Page images
PDF
EPUB

to the reception committee, proposed by Mr. E. Windsor

At the meeting on September 16 the following resolutions Richards and seconded by the secretary, Mr. Bennett H. were unanimously adopted : Brough The meeting was attended by more than 300 “ That the delegates report the resolution of the chamber mnembers, and an attractive programme of visits to metal- as to electrical units to their respective Governments, and turgiral works in various parts of America was arranged. that they be invited to communicate with Dr. S. W. Stratton

(Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.) and Dr. R. T. THE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL

Glazebrook (National Physical Laboratory, Bushy House,

Teddington, Middlesex, England) as to the results of their CONGRESS AT ST. LOUIS.

report, or as to other questions arising out of the resolution." SINCE the article on the proceedings of the International “ That the delegates report the resolution of the chamber

Eletrwal ('ungress at St. Louis appeared in our issue as to the international standardisation to their respective ut October 27, we have received the subjoined report to the technical societies, with the request that the societies take congress of the chamber of Government delegates referred such action as they may deem best to give effect to the 1000 p. zy.

resolution, and that the delegates be requested to comIt will be noticed that the resolutions ask for the appoint-municate the result of such action to Colonel R. E. B. fent by Governments of one international commission, at Crompton, Chelmsford, England, and to the president of ont of a temporary character, but which, it is hoped, may the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, New York samome permanent, to deal with electric units.

City.”

Report of the Chamber of Delegales. the meeting on September 13, after discussion in the THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. halizar, two subcommittees were appointed to deal with the questions of international electromagnetic units and of THE narrative of the National Antarctic Expedition, reinternational standardisation respectively.

lated by Captain Scott to an audience of about seven At the meeting on September 15 the following report of

thousand people at the Albert Hall on Monday, was the first inue cummittee on international electromagnetic units was

account of the work of the expedition given to the Royal di ripted and unanimously adopted :

Geographical Society since the Discovery returned home.

Captain Scott made a general statement of the work of the Committee on International Electromagnetic Units. expedition, referring particularly to the various sledging The subcommittee appointed September 13 begs leave to journeys-nine of which were made in the first season and suggest that the chamber of delegates should adopt the six in the second season-for exploration to the south, west, indi sing report :

and east; but his remarks were chiefly of the nature of It appears from papers laid before the International descriptions of a magnificent collection of photographs of Elmyrical Congress and from the discussion that there are scenes and incidents in the areas visited. These pictures considerable discrepancies between the laws relating to themselves constitute a unique record of Antarctic conditions, Hectric units, or their interpretations, in the various and with the results of meteorological, magnetic, hydro

inntries represented, which, in the opinion of the chamber, graphic, biological, and geological observations make the Taquir consideration with a view to securing practical expedition most notable in the history of polar exploration. wnionit

An exhibition of the photographs taken by Lieut. Skelton, Other questions bearing on nomenclature and the deter- water colour sketches and coloured drawings by Dr. E. A. pation of units and standards have also been raised, on Wilson, and other objects of interest connected with the stuch. in the opinion of the chamber, it is desirable to have voyage of the Discovery, is now open at the Bruton Galleries, uutemational agreement.

13 Bruton Street, Bond Street, W. The chamber of delegates considers that these and similar At the end of the lecture the chairman, Sir Clements Puestion could best be dealt with by an international com- Markham, K.C.B., on behalf of the Royal Geographical In'ssion representing the Governments concerned. Such a Society, presented a gold medal to Captain Scott and silver tirmission might in the first instance be appointed by those medals to the officers and men. The gold medal of the svuntries in which legislation on electric units has been Geographical Society of Philadelphia for 1904 was presented kluiperd, and consist of (say) two members from each country, to Captain Scott by the United States Ambassador in the

Provision should be made for securing the adhesion of name of that society. The medal bears on one side a sches countries prepared to adopt the conclusions of the medallion of Dr. Elisha Kane, their own discoverer, in whose

honour the society was organised, and on the reverse this The chamber of delegates approves such a plan, and re- inscription :—“For eminent geographical research. Per qirts its members to bring this report before their respective mare et terram. The Philadelphia Geographical Society. Vernments.

