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as we may guess from, the [g] Languages of several Nations; in which some Words that answer to our Proper or Becoming, are used indifferently for Beautiful or Graceful.
And yet I cannot think (as some seem inclined to do) that Grace consists entirely in Propriety; be-, cause Propriety is a Thing easy enough to be understood, and Grace (after all we can fay about it) very difficult. Propriety therefore and Grace are no more One and the fame Thing, than Grace and Motion are: 'Tis true, it cannot subsist without eifher; but then there seems to be something else, what I cannot explain, and what I do not know that ever any body has explained, that goes to the Composition; and which possibly may give its greatest Force and Pleasingness.
Whatever are the Causes of it, this is certain, that Grace is the chief of all the constituent Parts of Beauty; and so much so, that it feems to be the only one which is absolutely and univerfally admired: All the rest are only relative. One likes a brunette Beauty better than a fair one; I may love a little Woman, and you a large one, best; a Person of a mild Temper will be fond of the, gentler Passions in the Face, and one of a bolder Cast may choofe to have more Vivacity and more vigorous Passions expressed there: But Grace is found in few, and is pleasing to all.
Grace, like Poetry, must be born with a Person; and is never, wholly, to be acquired by Art.
[g] Thus, among the Greets, the Words n?iT« and K»*oi, and among the Romans, Pukhrum and Deceni, or Decorum, are used indifferently for one another.
The most'celebrated of all the ancient Painters* was Apelks; and the most celebrated of all the Modern, Raphael: And it is remarkable, that the distinguishing Character of each of them was Grace. Indeed, that alone could have given them so high a Pre-eminence over all their other Competitors.
Grace has nothing to do with the lowest Part of Beauty, or Color; very little with Shape, and very much with the Passions; for it is she whogives their highest Zest, and the most delicious Part of their Pleafingness to the Expressions of each of them.
All the other Parts of Beauty are pleasing iri: some Degree, tut Grace is Pleafingness itself j and the old Romans in general seem to have had this Notion of it; as may be inferred from the original Import [b] of the Names which they used for this Part of Beauty. .. - ,
The Greeks, as well as the Romans, must have been of this Opinion; when, in settling their Mythology, they made the Graces the constant Attendants of Venus, or the Cause of Love; and, in Fact, there is nothing causes Love so generally,, and so irresistibly, as Grace. 'Tis like the Cejius of the fame Goddess, which was supposed to comprehend [/]. every thing that was winning and en.
[b] Gratia, from gratus, or pleasing i and decor,. from decens, or becoming. [i] H, Kxi erno ruflis-pi. iXujœlo Xffoi iiiu'i
noiXiTtSK' ubx Si oi HihKluHx wafia Tiji-xic.
Ei$' in p.ii <i>i?io1ii,-, c> $' ii S' Oaftrvt..
n»fipa<ris, n r' ixXi-J/i ioo/ Vivxx -ai^ $go>io,7w/ . Toi gii oi if*£»7u X'i"'1 > 'S-®» T' i* T' •i)/*«£i. gaging in it; and beside al!, to oblige the Heart to Love, by a secret and inexplicable Force, like that of some magic Charm.
HouciXoi, à iu waila rslivX"^»1' *m " fis*i
I2ç (pulo, fiiiSycrii $i 8oznrn «raina Hçv'
She faid; with Awe divine, the Queen of Love Obey'd the Sister and the Wise of Jo<ve: And from her fragrant Breast the Zone unbrac'd, Wiih various Skilland high Embroidery grac'd. ïn this was ev'ry Art, and ev'ry Charm, To win the wisest, and the coldest warm: Fond Love, the gentle Vow, the gay Desire, The kind Deceit, the still reviving Fire, Persuasive Speech, and more persuasive Sighs, Silence that spoke, and Eloquence of Eyes. This on her Hand the Cyprian Goddess laid; Take this, and wiih it all thy Wilh, (he said: Vv'iih Smiles (he took the Charm ; and smiling prest The pow'rsul Cejius to her snowy Breast. Pope, It.
La Motte » Imitation of the fame Passage, is extremely good toothough he addsafVvHcAFlourilh at theEnd of it.
Ce tissu, le simbole & la cause à la fois - Du pouvoir de l'amour, du charme de ses loix, Elle enflamme les yeux, de cet ardeur qui touche; D'un sourire enchanteur, elle anime la bouche: Passionne la voix, en adoucit lessons: Prête ces tours heureux, plus fous que les raisons: , Inspire, pour toucher, ces tendres stratagèmes; Ces refus attirans, l'ecueil des fagea mêmes: Et la nature'enfin y voulut renfermer Tout ce qui persuade & ce qui fait aimer.
En prenant ce tissu, que Venus lui présente, Junon n'éioit que belle, elle devient charmante. Les graces, & les ris, les plaisirs, & les ieux, Surpris cherchent Venus ; doutent qui l'est des deux: L'Amour même trompé, trouve Junon plus belle i Et, son arc à la main, deja vole apus elle.
As Crito paused here, both Mi Les I Us and Timanthes thanked him for his Account of a Thing, which they had never heard so far accounted for before; and the latter added, that in his Division of the Parts which constitute Beauty, he, at first, thought him guilty of an Omission, in not adding a Fifth, that of Motion. Crito faid, that he had not forgot that,but thought itwas comprehended under the other Heads. For all genteel Motion (fays he,) as I have been so lately mentioning, falls under the Article of Grace ; whence Horace calls it by it's true Name of graceful Motion; and common Motions are only so many Variations of the Attitude, or Position of the particular Parts of the Body, and Features of the Face: The more significant of which, belong to the Article of the Passions; and the less significant, may be comprehended under that of mere Form or Figure. And now I mention Horace, added he, it is observable enough, that he, and the other Ro~ man Authors, have distinct Names for each of my Four constituent Parts of Beauty,which the Commentators and Dictionary-writers have been sometimes too apt to mistake for Names of Beauty in general. Thus for the First they use the Word Color; for the Second, Forma; for the Third, they seem to have had several distinct Names, according to the different Sorts of Passions whose Delightfulness they spoke of: for the" Fourth, they used Gratia and Decor, when they spoke of it in general ; and Venustas or Dignitas, when they had a mind to be more particular. Their Word
Nitor Nil or took [£], and some others of a like Import, which seem sometimes to be used in general for Beauty, belong more properly to that superficial Sort of Beauty, which I mentioned in part under the First Head, in speaking of the silky Appearance of the Skin, and the Luminousness in some Eyes. But to talk of Things rather than Words; I mould be willing to add some general Observations that I have made, at Times, in thinking on this Subject.
It has been observed by some Writers, that there is naturally a great deal of Propriety in Pleasure ; or, in other Words, that Pleasure is annexed by Nature to such Things as are proper for our Preservation, and Pain to such as would be destructive to us. Thus Pleasure, for Example, is annexed to Food and Exercise; and Pain, to such Degrees of Abstinence and Indolence as would be hurtful. The fame may be observed in the different Sorts of Pleasures, adapted to each Stage of human Life. Thus in Infancy, when Growth is as necefiary as Support, we have more frequent Returns of Appetite, and more Pleasure in Feedr
[i] Liparæi nitor Hcbri. Horat. Lib. iii.
Od. xii. 6.
Urit me Glyceræ nitor
Id Lib. i. Od. xix. 6.
Tlie Epithets marmoreus, elurneui, and candi4us,ite all applied to Beauties by the Roman Poets i sometimes as to their Shape, and sometimes as to the Shiningness here spoken of.