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but the continuance of the military dictatorship | by the National Assembly, but neither of these of Gen. Cavaignac, the state of siege, and the penalties are to be found in such lawvast army congregated in Paris, show the great

“ They declare that those decrees are an attack apprehension of the rulers and the discontent by the Executive Government on the rights of the of the people, or at least of a very great portion legisative powers, on the rights of the National of them. “A draft of the proposed Constitution Assembly, (for a decree published even with this has been submitted to the National Assembly, formality prefixed, the Council of Ministers harin which France is declared to be a Republic, ing examined,' cannot annul the effects and guar

one and indivisible,” with the motto of antee of a law.) “Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality;" but as yet “They declare that those decrees are equivamore pressing matters have prevented that lent to the suppression of the liberty of the press, body from entering upon a discussion of its inasmuch as the effect of them is not only to susmerits. The trial of the parties implicated in pend a certain number of journals, but to deprive the outbreak of June last, proceeds in private those which are not suspended of that sense of seand with great rapidity ; the dungeons are

curity, without which there is no longer either being fast cleared, and the convicted are for independence or liberty in the most moderate exwarded by hundreds to the seaports to be em

ercise of the least suspected right. barked for transportrtion. However necessary

They declare, in conclusion, that those decrees

create a regime incomparably worse than that of these proceedings may be, they with others censorship, for according to a definition borrowed show that at present there is not even the sha- from the National of the 5th of August, 1835, dow of liberty in France. The socialists are

• The censorship mutilates, but it does not imstill said to be extremely numerous in Paris prison, nor does it ruin' and other large towns, and to keep up a con “They protest, with all the energy of their constant and active correspondence. În Lyons victions, and with all the power of their right, their influence is said to be greater even than against the decree of the Executive Government, in Paris; and in Tours (generally a peaceable in virtue of which several journals have been city) their numbers exceed 4500. With the suppressed, and several writers have been arpresent military organization no great appre

rested without trial.” hension is entertained of their venturing on an On the presentation of this protest, General outbreak, but their numbers and activity are Cavaignac is reported to have said, “ Your apconstant causes of alarm, and during the plication does you honor; it is your dnty to month of August Paris was in a state of fever- / protest, as it is mine to suspend. I will not do ish excitement consequent on their reported less with the Constitutionnel, if it continues its junction with the legitimists, with whom they attacks on the Republic in favor of monarchy. were said to have entered into a compact to I have in a friendly way caused its editors to be overthrow the present system, their previous informed that if they continue their polemics in failure having induced them to make common favor of a dynasty which I feel honor in having cause for that purpose with the adherents of served, but which I will have nothing more of “ Henry the Fifth.''

as France will have nothing more of it, I will The law requiring caution money from the suspend the Constitutionnel without more hespublishers of newspapers has been followed by itation than I suspended the Lampion. The a decree, published in the Moniteur of August Republic is still in its infancy; it is too weak 12, which subjects writers to a fine from 300 to to resist the journalists of the opposition; when 6000 francs, and to imprisonment from 3 months it shall have grown, you shall have a carte to 5 years, for offences against the rights or au blanche to attack it." Thus it appears that no thority of the chief of the Executive, against opposition to the present system is to be toleraRepublican institutions, the Constitution! the ted, that liberty of the press is extinct, and edprinciple of the sovereignty of the people, and itors are at the mercy of a military dictator. universal suffrage ; and to fine and imprison During the month of August there were variment for other offences. On the 7th of August ous causes for alarm in Paris. On the 17th, a decree of Gen. Cavaignac, chief of the execu a large mass of the wives and daughters of the tive power, removed the suspension pronounced imprisoned insurgents proceeded towards the on the 27th June, against eleven of the Paris National Assembly, to present a petition for an newspapers, and on the 21st another decree amnesty. From apprehension that this demonfrom the same source suppressed four of the stration might cause an émeute all the avenues Communist journals. In addition to these at were occupied with troops, and the procession atcks on the press, several editors having been was stopped at the advanced posts, from whence arrested without any legal sanction for such a the petition was forwarded to the Assembly. proceeding, a meeting of the Parisian journal- Rumors were also afloat of an intended“ legitists was held on the 24th August, when a strong imaterising, but owing to the precautionary and energetic remonstrance and protest was measures, tranquillity was not disturbed. It is adopted, in which, after stating that the law said that but a small part of the men registered demanded by the present government for pun. in the late ateliers nationaux have ever quitted ishing offences of the press had been enacted | Paris, by far the greater portion still remaining

