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It takes an accusative of the wrong avenged, and of the person punished, as well as the accusative of Sin, "the satisfaction or penalty." Thus Hom. Odyss. XXIV. 326: λßηy Tivúμevos kaì κακὰ ἔργα; Οd. xv. 236: ἐτίσατο ἔργον ἀεικὲς ἀντίθεον Νηλῆα; Eurip. Οrest. 323 : αἵματος τινύμεναι δίκην.

TРEIOMAI is used both as the reflexive middle, "I turn myself or take to flight," Herod. VIII. 91: Tŵv Bapßápwv és þvyηv τρaπoμévwv; and as the causative middle, "I turn another to flight, I rout him," Eurip. Heracl. 842: éтpe↓áμeσľ' 'Apyeîov ἐς φυγὴν δόρυ.

TПOAEIПOMAI, "I cause to be left for myself, I retain or preserve,” Herod. iv. 121: οἱ Σκύθαι ὅσα σφι ἐς φορβὴν ἱκανα ἦν τοσαῦτα ὑπολιπόμενοι, τὰ ἄλλα τῇσι ἁμάξῃσι προέπεμψαν. Dem. de Coron. 301, 23: væreλeíTTETO (some read úπéλeɩπe) yàp αὐτῶν ἕκαστος ἑαυτῷ ἅμα μὲν ῥᾳστώνην, κ. τ. λ.

OPAZOMAI, “I speak or confer with myself, I consider or devise, I provide beforehand," whence, even in the form of a perfect passive, we have Soph. Antig. 364: vóowv þvyàs oVμTÉÓρAOTAI.

ΧΕΙΡΟΥΜΑΙ, "I subdue for myself,” like δουλοῦμαι; as in Herod. Ι. 211 : έχειρώσαντο τοὺς ἐναντίους.

XEOMAI, "I pour out for myself, i. e. libations," is used like Ovoμai, evxoμai, &c., to express the special interest of the worshipper. We find both voices in Soph. Ed. Col. 478, 9: xoàs Xéaodai στάντα πρὸς πρώτην ἕω—ἢ τοῖσδε κρώσσοις οἷς λέγεις χέω τάδε; In the former the act of worship is distinctly implied, in the latter the reference is to the effusion itself and its instrument: cf. σπévdw, σπένδομαι.

§ VI. B. Secondary Predicates. (a) Adverbs.

435 (a) The name of the adverb (148) implies that it is intimately connected with some verb, which contains a primary predication; and it may be said, that all secondary predications are adverbial words and sentences (383). In stating, however, that the adverb, in accordance with its name, is a secondary predicate intimately connected with some verb, we must bear in mind that the verb, on which the adverb depends, may be itself in some form, which subordinates it to another verb, or the adverb may be

attached to some predicable word. Thus we may say not only ev παρασκευάζεται, but εὖ παρεσκευασμένος, where the verb contains a primary predicate, but the participle is in itself adverbial; and we may not only say τῶν ὁμοίων σωμάτων οἱ αὐτοὶ πόνοι οὐχ ὁμοίως ἅπτονται ἄρχοντός τε ἀνδρὸς καὶ ἰδιώτου Xen. Cyr. I. 6, § 25), where the adverb óμoíws is intimately connected with the verb aπтоvтαι, but we may use the same adverb as qualifying an adjective only; thus (Herod. I. 52): Tò EUσTÒV Tŷσi Xorxnoi oμoiws Xpúocov. To this distinction Cicero refers in the following passage (de Fin. IV. 27, § 75): "ut in fidibus pluribus, si nulla earum ita contenta numeris sit, ut concentum servare possit, omnes æque incontentæ sint: sic peccata, quia discrepant, æque discrepant; paria sunt igitur. Hic ambiguo ludimur: æque enim contingit omnibus fidibus, ut incontentæ sint: illud non continuo, ut æque incontentæ." For in the former case the adverb belongs to the verb containing the primary predicate; thus, ai xopdaì óμoíws μμeλovσ; in the latter it belongs to the predicated adjective, αἱ χορδαί εἰσιν ὁμοίως ἀσύμφωνοι.


