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whom he felt he owed so much, in the way blind votaries of a cruel superstition; in one that might most effectively advance the in- instance at least he succeeded in saving the terests of his cause. Being appointed to the life of a poor woman. How touching the office of a Christian teacher, he was thus em- contrast between the fierce heathen warrior, ployed for some time in Tutuila; and in burning with revenge and thirsting for blood, 1841, in accordance with his own earnest and the subdued, benevolent, Christian evandesire, he made one of a party who were con- gelist, making it his business and risking his veyed in the Camden to the New Hebrides life to save! and New Caledonian groups. He was placed " Another of the departed who claims parat Resolution Bay, on the island of Tana, ticular notice is Mauga, the principal chief of where teachers had been labouring for about Pago-Pago. The removal of this worthy man two years before. Here he continued for was a loss to Pago-Pago and the whole disperhaps two years, when he was removed to trict, which I fear will not soon be repaired. the neighbouring island of Anatom, where he He was the son of the old chief Mauga, who continued till towards the close of 1847. He received and protected us on our arrival in was too far advanced in life to be a really 1836. Upon the death of the old chief in efficient teacher at the west, in as far as the 1838, he was succeeded by Manuma, an direct impartation of instruction is concerned, adopted son; this man soon proved himself the eastern Polynesians having great diffi. unworthy of the honour that had been con. culty, even when they have youth and early ferred upon him. His conduct was outrage. advantages in their favour, in acquiring the ously wicked. The people bore with him languages spoken at the west. Hence, a man for two or three years, but at length things in Apolo's circumstances could not be ex- came to a crisis. Being found guilty of an pected to make much progress in learning act which was considered beyond endurance, these; but he maintained a blameless course the subordinate chiefs deprived him of his amid the deeply trying and difficult circum- name and office, and conferred them upon stances in which he was placed, and did all the subject of this notice. Mauga was a mild in his power to promote the glory of the Re- and peaceable man, but had not at that time deemer, and the good of the benighted people afforded decisive evidence of being under the among whom he laboured. On returning to influence of Christian principle. The death his native land, his state of health, and time of his brother Pomare, which took place at of life, were such as rendered it undesirable Tana, appeared to produce a deep impression for him to continue a teacher; so he retired to on his mind. Again and again he told me, his native isle, where he held an important with tears, that his great desire was to follow situation in managing the little political affairs in his footsteps, and meet him in heaven. In of the island till his deatlı, which took place the beginning of 1846, he was admitted to towards the close of last year, just before our the church, and he maintained a decidedly return from

His conduct was de. consistent course till March, 1849, when his cidedly and uniformly Christian to the last. life was suddenly terminated by an illness of He was a striking instance of the power of a few days' continuance. We had left PagoDivine grace, and to the honour of that grace Pago some months before he died. I visited I furnish you with this brief and imperfect him, however, during his illness, and was notice. He was engaged in the last battle pleased to find him apparently resigned to that was fought on this island, shortly before the will of God, and resting on the sure founthe introduction of the gospel; and I know dation. Expressions of grateful submission, not in how many other wars on this island admonitions to his family and friends, mingled and the Manua Group he had taken a part, with prayer for himself and others, were the before these lands, that sat in darkness, saw encouraging indications that his heart was the great light. At Anatom and Tana he right with God. He was exercised with many fought against his former master, and more heavy trials during the latter years of his life. than once his own life was placed in immi. Among others, the loss of his wife and two nent danger, in his attempts to rescue widows children; these, I trust had been sanctified to and orphans from the murderons hands of the him, and had contributed to make him meet


for the inheritance of the saints in light. We earliest, stanchest, and most faithful friends. felt his death much. He was one of our He is not lost (I trust) but gone before."

In addition to the foregoing, we have much pleasure in introducing another extract from the same letter, as it exhibits, in a striking light, the beneficial influence sometimes exercised by the Christian Missionary in his casual intercourse with abandoned foreigners; a class of men who have for the most part been among the most active emissaries of Satan, in obstructing the progress of the Gospel in these Islands.