there out of work, and their presence keeps up the palace where the king was. lodged, and the constant dread of a socialist outbreak. The seized his person, and he was with difficulty subject of the greatest excitement has been the extricated by his guards. An armistice of Report of the Committee on the previous insur- forty-five days was afterwards established, acrections ; a vast mass of evidence taken by the cording to the terms of which the territorial committee has been published, which lays bare divisions were settled as they were before the the proceedings from the first declaration of the war, the former frontiers established, and the Republic in February last. This is proved to fortress of Peschiera and the city of Venice have been the work of a few individuals, chiefly were to be given up to the Austrians. The connected with the National and Reform news Austrians entered Milan on the 6th, and the papers, assisted by persons of the lowest orders Piedmontese retired to their own country in a of society. The revelations regarding the ex complete state of disorganization. Peschiera penditures of moneys raised by the Provisional has been delivered up to the Austrians, but Government, by means of loans and taxes, ex the inhabitants of Venice refuse to fulfil the hibits the greatest corruption; and it is shown stipulation for the cession of that city. Charles that the celebrated Commissioners sent by Le- Albert has again made a formal application to dru-Rollin into the provinces to spread the re the French government for assistance, and the publican doctrines he was desirous of dissemi. French army of the Alps is being increased, nating, included tailors, shoemakers, liberated but Gen. Cavaignac has declared his intention convicts, and persons of the worst character. not to embark in war until the result of a me Nadame George Sand, celebrated for the im-diation undertaken by the French and English morality of her life and writings, appears to governments shall be known. The basis on have been regularly engaged by the Provisional which it is proposed to reconcile the belliGovernment to enlighten the nation, and her gerent parties has not transpired. addresses sent out under their sanction were In Rome the ministerial crisis ended in Masubmitted for revisal and approbation to each miani re-entering the cabinet, having compelled member in rotation. Ledru-Rollin, Louis Blanc, the Pope to consent to the closest alliance with and Caussidière, are all seriously implicated by the princes of Italy, and to authorize reinforcethe report of the Committee, in the late out ments being dispatched to Charles Albert breaks. On the presentation of this report, a without delay. The populace were greatly debate arose which was characterized by con excited against the Pope, through the represiderable tumult. The three persons above sentations of designing men, who made them mentioned made long addresses in exculpation believe that his Holiness was supine in his of themselves, and highly recriminatory on their opposition to the Austrians; and the people opponents, after which the President read a

went in procession to the French ambassador requisition of the Procureur General of the to claim the intervention of France. Court of Appeals, demanding authority to prose The central administration of Germany under cute Louis Blanc and Caussidière, for the af- the Archduke John is busily engaged in orfair of the 15th May, which was granted by ganizing the new federal administration, and the Assembly. Application was also made for various propositions relative to the interior leave to prosecute Caussidière for the insurrec. arrangements, as also the Italian and Schlestion of June, which would have had the effect wig-Holstein wars, and the difficulties between of delivering him over to the council of war, the Hungarians and Croatians, are under conbut this was refused. Both of these persons sideration; but up to the present time little immediately fled from Paris. Louis Blanc is if anything has been effected. The Emperor in England.

of Austria has returned to Vienna, where matIn Lombardy, the Austrians, under Marshal ters appear to be in a very unsettled state, and Radetzky, followed up their previous suc the same is the case in Berlin, where a slight cesses, and the army of Charles Albert re outbreak occurred, but which was promptly treated from place to place, until they concen put down. The federal system of united Gertrated in the neighborhood of Milan, the in- many seems likely to meet with considerable fantry greatly disorganized, but the cavalry opposition in both of these kingdoms, and at and artillery in good order. The English and Frankfort the difficulties to be apprehended French ministers at Turin endeavored to pre- from the possessions of the Austrian and Prusvail on the Austrian general to grant an ar sian monarchs out of Germany are becoming mistice for a few days, but he peremptorily subjects of serious discussion, several of the refused, and stated his determination to enter representatives expressing their fears that emMilan at all hazards. On the 5th of August a barrassment must arise from this cause. The sanguinary battle was fought, in which the Schleswing and Holstein war is at a stand, Piedmontese were defeated, and Charles Al- and negotiations for a settlement, under medibert retired to the city of Milan, where he de- ation, are attempted. termined to capitulate. On this becoming Amongst the recent deaths we find the folknown the populace were furious, and, headed lowing :by the Committee of Public Safety, attacked Berzelius, the celebrated chemist, after fifty

