if more of the eutectic melting at 345, and Ag. Te, meltin. mineral had been taken, but the object was to determine 955o. - The washing of colloidal precipitates. ] whether the mineral made any important contribution to Duclaux. The author holds that the complete washing of the total radium in the rock. Thus it was not thought a gelatinous precipitate is theoretically possible, and the worth while to push the examination of accessory minerals, in both gelatinous and colloidal precipitates there is no such as ilmenite or rutile, which only occur in small pro- proportionality between the impurity removed at +30 portions, very far. The quantities of material taken for washing and that remaining in the precipitate. The tre these experiments are given, so that the quantitative signifi- nature of the •a-glucoproteins of M. Lepierre ; J. Calicance of a negative result may be judged.

mard, L. Lacomme, and A. Morel. The ronstituta It will be observed that certain of the accessory minerals, attributed by M. Lepierre to the nitrogenous products i.€. zircon, sphene, perofskite, and apatite, which occur in employed by him for microbial cultures is inexact.-13granite, are rich in radium. The hornblende, micas, amylase and maltase of the pancreatic juice : MM. Bierry tourmaline, and felspars examined contain much less, while and Giaja.—The mechanism of the valves of certain in quartz none could be detected.

Acephalea during opening and closing, and its morphogei

consequences : F. Marceau. A curative product derile i Paris.

from tuberculinine, crystallised tuberculous poiven. Academy of Sciences, July 30.-M. H. Poincaré in the

G. Baudran. Tuberculinine is poisonous alkalcu! chair.— The observatory on Mt. Blanc: M. Janssen.

extracted in the proportion of 0.00 per cent. 10 0.10 Ort An account of the improvements carried out at the observ

cent. from tubercle bacilli. This alkaloid, when oxidicul atory during the past year. At present MM. Millochau

under conditions specified with calcium permangana!", and Stefánik are carrying out spectroscopical researches, yields a substance possessing antitoxic power against three and the observatory will shortly be visited by MM. Guille- poison of the tubercle bacillus.-A tectonic sketch mard and Moog for the continuation of biological work

France : E. Jourdy. commenced last year, and by Alexis Hansky for the con

GÖTTINGEN. tinuation of his work in astronomical physics.-The under- Royal Society of Sciences.—The Nachrichten (physic3. lying principles of direct colour photography. The direct mathematical section), partii. for 1906, contains l'e photography of colours based on prismatic dispersion : G. following memoirs communicated to the society :-Lippmann. The single slit of a spectroscope is replaced February 17,- Seismic records at l'psala (October, 17by a series of slits very close together, formed of fine May, 1905) : F. Åkerblom. transparent lines, five to the millimetre. Full experimental March 3.-Outlines of a general theory of linear iniego! details are given.-General remarks on interference photo-cquations (iv.): D. Hilbert. graphy in colours : G. Lippmann. The mercury mirror, May 12.-Characters of inorganic colloids (ultramures theoretically, can be replaced by any other method of pro-scopic observations) : W. Blitz. ducing interference bands. Practically, the unavoidable The Business Notices (part i., 1906) include a report 39 defects of construction of the biprism or Fresnel double the Samoa Observatory, and an obituary discourse one mirror would render the use of either of them inapplicable. late Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen. The interference systems produced by half-silvered mirrors offer more chances of success.-The results obtained for the determination of two instrumental constants which occur in certain meridional observations : H. Renan. The

CONTENTS. application of the method described in a previous communi- | Anthropological Ethics. cation to the measurement of the angle between the crosswires of a meridian circle micrometer has shown that the

Joseph Priestley. By J. B. C. mutual inclination of the wires is not absolutely constant,

Spherical Astronomy. By P. H. C.. but is a function of the direction of the optic axis of the

Our Book Shelf:telescope. It is shown that this error, although small, can Holzmüller: “Die neueren Wandlungen der elek. be eliminated by the author's method.- Observations of

trischen Theorien einschiesslich der Elektronen. the Finlay comet (1900d) made with the bent equatorial of theorie zwei Vortrage.”—N. R. C. the Observatory of Lyons : J. Guillaume.--The area of Hight: “ The Unity of Will. Studies of an Asiatic Russia and the method employed in its determin

Irrationalist" ation : J. de Schokalsky.—The combinations of ammonia Gautier : “ Diet and Dietetics with

chloride, bromide, and iodide : Fernand Osborne and Osborne : " German Grammar for Meyer. The preparation and properties of the compounds Science Students” Aul.SH, Aul.SH,, AuBr.2 SH, AuCl.12NH,

and

Letter to the Editor :AuCI.3.SH

described.Some reactions of liquid chlorine : V. Thomas and P. Dupuis. A description of

Colour Phenomena in Bollus werulescens.--George

Massee. the reaction of liquid chlorine with iodine, bromine, sulphur, selenium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and gold.

The Early History of Spitsbergen. Illustrato.) --The allor's of

manganese and molybdenum : M. By J. W. G. Arrivant. These alloys have been prepared in two ways, Prof. George Rayet. By W. E. P. hy heating a mixture of the two metals in the form of Notes powder to 1500° C., and by the action of aluminium

Our Astronomical Column:powder upon a mixture of the oxides Mn,O, and MoO,.

Comet 19060 (Finlay) A series of alloys containing from 12 per cent. to 30 per

Planets and Planetary Observations cent. of molybdenum was obtained, all of which

A New Form of Spectroheliograph shown to consist of free manganese associated with either Vn. Vo or Mn, Mo. Both the latter compounds

The Relations between Science and Industry. isolated.--The variations of electrical resistance of steels The British Association outside the regions of transformation : P. Fournel.--The Section C.-Geology.--Opening Address by G. W. estimation of ammonia in water by Vessler's reagent : Lamplugh, F.R.S., President of the section. 387 Albert Buisson, The reaction between ammonia, potash,

Section D.--Zoology.--Opening Address Ly J. J. and mercurie jodide is a reversible one, and hence any

Lister, M.A., F.R.S., President of the estimation of ammonia based on the determination of

Section mercury in the brown precipitate is inexact. ---Syntheticalls University and Educational Intelligence prepared l-idite : Gabriel Bertrand and A. Lanzenberg. -Silver sulphide, selenide, and tolluride : II. Pélabon.

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