À cheering circumstance," proceeds Mr. the study of the Scriptures. He had reguMurray, “connected with the Pago-Pago dis- larly attended the native services, and his trict, I must not omit to mention. Shortly entire conduct had undergone a decided after Mr. Powel's arrival, I accompanied him change. No time was lost in forwarding the on a tour round the remoter parts of the dis- wished-for Bible, and along with it was sent trict. As we approaclied one of the most dis- a copy of 'James's Anxious Enquirer,' in the tart villages we were accosted by a foreigner, hope that that little work would render him who had been waiting our approach. I re- important aid in his endeavours to understand cognized him as one of the gang of abandoned and apply the truths of the sacred volume. men who had long infested the island. The I have not again had an opportunity of conmanner in which he addressed us, and espe- versing with him, but Mr. Powell, in whose cially the request he was waiting to inake, district he lives, bas exchanged several letters surprised and delighted us. He stated that with him; and a good deal has been learned he had been wishing very much to see us, to respecting him, all tending to encourage the ask if we could furnish him with a Bible. hope that he is indeed 'a brand plucked out He very much wished to obtain a Bible, as of the burning. There are two of his former the one he had was incomplete, and he wished companions remaining in the district; these I to read the entire Scriptures. We were of fear are theinselves still dead in trespasses course led to inquire as to how his attention and sins.' They entertain, however, no doubt had been directed to the subject. He referred that the man in question is a changed chato a conversation I had had with him some racter. When liis companions, one of whom eighteen or twenty months before, during lent him some aid in learning to read, and which I had urged upon his attention the still occasionally assists him in making out claims of religion, and strongly advised him hard words-when they go to visit him now, to try and learn to read the Scriptures. At he asks them to sit down and hear a chapter that time he knew little more than the letters from the Bible. It is an interesting fact, that of the alphabet. I had especially directed he has learned to write a little as well as to his attention to the third chapter of the Gospel read, since his mind was aroused to attend to his of John. He had set to work in thorough spiritual concerns. The subject of this notice, earnest, ard had not only learned to read, but by name William Gray, is an Englishman, and had obtained a considerable acquaintance with about fifty years of age. He has been on this is. the all-important truths of the Bible. The land upwards of twenty years. After the introthird chapter of John had especially engaged duction of the gospel he came under restraint, his attention and excited his interest. We but before that he was outrageously wickedgave him such counsel and assistance as he not a whit behind the heathen, among whom seemed to need, and left bimn with the pro- he chose to live. He was especially famous mise that he should soon be furnished with a among the natives as a warrior. Fire-arms not Bible. On asking the teachers about him, we being possessed by the natives before their found that a marked change had taken place intercourse with foreigners, it was thought in his character. This change had been ob- a gregt matter, in carrying on their wars, served from the time referred to above, when to obtain the assistance of a foreigner who the conversation took place, which by the possessed a gun and could uee it dexter. blosging of God led to his applying himself to ously,


"This was Gray's case, and on this account he was held in high esteem by his own party, and dreaded by the other. He appears to feel deeply on account of his past wicked

During the conversation we had with him, the words 'God is love' were mentioned. He canght at these words, and responded with great apparent feeling,

That He is, or I should not have been here to day.'

“What encouragement does this case afford to the friends of Bible circulation! and how affectingly and forcibly does it adıncnish us to embrace every opportunity that offers of addressing a warning word to our perishing fellow-men!"




MODERN CUSTOMS AND ANCIENT SUPERSTITIONS. Tue social and domestic manners of a people, and more especially their prevailing system of belief in relation to the invisible and spiritual world, have always exercised an extraordinary influence in the formation of national character. The Gospel of Christ is designed and admirably adapted to meet the moral condition of men of all countries and classes ; and the rude Polynesian, the semi-civilized Hindoo, and the cultivated European, when made partakers of the common salvation, will readily recognise in each other those distinctive evidences of the new birth which have been wrought in them by the Spirit of grace and holiness; but it is not the province of the Gospel to root out those original peculiarities of character and temperament by which one nation is made to differ from another; and hence a South Sea Islander, for example, habituated from time inimemorial to certain customs, associations, and modes of thinking, will, of necessity, even after his conversion to the faith of Christ, appear under aspects very different from what the Christian inhabitant of another country would exhibit.