years' application to science, died in the 69th which was out of order, and which he repaired; year of his age. He was born at Vafversunda this was followed by his repairing and improve in Ostrogothland, 29th August, 1779, and in ing the engine at the colliery, and this so 1806 he succeeded Spaurnau as Lecturer on satisfied his employers that it was at once put Natural Philosophy at Stockholm. His works under his entire charge. He was engaged in were extensive in nearly every department of making experiments on the safety lamp at the experimental science: he was connected by same time as Sir Humphrey Davy, and, as a honorary election with eighty-eight of the sci- remuneration for his services, a subscription of entific societies of Europe, and Charles John, £1000 was raised, which, together with a piece King of Sweden, conferred on him the title of of plate, was presented to him at a public Baron, to mark his sense of the services he had dinner at Newcastle in 1818. From that perendered to his country. Captain Marryatt, riod his advancement was rapid, and if not the the popular novelist, died on the 9th of August, actual inventor of the railway system, his dis in his 56th year; he was son of a London coveries and ingenuity did more than that of banker. George Stephenson, the civil engi- any other inan to its establishment and sucneer, died at his establishment in Derbyshire cess. He was engaged in the Stockton and on the 12th of August, at the age of 67. He Darlington Railway (the first locomotive railwas born near Newcastle in April, 1781. His way used for travelling) in 1825, and in 1829 father was a workman in the Wylam colliery, gained the premium of £500 for the best loco and he commenced his career in the same motive engine for the Liverpool and Mancheshumble employment at a very early age. He ter Railway. He was subsequently employed afterwards removed to Killingworth colliery, in the construction of most of the principal where he married his first wife, by whom he railways in England, and also in constructing had one son, the celebrated engineer, Robert lines in Belgium, Holland, France, Germany, Stephenson, M. P. The first indication of his Italy and Spain. His attention to the mental genius for mechanics was shown in repairing and temporal improvement of his workmen, his own clock; soon after he was allowed to who numbered more than a thousand, could try his hand at repairing a condensing machine | not be surpassed.

CRITICAL NOTICES.

PORTRAIT OF Hon. MILLARD FILLMORE. En- | waiting Mrs. Fillmore's return and approbation of

graved by A. H. Ritchie, for E. Anthony, your engraving of my miniature, to order a dozen 205 Broadway, New York.

copies for a few friends. * * * The portrait that embellishes the present who have seen it, pronounce it an excellent like

*** I am happy to inform you that all number does equal credit to the artist with that

ness and beautiful engraving. which preceded it. These and the plate of

The mail is closing and I write in haste, but am General Taylor, are for sale by Mr. Anthony,

Truly yours, the proprietor, at 205 Broadway. The follow

MILLARD FILLMORE. ing are sufficient testimonies to the accuracy of the likeness of Mr. Fillmore :

Albany, Sept. 20, 1848. Sie :-On my return from the West yesterday Chambers's Miscellany. Number Twenty-six. I was presented with a beautiful miniature en

Boston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln ; and in graving of my husband, Millard Fillmore, from

New York by Burgess & Stringer, corner of yourself, for which you will please accept my

Ann street and Broadway. sincere thanks.