Incorporated 1803. Awarded to Captain Scott in the year It is hoped that if the recommendation of the chamber of 1904. elegate. be adopted by the Governments represented, the As the scientific work of the expedition will be described commission may eventually become a permanent one.

at subsequent meetings of the Royal Geographical Society, The following report was also received and unanimously

Captain Scott only made incidental reference to it, and

added little to what has already appeared in these columns Copted from the committee on international standard

(vol. Ixix., p. 543, April 7). The following brief summary

of the lecture is, however, of interest in showing some of Committer or the Chamber of Delegates on International the incidents and inquiries of the expedition.

Standardisation, The committee of the chamber of delegates on the "andardisation of machinery begs to report as follows :

The Antarctic area was divided into four quadrants, of That steps should be taken to secure the cooperation of which the Ross quadrant was allotted to the British exthe epchnical societies of the world by the appointment of pedition. It was there that Sir James Ross in 1840 dis

presentative commission to consider the question of the covered the sea that bore his name. But Sir James Ross landanfisation of the nomenclature and ratings of electrical

a sailing ship, and only saw things dimly and in apparatus and machinery.

the distance. The geographical problem was therefore in If the above recommendation meets the approval of the brief to find out what lay to the east, to the west and Tamber of delegates, it is suggested by your committee to the south of what Ross had seen. In addition to the that much of the work could be accomplished by correondence in the first instance, and by the appointment of

geographical problem, there were many scientific ones con

nected with a region so little known. The principal of * general secretary to preserve the records and crystallise

these was magnetism, and the course taken by the Discovery "??? points of disagreement, if any, which may arise between was especially adapted for a magnetic survey. the methods in vogue in the different countries interested. Accompanied by two other members of the expedition,

!" is hoped that if the recommendation of the chamber of Captain Scott left the ship for a southern journey early in del-gales be adopted, the commission may eventually be- November, 1902, and on December 29 arrived at a point in tome a permanent one.

latitude 80° 17', when they were obliged to retrace their

[ocr errors]

was

name

a

are

to

steps. Finally, the party returned safely to the ship, and so named was certainly small, and possibly less than fifty. found that the Morning relief ship had arrived in McMurdo Not only were the two highest mountains of all without Sound. Mr. Armitage made a journey to the westward with a name but many of the most conspicuous peaks througha large party. After one or two failures he found a good out the whole length of the Himalayas were nameless. route to the main ice cap over the surface of a glacier of The few peaks that serve as landmarks to travellers on great length. He gradually rose in altitude until he arrived frequented thoroughfares have probably always had name on the inland plateau at a height of 8900 feet, and was and the few that mark the sources of sacred rivers and thus the first to penetrate into the interior of Victoria Land. indicate to weary pilgrims on distant plains the positions

The expedition had hoped to accompany the Morning of the shrines that are their goals have for ages been
home, and it was not until the end of February, 1903, that recognised by names.
tiis was seen to be impossible, because of the condition of the It is questionable whether some of the Hindu names now
ice. They expected the ice in the bay in which they lay attaching to peaks were not given in the first instance by
to break up, but unfortunately it got so late that there was British surveyors ; in the earlier days of the survey name>
only one thing for the Morning to do, and that was to return. were accepted from villagers more readily, perhaps, than
She got home with a good deal of difficulty, but the Dis- would

now
be done. Even the celebrated

of covery was forced to remain a second winter.