In the following article, extracted from the Samoan Reporter, a semiannual publication issued by our Missionary brethren in that group, wo are presented with a graphic account of the domestic habits and modes of living still prevailing among the people of Samoa; and also of the singular superstitions to which, in the days of their heathenism, they were addicted, but which, happily, have been superseded by a perfect and harmonious system of faith and morals, having God for its Author, and the eternal salvation of man for its object:

"ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE FOOD. The lagoons and reefs furnish a large supply "Breadfruit, taro, bananas, and cocoa-nuts of fish and shell-fish, of which the natives form the staff of life in Samoa.

Yams are

are very fond ; and occasionally all, But cultivated, but chiefly as an article of barter. especially persons of rank, regale themselves Sweet - potatoes, Indian corn, melons, and on pigs, fowls, and turtle. Oxen have been pumpkins have been introduced, but are not introduced, and are being prized by the much cared for amid the profusion of better natives. food which generally obtains. Pine-apples, "For about half the year, the Samoans custard-applea, oranges, limes, citrons, figs, have an abundant supply of food from the vings, and mulberries have also been intro. brendfruit trees. During the other half, they duced. Some apricot, loquot, and pomegranate depend principally on their taro plantations, plants have recently been added, and thrive. Bananas and cocoa-nuts are plentiful through.

out the year.

While the breadfruit is in sonson, every family lays up a quantity in a pit lined with banana and cocoa nut leaves, and covered in with stones. It soon ferments; but they keep it in that state for years, and the older it is they relish it all the more. They bake this in the form of little cakes, when the breadfruit is out of season, and especially when there is a scarcity of taro. The odour of these cakes is offensive in the extreme to an European; but a Samoan turns from a bit of English cheese with far more disgust than we do from his fermented breadfruit.

"A crop of breadfruit is sometimes shaken off the trees by a gale, before it is ripe, and occasionally taro plantations are destroyed by drought and caterpillars; but the people have wild yams in the bush, preserved breadfruit, cocoa-nuts, and fish to fall back upon; so that there is rarely, if ever, anything like a serious famine. A scarcity of food occasioned by any of the causes just named, they were in the habit of tracing to the wrath of one of their gods, called O le Sa (or, the Sacred One). The sun, storms, caterpillars, and all destructive insects were said to be his au ao, or, ‘ministers of his, that do his pleasure,' who were commissioned to go forth and eat up the plantations of those with whom he was displeased. A Samoan, in describing the ravages of caterpillars, would have said of Le Sa: 'He spake, and caterpillars came, and that without number, and did eat up all the herbs in our land, and devoured the fruit of our ground.' In times of plenty, as well as of scarcity, they were in the habit of assembling with offerings of food, and poured out drink-offerings of ava to Le Sa, to propitiate his favour.

however, they may have indulged this savage appetite. To speak of roasting him, is the very worst language that can be addressed to a Samoan. If applied to a chief of importance, he may raise war to arenge the insult. Sometimes a proud chief will get up and go out of the chapel in a rage, should a natire teacher in his sermon speak of 'hell fire. It is the custom, on the submission of one party to another, to bow down before their conquerors, each with a piece of fire-wood, and a bundle of leaves, such as are used in dressing a pig for the oven; as much as to say: 'Kill us and cook us, if you please.' Criminals, too, are sometimes bound hand to hand and foot to foot, slung on a pole put between the hands and feet, carried and laid down before the parties they have injured, like a pig about to be killed and cooked. So deeply humiliating is this act considered, that the culprit who consents to degrade himself so far, is almost sure to be forgiven. It is not improbable, therefore, that in some remote period of their history, the Samoans were inore familiar with the savage custom to which we refer, than in more recent times.



The Samoans have the mode of cooking with hot stones, wliich has been often described as prevailing in the South Sea Islands, Fifty or sixty stones, about the size of an orange, heated by kindling a fire under them, form, with the hot ashes, an ordinary oven. The taro, breadfruit, or yams, are laid among the stones, a thick covering of breadfruit and banana leaves is laid over all, and in about an hour all is well cooked. In the same oven they bake other things; such as fish, done up in leaves, and laid side by side with the taro, or other vegetables. Little bundles of taro leaves, too, mixed with the expressed juice of the cocoa-nut kernel, and some other dishes, of which cocon-nut is generally the chief ingredient, are baked at the same time, and used as a relish, in the absence of animal food. Salt water is frequently mixed up with these dishes, which is the only form in which they use salt. They have no salt, and are not in the habit of preserving fish or pork, otherwise than by repeated cooking. In this way they keep pork for a week, and fish for three weeks or a month. However large,

" It has been questioned whether this savage custom ever prevailed in Samoa. During some of their wars, a body was occasionally cooked; but they affirm that, in such a case, it was always some one of the enemy who had been notorious for provocation or cruelty, and that eating a part of his body was considered the climax of hatred and revenge, and was not occasioned by the mere relish for human flesh, such as obtains throughout tlie Fiji, New Hebrides, and New Caledo

In more remote heathen times,

nian groups.