(b) These considerations will enable the student to see that grammarians (for instance Matthiä, § 309; Rost, p. 464) are in error when they state that the adverb can take the place of the adjective as a primary predicate. In all cases where this seems to occur the adverb in its proper sense qualifies some verb predicating in itself the existence or nature of the subject. The adverbs used in this way are almost always secondary predicates of time, place, quantity or manner, and the verb is always capable of predicating substance. Thus we have Il. VI. 130: οὐδὲ γὰρ Λυκόοργος δὴν ἦν, "for neither did Lycurgus exist a long time." Ibid. 1. 416: ἐπεί νύ τοι αἶσα μίνυνθά περ οὔτι μάλα δήν, “ since it is your fate [to live] a short and not at all a long life." Xen. Anab. 1. 8, § 8 őte dè ¿yyútepov éyiyvovтo, "when they came (i. e. were come into a position) nearer." Similarly, Id. Cyr. Iv. 1, §18: xwpis yevóμevoi, having gone apart.” Thucyd. iv. 61 : οὐ γὰρ τοῖς ἔθνεσι, ὅτι δίχα πέφυκε, τοῦ ἑτέρου ἔχθει ἐπίασιν, " for they do not invade nations, because their origin is different (because they have been born in different places), through hatred of one of our races" (i.e. the Dorian). Eurip. Iph. T. 1014: äλis tò keívns aiμa, “the blood of her (Clytemnestra) has been shed so as to satisfy all demands" (unless as is really a substantive, like the Latin satis). Id. Hec.


536: σîya πâs ¤στw λews, “let all the people exist silently, i.e. be in a state of silence.” I. VII. 424: διαγνώναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα eKaσTOV, "it was hardly possible (it was allowed or possible with difficulty) to distinguish each man." Ibid. IX. 551: Kovρýτeσσi Kaks v, "it went badly with the Curetes." Xen. Anab. IV. 3, § 24: ἐπεὶ τὰ πέραν ἑώρα καλῶς γιγνόμενα, “when he saw the matters on the other side of the river going on, turning out, well." Isocr. Paneg. § 5: ὥστ ̓ ἤδη μάτην εἶναι τὸ μεμνῆσθαι περὶ τούτων, "so that already it is in vain (i. e. it exists in vain, it comes to pass fruitlessly) to remember these things.”

(c) We have seen above (259), that adverbs, etymologically considered, are cases of nouns, pronouns or adjectives, which express the time, place, cause, form or manner of an action. The only difference, therefore, between the adverbs and other secondary predicates consists in this, that while the adverbs signify general affections, the cases of nouns predicate specially some secondary relation. Thus we may say, specially,

or generally,

ἐπεδήμει τῇ Σπάρτῃ οι ἐν Λακεδαίμονι,

ἐπεδήμει ἐκεῖ.

And we may say, with reference to a person's general state, exel Kaλws, bene se habet, "he is well," or we may append a particular reference, ἔχει καλῶς τὸ σῶμα οι τοῦ σώματος, bene se habet quoad corpus, "he is well in his body." In fact, the use of a verb with an adverb, as well as with a case, is a degree less definite than the employment of two cases with the verb. Thus, if we say, πатáσσei páßow, "he strikes, and a stick is the instrument," we add one particular; if we say, mатáσσe iσxvpws, "he strikes, and his manner of striking is violent," we add another particular: but we may say, πατάσσει ἰσχυρῶς ῥάβδῳ, “he strikes violently with a stick;" and we may add to this an accusative case expressing the object, πατάσσει ἰσχυρῶς ῥάβδῳ τὸν ὄνον: we have then three adjuncts to the primary predication, "he is striking," and besides "the manner is violent, the stick is the instrument, the ass is the object of his striking."

436 The conditional proposition, which is a relative sentence with an indefinite antecedent, is of an adverbial nature. For it is

an equally adverbial predication to say generally, "I will go to London conditionally," and to say more distinctly, "I will go to London if you will accompany me," i. e. conditionally on your accompanying me.