Dhawlagiri, as attaching to a particular peak, is not Captain Scott next made a sledging expedition in altogether free from suspicion. The story of the con

westerly direction, reaching his furthest west troversy over Mount Everest shows how easy it is to find point on November 30, 1903. The party had reached the native names that hav no existence in fact, and how hard top of a mountain range some 7000 feet above the sea-level it is to identify the precise peak even when a native name when a blizzard came on and prevented further movement is current. for six days. The party then set out westward, rising When 10,000 snow-peaks have to be fixed, and when but another 1500 feet, and for another week advanced over a 50 of these have names, some system of classification has huge plain that extended as far as the eye could reach. The to be devised. The case is analogous to that of the stars; temperature was forty degrees below zero, and the lips, a few of the brighter stars have names of their own, nostrils, and cheeks of the party were blistered by the the remainder classified by constellations, and incessant wind from the west. The rarefied air, too, had a are designated by letters or numbers. The snow-peaks great effect in reducing staying power. On this expedition of the Himalayas are classified by areas, and are designated they reached a very interesting spot-that at which the by Roman numerals or by letters with numbers attached : compass pointed south instead of north. They had reached thus the highest mountain in the world is known in the for the first time the line of no variation lying between the official records as Peak XV, and the second highest is South Pole and the south magnetic pole.

recorded as Peak K2, both having been nameless at the By the middle of December, 1903, all the sledging parties time of their discovery. were ordered to be back, in order that an attempt might be The height of Peak XV, now better known as Mount made to free the Discovery from the ice by sawing out a Everest, is 29,002 feet, and that of K, is 28,250 feet. channel. The attempt to clear a channel had be

Sixty years ago Dhawlagiri, in Nepal, was considered the abandoned, but on January 15 the Morning and the Terra highest mountain in the world ; Dhawlagiri is 26,795 feet Nova were sighted. They brought word that unless the high, and has since been found to be surpassed in height Discovery could be freed it must be abandoned, and to by six Himalayan peaks; of these K, is in Kashmir, and obviate this hard necessity blasting operations were under- the other five, Everest (29,002), Kangchenjunga I (28,140), taken. But by the end of January the ice began to break Kangchenjunga II (27,803), Makalu (27,790), and Peak up of its own accord, and by the middle of February there

Te (27,000) are in or near Nepal. was a clear channel for the Discovery, which was then free The Discovery of Mount Everest.' In 1848 trigonoto start on its return voyage.

metrical surveyors commenced to build a line of survey

stations along the plains of Oudh and Bengal from west to MOUNT EVEREST: THE STORY OF A east, and to determine the positions of these stations in LONG CONTROVERSY.

latitude and longitude by means of triangles observed with

large theodolites. Sir George Everest had intended THE highest mountain in the world is situated in a country from which Europeans have with few excep

originally to carry the series along the mountains, but tions been jealously excluded ; and the recent visit to the

abandoned his design in consequence of the refusal of the capital of Nepal of an experienced British surveyor,

Nepalese Governinent to allow the operations to enter their

territories. equipped with instruments and with full permission to use

Consequently, after crossing the hills of them, is an event of no small interest in the annals of

Kumaon, the stations were brought down into the plains Himalayan geography.' It is clear from Captain Wood's near Bareilly, from which point they were carried for 800 report that this event has been brought about by the personal

miles through the deadly tracts which fringe the Himalayas. intervention of Lord Curzon.

At almost every station the snowy range of Nepal was Surveyors have penetrated the Himalayas east and west

visible, and the northern horizon appeared broken by of Nepal into Sikkim and Kumaon, and have from these

numbers of peaks. Just as some. stars appear brighter to points of view been enabled to observe a few of the Nepalese

the eye than others, so do some snow-peaks against the peaks; but from flanking stations the ranges of mountains

sky-line appear loftier than others. The superior magniare seen “end on,” and the nearer peaks shut out the

tude of certain stars may be due either to their greater more distant from view. The knowledge that we possess

diameter or their lesser distance, and the superior elevation of the heights and positions of the peaks of the Nepalese

of certain peaks may be due either to their greater height Himalayas has consequently been obtained from observ

or their lesser distance. The most refined observations ations taken with theodolites at stations situated in the

with the most perfect of instruments, if taken from a plains of Bengal and Oudh.

single station only, will furnish no clue as to whether a From maps of small areas we are able to estimate that

mountain-peak is conspicuous on account of its magnitude

or on account of its nearness. the number of peaks existing in Himalayan regions, including Kashmir and Bhutan, probably exceeds 40,000, and