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they cook the entire pig at once; then, using it off, and returns the cup to be filled again, a piece of split bamboo as a carving knife, cut as the portion of another chief. The most it up and divide it among the different important chiefs have the first cups, and, folbranches of the family. The duties of cook- lowing the order of rank, all have a draught. ing devolve on the men; and all, even chiefs The liquor is much diluted; few drink to exof the highest rank, consider it no disgrace to cess; and, upon the whole, the Samoans are, assist in the cooking-house occasionally. perhaps, among the most temperate ava

drinkers in the South Seas. The old men FORBIDDEN FOOD.

consider that a little of it strengthens them "Some birds and fishes were sacred to par- and prolongs life; and often they have a cup ticular deities, and certain parties abstained

the first thing in the morning. Foreign from eating them. A man, for example, liquors have been introduced, but there is no would not eat a fish which was supposed to

demand for them yet among the natives; and be under the protection and care of his house- long may they be preserved from the curse of hold god; but he would eat, without scruple,

drunkenness! fish sacred to the gods of other families. The

“ MEALS. dog, and some kinds of fish and birds, were

“ Like the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and sacred to the greater deities--the dii majorum

Romans, the Samoans have a meal about eleven gentium of the Samoans; and of course all

A.M., and their principal meal in the evening. the people rigidly abstained from these things.

At the evening meal, every family is asFor a man to kill and eat anything he con

sembled; and men, women, and children all sidered to be under the special protection of

eat together. They have no tables, but seat his god, was supposed to be followed by his

themselves cross-legged round the circular displeasure, in the sickness or death of him

house on mats. Each has his portion laid self or some member of the family. The

down before him on a breadfruit leaf; and same idea seems to have been a check on can

thus they partake, in primitive style, without nibalism, as there was a fear lest the god of knife, fork, or spoon. Should any strangers the deceased would be avenged on those who

be present, due respect is shown to them, as might cook and cat the body.

of old, by laying before them a worthy por" LIQUORS.

tion. After the meal, water to wash is

banded round. “ The young cocoa-nut contains about a

“Formerly, the head of the family, in taktumblerful of water, something resembling

ing his cup of ava at the commencement of water sweetened with lump sugar, and very

the evening mcal, would pour out a little of slightly acid. This is the ordinary beverage

it on the gronnd, as a drink-offering to the of the Samoans. A young cocoa-nut baked

gods, and, all being silent, he would utter in the oven yields a pleasant hot draught,

aloud the following prayer:which is very grateful to an invalid. They

' Here is ava for you, O gods! Look have no fermented liquors; but they make an

kindly towards this family: let it prosper and intoxicating draught from an infusion of the

increase; and let us all be kept in health. chewn root of the ava plant (piper methysti- Let our plantations be productive: let fruit cum). A bowl of this disgustingly prepared grow; and may there be abundance of food stuff is made and served out when a party of

for us, your creatures! chiefs sit down to a meal. At their ordinary

" . Here is ava for you, our war gods! Let

there be a strong and numerous people for meals, few partake of it but the father or

you in this land. other senior members of the family. It is al- “ • Here is ava for you, O sailing gods!* Do ways taken before, and not after the meal. not come on shore at this place; but be Among a formal party of chiefs, it is handed

pleased to depart along the ocean to some round in cocoa -nut-shell cups, with a good

other land.' deal of ceremony. When a cup is filled,

" It was also very common to pray with an the name, or title rather, of the person for

offering of 'flaming fire,' just before the evenwhom it is intended, is called out; the cup- "* Gods supposed to come in Tongan bearer takes it to him; he receives it, drinks canoes and foreign vessels.


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