I consider it an excellent likeness, by far the best I have seen, and shall preserve it as a cher

This is one of the most interesting numbers ished memento of the original.

of an interesting series which we have often Respectfully yours,

noticed. Its contents are: “ Wonders of the ABIGAIL FILLMORE. Microscope ; The Elizebethan Poets; Life of

Sir William Jones ; Life of Doctor John LeyAlbany, Sept. 22, 1848. den; Life of Dr. Alexander Murray ; Life of E. ANTHONY, Esq.—DEAR ŠIR I have been | Alexander Wilson ; History of the Jews ir

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England; Anecdotes of the Early Painters :" to her subject, the last results of those vast and -an attractive variety for old readers as well generally accurate investigations into physical as young. We are glad to see among the nature which so distinguish modern times. heaps of trash circulated by the cheap literature Commencing of course with geology as the system, some books which tend to spread intel- foundation, she traces the proximate causes of ligence and promote the love of knowledge. those external features which characterize our

globe, and then proceeds in a most striking and masterly manner to depict those features

as they present themselves to the eye of the Works of Washington Irving. New Edition scientific traveller. Revised. Vol. 1. Knickerbocker's New The Great Continent is first described, with York. New York: George P.Putnam, 1848. its magnificent mountain chains and sable

clouds, its low lands and deserts; and then the Every one of the least pretension to literary corresponding features of the American Contaste or knowledge, has read Knickerbocker; tinent, beginning with South America and so but every one does not know how much new through Central to North America. Greenland, matter is contained in his new edition, for and the regions of the Antarctic Circle, incluDiedrich, with his usual modesty, has said ding the new“ Victoria Continent,” follow, and nothing about it in his “apology," nor permit- the continent of Australia with the surrounding ted his publisher to say anything in his adver- islands. The ocean is next treated of, and the tisement. But not content with “revising," various river systems and lakes. A chapter the worthy historian has made very considera- follows on the atmosphere. ble additions to his labors. There are some The vegetation of our planet forms the entire chapters, treating chiefly of Kilian Van next branch of the subject. Taking up in orRensselaer and his settlement; and many rich der the great geographical limits, she gives a morceaux introduced here and there of which condensed account of the flora of each region. we lay one before our readers as a specimen. Ascending from the lower form of vegetable orA blundering dominie has recorded that the ganization to that of animal, she describes the Dutch discoverers of our city bargained for distribution of insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and so much ground as a bullock's hide would so up to the mammalia, concluding the whole cover, and then cut the hide into small thongs, with the distribution, condition, purpose, and

so as to take in a considerable quantity of prospects of the “Human Race." This simland and the Indians into the bargain.” Die ple synopsis of the contents of this work will be drich now gives the true version of the story, sufficient to indicate its value and interest. It viz. that “ Oloffe Van Kortlandt bargained for must command a wide circulation, from the just so much land as a man could cover with known accuracy and great scientific attainhis nether garments. The terms being con ments of the celebrated authoress. cluded, he produced his friend Mynheer Tenbroeck as the man whose breeches were to be used in measurement. The simple savages, whose ideas of a man's nether garments had | Charms and Counter-Charms. By Maria J. never expanded beyond the dimensions of a McIntosh, author of “ Two Lives, or, To clout, stared with astonishment and dismay as Seem and to Be ;" “ Aunt Kitty's Tales ;" they beheld the bulbous-bottomed burgher peeled Conquest and Self-Conquest," etc. etc. Like an onion, and breeches after breeches spread New York: D. Appleton, & Co. 1818. forth over the land, until they covered the actual site of this venerable city.” Excellent !

Euton Hastings, the hero, or one of the heIf all Washington Irving's are to be revised roes of this tale, is a sad dog, and we caution all after this way, his readers and admirers (un- young ladies who may read it against falling in der which term we believe is included all the love with him; first, because no such man white population in the United States except could possibly exist in the actual world, and, Mr. P. Benjamin,) will have a rich treat. second, because if there did, he would be the

very last man worth loving. He has “dark and deep set eyes," " firmly compressed lips,

which tell of an indomitable will," " a broad Physical Geography, By MARY SOMERVILLE, and high forehead,” and “ a noble position of

author of "The Connection of the Physical the head, and consummate ease and grace in Sciences,” “ Mechanism of the Heavens.” every movement.” He had spent fifteen years Philadelphia : Lea & Blanchard. 1848. abroad in consequence of some early love dis

appointment, and returned at the opening of This, the last of those admirable scientific the tale in company with Mrs. Mabury, who works of Mrs. Somerville, is deserving of a was a fashionable woman. They were conmuch more extended notice than we can at pres- stantly together, and extremely intimate ; yet e nt make. She gives in it as far as applicable it was only a contention which would be proud

est that held them thus. They were thought | can one do ? Here is a crowd of similar offendto be engaged.

ers. There is a divided duty; truth says Our first objection to the book arises from "smile !" politeness says “puff!”. We avoid the position of these two parties. They were the dilemma by singling out the least guilty, together daily, alone and in company—they and letting execution issue against that alone. rode, talked, walked, danced, sang together, Such is our clemency. each in a most peculiar and superior manner. They were as intimate as intimate can be, and a little more.