As the surveyors moved across Bengal from west to that of these more than 10,000 are always clothed with

east they witnessed changes in the apparent positions of Such estimates, rough as they are, suftice to show

the peaks; the analogy of the stars no longer serves us, as that the problem which confronted the Indian Survey when

owing to the great distances of the latter they appear to it first undertook the determination of the positions and

preserve their relative positions in the sky; but the case of heights of the peaks of the Himalayas was not a simple one.

mountain-peaks may be compared to what a traveller It is difficult now to discover how many of the 10,000

witnesses when he journeys by rail through a forest of snow-peaks were known to the natives of India by name

pines--the nearer tree-trunks continually appear to pass before the British commenced their survey. The number

between his eye and the more distant ones. As the survevor 1 Report on the Identification and Nomenclature of Himalayan Peaks.

moves across the plains parallel to the mountains he sees By Capt. H. Wood, R.E., with a prelace by Colonel Core, C.S.I., R.E., In order to appreciate the distance from which Mount Everest is visible, late Surveyor General of India. (Published by Order of Co.onel F. B we have only to consider that if it stocd in Snowdon's place, it would be Longe, R.E , Surveyor General of India, 1964.)

seen from Land's End to Edinburgh and from Kent to Conpaught.

Snow.

name

son

[ocr errors]

more

innumerable peaks, many snow-clad, many bare, always Sir Andrew Waugh had always adhered to the rule of seemingly changing their places and forms.

assigning to every geographical object its true local or It is a mistaken idea that particular peaks can be native name; but here was a mountain, the highest in the identified from different points of view by their characteristic world, without any local or native name that he was able shapes. Such a course may sometimes be possible from to discover. He determined, therefore, to name the great rear stations, but at distances greater than forty miles the snow-peak after Sir George Everest, his former chief, the form of a peak is its cross-section in outline against the celebrated Indian geodesist. The

of Mount sky, and this changes as one moves round it. The same Everest has since become a household word, and no peak is often found noted in the field records of the survey objection to it has ever been raised by natives of the country. by a different letter or number at each station from which The Devadhunga Controversy.—When Sir Andrew 1 was observed. Colonel Sir Andrew Waugh, of the Waugh announced that the peak was to be named Everest, Bengal Engineers, who was Surveyor-General of India Mr. Hodgson, who had been political officer in Nepal for from 1843 to 1861, realised from the outset the difficulties many years, intimated to the Royal Geographical and of identification. His orders were that every visible peak, Royal Asiatic Societies that Sir Andrew Waugh had been great and small, was to be observed from every observing mistaken, and that the mountain had a local name, viz. station, but that the identification of peaks, with the ex- Devadhunga. Sir Roderick Murchison, the president of <eption of the unmistakable few possessing native names, the Royal Geographical Society, approved Waugh's action, must be left to computers. In accordance with these orders but the Royal Asiatic Society supported Hodgson and rethe true direction of every visible peak and the angular pudiated the name of Everest. Seeing that the Survey elevation of every summit above the horizon were deter- officers had been debarred from entering Nepal, Mr. Hodgmined from every observing station.

was amply justified in raising the question he did; The identification of the peaks as observed from different but he had made no scientific measurements, and it is stations was then effected as follows:

known now beyond dispute that he was mistaken in his 1st Step.--The stations of observation were carefully pro- identification of Everest. He apparently assumed that the jected on a map, and from each were drawn lines represent- great peak, which he saw standing in the direction of ing the directions of all peaks observed from it.

Everest, and which was so conspicuous from Katmandu, 2nd Step.-When direction-lines from three or where he resided, was the highest peak in Nepal ;' but stations met in one point, it was tentatively assumed that Nepal covers a large area, and Mount Everest is more than the same peak had been observed on the three or more a hundred miles from Katmandu. Either Mr. Hodgson was Occasions.

unaware of the real distance of Mount Everest, or he failed zrd Step.—By trigonometrical formulæ the distance of to realise that even the highest mountain on earth will look this assumed peak from each of the observing stations was small at so great a distance. It is probable that Mr. then calculated, and from these distances independent values Hodgson never even saw Mount Everest; it is certain that of the latitude and longitude of the peak were obtained ; if if he did so he was unaware that he was looking at it. the several values were accordant the identification was