437 The causal sentence, which is often expressed by the absolute use of the participle, may be contained in the simple adverb; thus in Thucyd. 1. 39, ad fin.: ¿yêλŋμátwv póvwv åμeTóxws means "you being free from their inculpation alone," aueτόχων ὄντων ὑμῶν. And in the same author, IV. 20, § 3 : πολεμοῦνται ἀσαφῶς ὁποτέρων ἀρξάντων, “they are involved in war, without knowing who began it,” ἄδηλον ἂν ὁπότεροι ἦρξαν.

438 The illative sentence may be expressed by a mere adverb; thus (Thucyd. I. 21, § 1): τὰ πολλὰ ὑπὸ χρόνου αὐτῶν ἀπίστως ἐπὶ τὸ μυθῶδες ἐκνενικηκότα, “ most of these old stories having won their way to fabulousness, so as to lose all credit." So also in the same writer, VI. 58: ἀδήλως τῇ ὄψει πλασάμενος πρὸς τὴν ξυμ popáv, "having dissembled in his countenance with reference to the calamity, so as not to betray his feelings or disclose what had happened."

439 Parallel adverbs are sometimes used to express a tertiary by the side of a secondary predication; thus in Thucyd. 11. 64, § 2: φέρειν τε χρὴ τά τε δαιμόνια αναγκαίως τά τε ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων avopeíws, "one must bear what the gods inflict as necessary things, i.e. because they are unavoidable, and face the assaults of enemies courageously, i.e. after the manner of brave men," where avaykaiws amounts to a tertiary predication of the object, and avopeíws is a secondary predication referring to the subject.

§ VII. Secondary Predicates. (b) Cases of Nouns.

440 As the Greek language is in an etymological, as well as in a syntactical state, it expresses the relations of case, both by inflexions, and by an apposition of those inflexions to certain pronominal adverbs called prepositions. The preposition, as an adverb, belongs to the first class of secondary predicates; but as the special meanings of the prepositions depend on the cases with which they are used, we must consider, in the first instance, the syntax of the cases themselves.

(a) The Nominative.

441 We have seen that the nominative regularly designates the subject, and that it is predicated directly through certain verbs, which serve as copula. As the nominative cannot represent the object of the verb, it is clear that the words, capable of employment as secondary predicates in the nominative, are those which are adapted for the expression of the adverbial relations of time, place, manner, degree, &c. These are, in the first place, participles as temporal predicates; next, adjectives and pronouns as predicates of place and manner; and finally, those substantives which are by their nature categorical. In general, those words which appear as tertiary predicates in the oblique cases are best suited for secondary predication in the nominative.

442 The following examples will explain this usage:

(a) Participles are used as secondary predicates of time, or as equivalent to a temporal sentence.

Thus we have yeλáoas novxî eon (Plat. Phæd. 101 в), “he laughed gently and said," i.e. at the same time; Öтe ev aywv αὐτῷ τὰ παρὰ τῶν συμμάχων δώρα (Xen. Econ. 4, § 20), which Cicero renders (Cato, 17, § 59): quum venisset ad eum eique dona a sociis attulisset. We should say indifferently, "he came and brought," i.e. at the same time, or "he brought with him."

There are cases in which some caution is required, lest we should miss this adverbial sense of the participle. For instance, the punctuation of the ordinary editions leads students to mistranslate Thucyd. 1. 39, init.: xaì paoì dǹ díky πpótepov ¿Deλîjσai κρίνεσθαι, ἥν γε οὐ τὸν προὔχοντα καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς προκαλούμενον λέγειν τι δοκεῖν δεῖ, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐς ἴσον τά τε ἔργα καὶ τοὺς λόγους πρὶν διαγωνίζεσθαι καθίσταντα, where we must observe that τόν belongs to προκαλούμενον, and that προύχοντα, “ when he has the advantage," is quite as adverbial, or quite as much a secondary predicate of time, as ek тоû ảσpaλoûs, "from a safe position," "when he is in safety." Compare the parallel sentiment in III. 82, § 6, where we have ei πрoxolev, i. e. "as often as (whenever) those who made the proposal had the advantage." And even when there is no article to confuse the meaning, the student is apt to lose the predicative force of the participle because it agrees in case with the object of the verb; thus in Esch. Agam. 372-4:

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