Now it is disagreeable to the fancy to pic- Mirabeau-a Life History. Philadelphia : LEA tare a passionate couple, such as these are rep & BLANCHARD. 1848. (Reprint.) resented to have been, living in that manner for a long space of time, neither married nor bound We have, in this biography of Mirabeau, a in duty io be married. The thing is against palpable imitation of Carlyle, in the form of nature and reason, and therefore to contemplate the book, the method of treating the subject, it tends to corrupt and unrefine. Faults of the and the style employed. The author is evisame sort are so common in modern lady nov

dently one of those who have been carried els, that we have been compelled to consider captive by the power of that great writer. extreme false sentiment as their special vice.

But what seems natural in the original, in the But one is not called upon to reform the whole imitation is pure affectation. In addition to world, and we shall therefore leave this depart- this defect of the work, the author, as might ment to others.

be expected, is a Hero-Worshipper. All wor The same defect here noticed mars the whole ship but one being idolatry, the literature and story. The characters love and quarrel, and history proceeding from it must bear the imgrow good or bad, etc., all out of their heads, press of the sin ; and the judicious reader will and this makes them all unlovley, theatrical, find palpable evidence thereof in the volume and impossible. They explain all their motives. before us. With these truths kept in mind,

The heroine easily' forsa kes her first love, however, we may safely recommend this work for the mysterious, irresistibly fascinating Has

as a graphic, and in the main faithful portraittings, who marries her for his own pleasure ure of the greatest of that “ large and increas purely. They quarrel, and he finally runs ing" class of men, the revolutionists of France. away and rejoins his former flame, Mrs. Ma- The selections from the speeches, reports and bury, who had gone abroad. It appears he addresses of Mirabeau are made with judgonly travels and talks with her. His wife runs ment, and convey a very high idea of his geafter him and finds him out in Rome. He nius. His vices and crimes, however, are too takes her back on condition she shall live with much attributed to circumstances.

Recent him not as a wife, but as a mistress, (which, be

events have added interest to the subject of ing his lawful wife was a mere technical form, the work, and it is a pity that some one with of words to gratify his pride.) He is taken sound moral, political and philosophical prinwith a fever, which causes her to consider the ciples would not give to the age a true estienormity of the crime she is committing, and

mate of the life of that extraordinary man. resolve to leave him. Then finally, he runs after her instead of she after him; he who was the origiaal Charmer, has found the Counter

Grantby Manor. By Lady Georgiana FULCharmer the most powerful. (N. B. Before

New York: D. Appleton & Co. reading this we had supposed the ladies most

1848. exposed to counter-charms. Vide Stewart's, Beck's, etc.) Thus in the end they turn out a

The authoress of this book wields a powervery exemplary and happy couple.

ful pen, and we can commend her tale as of Let us not however be too severe upon the much interest and great purity of purpose. unfortunate little volume. It is really written The horrible effects of religious intolerance with much ability, and is, with all its faultiness, are very strikingly illustrated ; and the herowell sustained and interesting. If the reader ism of her heroine, in holding to her faith will allow himself to be transported into a re under the most powerful temptatiors, is exhigion where the young ladies manage every bited with great force. That there is much thing, and the young gentlemen are the most special pleading for that faith we will not venabstruse, funny creatures imaginable, a good ture to say, as we rise from the perusal of the deal of amusement may be derived from it. To book uncertain whether the author is of that apply severe criticism to it, would be like bring. | faith or has only that rare charity which gives ing a Paixhan gun to batter down a Macbeth's to opponents the full benefit of their own reacastle as it stands upon the stage.

sons for the faith that is in them. Some of Perhaps it will be thought severe even to no the characters are beautifully portrayed, and tice thus half seriously the work, as it appears the story is, on the whole, one of the very best by the title-page, of a lady author. But what of its class.

LERTON.

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