$ is proneeded with.

no peak in Nepal called Devadhunga. Mr. Hodgson's 4th Step.-From the observed angle of elevation and from sincerity has never been doubted, and it is believed now the calculated distance of the peak from each station the that the name Devadhunga is a mythological term for the height of the peak was deduced ; a separate value for the whole snowy range. height of the peak was thus obtained from each observing The Gaurisankar Controversy.-In 1854 three brothers, station. If the several values of height were accordant the Hermann, Adolphe, and Robert de Schlagintweit, undertook dentification was finally accepted.

a scientific mission to India and Central Asia at the instance umerous peaks were found to have been observed only of the King of Prussia, and with the concurrence of Lord once or twice, and could not be identified ; many others Dalhousie and the court of directors. Their labours lasted failed to satisfy all the tests, and had to be rejected.

until 1857, by which date they had succeeded in taking About 1852 the chief computer of the office at Calcutta numerous astronomical, hypsometric, magnetic, and meteorinformed Sir Andrew Waugh that a peak designated XV ological observations; they had also made geological, had been found to be higher than any other hitherto botanical, and zoological collections for the India House measured in the world. This peak was discovered by the Museum ; and they had explored the high mountains of India computers to have been observed from six different stations ; and Tibet, and had constructed many panoramic drawings en no occasion had the observer suspected that he was view- of the snow-peaks of the Himalayas. Their mission uning through his telescope the highest point of the earth. fortunately ended in the death of the second brother,

The following table shows the several values of height Adolphe, who was killed at Kashgar. that were obtained for Mount Everest :

In 1855 Hermann de Schlagint weit visited a hill in Nepal THE OBSERVED HEIGHT OF MOUNT EVEREST.

named Kaulia, near Katmandu, and from it took observ

ations to the snow-peaks. He saw the mountain called Extracted from the Records of the Great Trigonometrical Devadhunga by Hodgson, and he identified it as Mount Survey of India.

Everest ; : he, however, repudiated Hodgson's name of Devadhunga, and certified that the local native name for the peak was Gaurisankar.

Continental geographers, 'accepting Schlagintweit's views, Observed

have continued to this day to call the highest mountain in Dale of

angle of

the world Gaurisankar; the Indian Survey, however, were observation

elevation

unable to reconcile Schlagint weit's results with their own, and have declined to follow him.

The diagram in Fig. 1 illustrates the tour of Hermann de Schlagintweit, who visited the two stations of Kaulia

and Falut, which are 175 miles apart. From Kaulia he Miles

Feet 118 661 Nov. 27, 1849

saw a high peak to the north-east which the natives called 1 53 33-35 289916

Gaurisankar, and which he identified as Everest. From Mittapur 245 108-376 Dec. 5, 6, 1849

2 11 16.66 290053 Falut he saw a high peak to the north-west, which he also

identified as Everest. Jangpati 1084362 Dec. 8, 9, 1849 4 '2 12 9'31' 290018

There is no doubt now that Schlagintweit was misled in 108.861 Dec. 12, 1849

4 2 11 25 52 289986

his identification of Mount Everest. It is the common mis

fortune of all pioneers that posterity chiefly concerns itself Haryar .. 219 111'523 Dec. 17, 18, 1849

2 6 24'98 29026-1 with their mistakes. Indian geography owes much to Mirai 228 113761 Jan. 17, 1850

2 16 61 28990'4

Hermann de Schlagintweit, but she is more mindful now of his errors than of her debts. The mistakes of Schlagint

werving

[ocr errors]

Height above mean

sea level

Feet

220

2

12

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Mr. J. O. Nicolson

24-inch theodolite

[ocr errors]

8

8

2

[blocks in formation]

or not.

were

12 36

7,051

109

seen.

weit have formed the basis of controversy, and will continue Journal that the object of Captain Wood's visit to Nepal to be remembered until controversy ceases.

was to ascertain whether the inountain known as Mount In 1883 Colonel Tanner visited Falut, and found that Everest is visible from the heights in the neighbourhood Everest was barely visible from there, being almost shut of Katmandu, and forms part of the range known in out from view, and entirely surpassed in appearance by Central Nepal as Gaurisankar. But this statement is Makalu (height 27,790 feet), a lower though nearer peak; incorrect. The object of Captain Wood's visit to Nepal was it was Makalu that Schlagintweit mistook for Everest, and to ascertain whether the peak known to the Nepalese as it was Makalu that he drew as Everest, both in his Gaurisankar was identical or not with the peak known panorama of the snows from Falut, and in his picture, to us as Mount Everest, and this main issue ought to be which is preserved at the India Office.

kept in view. It is also inaccurate to speak of a range in In 1903 Captain Wood visited Kaulia by order of Lord Central Nepal known as Gaurisankar : there is no range Curzon; he found that Gaurisankar and Everest were so known ; Gaurisankar is a double peak.

(2) A side issue on which some argument has been ex04 Everest

pended is whether Mount Everest is visible from Kaulia Makalu

This point may be of interest to individuals, but

it has no scientific importance; and I am surprised to see Gaurisankar

it asserted, as though some geographical issue

involved, that the Survey officers have generally held the Kaulia

view that Everest was not visible from Kaulia.”

O Falut
O Katmand!

In a paper published in 1886, the late General Walker, R.E., gave some calculations of azimuth and elevation to show that the two peaks of Gaurisankar and Everest could

not be identical ; after proving his point in a convincing Scnlagintweit's tour in Nepal

way, he added the following general remark :-** Obviously

therefore Gaurisankar, the easternmost point of SchlagintHeights in feet.

Distance from Mount Everest weit's panorama of the snowy range, cannot have been in miles.

Everest, and the great pinnacle must have lain hidden away Everest 29,002

from his view by intervening mountain masses. Makalu

27,790 to Makalu Gaurisankar

If we wish to discover whether a place A is visible from 23,440 to Gaurisankar .. Falut 11,815 to Falut

85 a place B, we have but two courses open to us : we can Kaulia to Kaulia

make calculations from contoured maps of the country, or Fig.

we can send an observer to B to ascertain if A can be

If there are no maps, the second course alone is

open. different peaks thirty-six miles apart, and that Everest, far

Mount Everest is 109 miles from Kaulia; the intervening from being conspicuous, was almost obscured from view by intervening ranges. Captain Wood also discovered that an

space is taken up by mountains and valleys, ridges and

hollows, spurs and basins; this complicated area is unimposing peak of the snowy range, a peak long known in the records of the survey as Peak XX, height 23,440 feet,

surveyed, and questions of visibility are not mathematically

arguable. was the famous Gaurisankar of the Nepalese. A comparison of the drawings of Schlagintweit and

How came it, then, that an expert like General Walker Wood tells us that the same peak was shown by the

expressed the opinion that Everest was not visible from

Kaulia ? General Walker was, of course, merely judging Nepalese to both observers as Gaurisankar. Schlagintweit

from Hermann Schlagintweit's recorded evidence. At was therefore right in giving the name of Gaurisankar to

Kaulia Schlagintweit made a careful drawing to scale of the great peak that is so conspicuous from Kaulia and

the snowy and nearer ranges; in Fig. 2 is given a copy Katmandu, but he has been proved to have been wrong in

of his drawing of Gaurisankar. three particulars, namely, (1) in his identification of Everest

Schlagintweit wrote against the peak Gaurisankar on from Kaulia, (2) in his identification of Everest from Falut,

his drawing the words ** Gaurisankar or Everest," but (3) in assuming that he had observed the same peak from Kaulia as he had done from Falut.

It is interesting to consider the magnitudes of the mistakes he made :—from Kaulia the direction of Gaurisankar differs from the true direction of Everest by two degrees; from Falut the direction of Makalu differs from the true direction of Everest by forty-two minutes.

From Kaulia the elevation of Gaurisankar differs from the true elevation of Everest by twenty-four minutes ; from Falut the elevation of Makalu differs from the true elevation of Everest by fifteen minutes. The

peaks

Gaurisankar and Makalu, which Schlagintweit thought were the same, are forty-seven miles apart.

The supposed identity of Everest and Gaurisankar has rested only on Schlagintweit's evidence. It is true that successive British Residents at Katmandu have continued to regard Gaurisankar as Everest, but their ideas have been based on the Schlagintweit tradition. It is also true that

Schlagintweit's drawing of Gaurisankar in a recent number of the Geographical Journal ? the photographs of Dr. Boeck have been preferred as evidence to the observations of the Indian Survey; unfortunately Dr. Boeck made a mistake of thirty-two degrees in direction in his attempt at identifying Mount Everest, and this initial

General Walker showed by calculations that if Everest had slip led him to twist the whole area of Nepal round through

been really visible it would have been seen by Schlaginta third of a right-angle.

a low peak near the spot marked H. As Side Issues of the Controversy.—It is difficult to avoid

Schlagintweit showed no low peak at this spot, General the thought that this long controversy has of recent years

Walker concluded that it had been obscured from his view been degenerating into a barren dispute over side issues.

by one or another of the many unsurveyed intervening (1) It has, for instance, been stated in the Geographical

ranges.

1 Geographical Journal, January, 1904, p. 99. 1 “In the Himalayas," by Waddell, 1899, p. 346.

? Geographical Journal, Marcb, 1903, and January, 1904. 2 Geographical Journal, March, 1903. 3 Colonel Core's preface to Captain Wood's Report, 1904.

3 Proceedings R.G.S., vol. viii., 1886, where it will be seen that

Schlagintweit described Everest as the easternmost point of his panorama.

--Peak XX1

-Gauri sankar

H

B

two

K

Fig. 2.

weit as

name

a

case

a low

" that

When Captain Wood visited Kaulia in 1903. he was un- are named Badrinath I, Badrinath II, &c. ; but these peaks able to discover the place from which Schlagintweit had are slight prominences crowning the snow-clad pyramid of made his drawing; he selected another spot, and made a Badrinath, like turrets on a castle. Everest and Gauri. careful drawing to scale of the snowy and nearer ranges. sankar are separated by a wide interval and a deep valley, la Fig. 3 is given a copy of his drawing of Gaurisankar. and are not spires of a single pile.

On the advice of the Prime Minister of Nepal, Captain The extent to which we are justified in giving the same Wood recorded on his drawing nst the lower peak of

to different peaks is, however, not altogethe the Gaurisankar double the name Gauri, and against its question of intervening distance and depth ; geographical loftier companion the name Sankar.

significance has also to be considered. The peaks of the If we compare Wood's drawing with Schlagintweit's, we Badrinath cluster have a common, but no individual, see that the nearer range B appears higher in Schlagint- significance; they are notable only as the several pinnacles weit's picture than in Wood's. This same peculiarity is of the sacred pile of Badrinath, and can therefore be visible throughout the panoramas of the two observers; the classified without disadvantage under one general apelnear ranges appear in Schlagintweit's drawing higher lation. But the of Gaurisankar and Everest is al ways with regard to the distant ranges than they do in different : the former is remarkable in Nepal for the preWood's. The inference is that Schlagintweit drew his eminence of its grandeur ; the latter, screened from the panorama from a considerably lower point than Wood did ; gaze of man, is known only as the highest point of the this may account for the fact that Schlagintweit shows no earth. Would it not, then, be a mistake to include under signs of Everest.

one name two mountains the claims of which to celebrity Again, in Schlagintweit's drawing the near range K are so different? cuts off laterally more of the snowy range than it does in Before we blindly follow Alpine precedents in the settleWood's, and obscures the shoulder of Gaurisankar just at ment of Himalayan problems, we must consider well the point where Everest should have been visible.

whether the conditions are identical. “It is no exaggerla Wood's drawing Mount Everest appears as

ation to say," writes a great Himalayan authority, peak at the spot where General Walker calculated that it along the entire range of the Himalayas valleys are to be pould appear.

found among the higher mountains, into which the whole The omission of Everest from Schlagintweit's panorama Alps might be cast, without producing any result that led General Walker to believe that it was not visible from would be discernible at a distance of ten or fifteen miles." I

The Discovery of a Supposed Tibetan Name.-Colonel Waddell's book," Among the Himalayas,” gives a good description of the Nepalese mountains with many interesting profiles; the author's investigations have enabled him to authenticate a Tibetan name for a high peak which he believes to be Mount Everest. This name is Jamokangkar, sometimes spelt Chamokankar.

Now let us suppose for one moment that it will be proved by future evidence-not at present forthcoming—that the mountain called Jamokangkar by Tibetans is identical with our Mount Everest. What then? Will it be incumbent upon us to abandon the name of Everest and to adopt that of Jamokangkar? I think not.

When the Gaurisankar controversy opened, the name of Everest was an interloper upon the map of Asia ; but its trespass has long since been condoned. Time and usage have secured for it righ not less sacred than the right of origin ; for what, after all, is the right of origin but

that conferred by time and usage? To displace now this Wood's drawing of Gaurisankar name from its lofty position in geography would seem to

many of us an outrage.

It will, I think, be lamentable if former advocates of the name Gaurisankar, seeing that their cause is doomed, con

tinue the struggle under this new flag of Jamokangkar. Schlagintweit's station at Kaulia. Whether it was visible

Already, to our regret, has Mr. Freshfield, a life-long ut not was, I am sure, in General Walker's opinion not a

defender of the claims of Gaurisankar, declared in favour estion of moment.

of the Tibetan name.” 13; Now that Gaurisankar and Everest have been proved

The old dispute has been settled ; the names Gaurisankar *» bom ditierent peaks, a suggestion has been put forward'

and Everest have been proved to belong to different peaks ; that they belong after all to the same group" of peaks,

and it is to be hoped that Continental geographers, who and that “ according to Alpine usage and precedent there

have hitherto attached the name of Gaurisankar to the is nothing to prevent the name Gaurisankar being applied to the loftiest peak of the group.'

famous peak that we call Everest, will, in the interests

of scientific harmony, now accept the name that has always It is clear from this passage that the author is desirous

been accepted by India. But before we can look for Conof getting rid of the name of Everest, but it is not clear

tinental acquiescence we must endeavour to show agreehow his object is to be attained, whether by iransferring

at home. Few Continental geographers see the the name Gaurisankar from the one peak to the other, of by giving the Gaurisankar to both peaks.

official reports of the Indian Government; the majority

draw their conclusions from articles in our geographical To displace the native name from the mountain which the

Press. natives know, and to attach it to a remote peak which

In March, 1903, Mr. Freshfield, the late secretary of they do not know, would be a course that would not com

the Royal Geographical Society, wrote in the Geographical mend itself to anyone interested in the preservation of local graphical names. To give the same name to both peaks Journal as follows :-" The reason, for which the surveyors

argued so strenuously forty-five years ago, that the 29,002 would be to introduce a needless confusion.

feet peak cannot be the Gaurisankar of Nepal was, of Gaurisankar and Mount Everest, we are here told, belong In the same group; but what is a group? Controversialists

course, that their chief's proceeding in giving the moun

tain an English name give to the term different meanings to suit their own re

was excused, or justified, at the

time by the assertion that it had no local or native name. quirements. It is true that in some instances the same

The surveyors whose motives Mr. Freshfield mare has been given to different Himalayan peaks; impugned were formed into a committee forty-five years

has Kingchenjunga I and Kangchenjunga Il are the official Orgnations of the two pinnacles which cap the lofty mass 1 See the article on Himálaya by General Sir R. Strachey, R.E., in till hangihenjunga; the eight peaks of a cluster in Kumaon “Encyclop. Brit.," 9th edition.

2 Públished 1899. I Geographical Journal, March, 1904, P. 362.

3 Geographical Journal, March, 1904. P. 363.

K

FIG. 3.

3

[ocr errors]

ment

name

« PreviousContinue »