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in search of health than disposed to labor, I should, ton, Madison, Franklin and Hamilton. Are they be tempted to note, trom Congressional and Ex. not wise enough, then, to apply a single and simple ecutive records, some of the errors appar« ntly run cure for a disease which, after many years of into, both of reasoning and of policy, under the latent torpor, has suddenly alarmingly developed ! seductive influence of round language. No stronger With me there is no doubt that if my countrymen illustrations could be given of Mirabeau's asser- be given the legitimate opportunity, they will extion that 'words are things,' (ay, and fatally pressly and unqualitiedly prohibit, sooner or later, serious things, too,) than the extent to which, with what † have heretofore humbly believed they had such aids, the meaning of our Constitution, if not by the strongest implication already probíbited. the nature of our government, has been affected. They will prohibit from being forced by the sophI am not so unjust as to question the motives of istries of zealots to enact the part of consolidation ; those who have thus deviated; they must rather they will place the constitutional canon too palpbe regarded as misled by a sort of anbitious pa- ably for misconstruction against the self-slaughter triotisın, so intently aiming to augment the great of intermeddling with institutions and rights exness, wealth and power of their country, as un- clusively of State creation, State responsibility, guardedly to overlook the peculiar complications and State control; they will render it impossible, and nice adjustment of its political system. by any process short of treason or revolution, to
“As a people, we are generally calm and con- convert the confederacy into the means of destroy. servative-perhaps more tamely so than is con- ing the equality of its own members, or to direct genial with the spirit and anticipations of the its energies to fulfil the behests of some higher law Constitution. There is one provision of that in- starting up from the ever-ranging and incalculable strument, which more strongly than any other phantasies of the inner man. marks its practical wisdom, and yet it is curious “I have dispassionately, but anxiously watched to see with what almost superstitious dread we the manifest of political sentiment in the North and shrink from bringing it into action. I refer to the East, since the adjournment of Congress, and shall power and process of amendment. Our organic be most happy to find my impression dispelled in law was put in writing, its delegations and re- the future. At first the movements of the masses strictions of jurisdiction were given express and were independent of leadership, and gave a noble visible certainty; but as all human fabrics are earnestness to indicate their good faith, and to confessedly imperfect, and should ever be adapt- maintain the institutions and harmony of the able to the times, the mode of peaceful change, Union; but—and I say it with reluctance-the horicorrection or addition, was prescribed with equal zon was not long permitted to remain so flattering. exactness. Why is it that we endure years ot The abolitionists beat again their barbaric goog; dangerous agitation, unsettling our sentiments as the love of representative assemblages, regular or fellow-citizens, and winding gradually up to a social casual, was again taunting and vindictive; paltry convulsion, rather than frankly resort to this prof- and personal ambition reuewed the agitation by fered expedient! Certainly, the Constitution can- which alone its hopes are fed; Vermont, Massanot be touched with too much reverence; certainly, chusetts, Ohio, New-York, and even Pennsylvania, what is usually stigmatized as “tinkering' at it exbibited in succession sad proof that their respectshould be resolutely avoided; but when it is plain ive portions of the great Whig party were unwilthat the proper occasion has arisen, that nothing ling to forego the customary rallying uutery against less soleinn can be efficacious, and that the very the South. They affected not to know, to disbeUnion it creates and conservates is at risk, why lieve as fanciful, or to despise, if real, the dangers are we to recoil from the provided sanctuary of their course; the bold bully of Anti-slavery deOne of the authorized forms of amending is unac-fied to his face the eloquent apostle of Union, and companied by hazard of any kind—that of Con- defied him with impunity. The newspaper edi. gressional recommendation, to be followed by the torials, with exceptions few and far between, approval of three fourths of the local Legislatures. merged in the common current; at last it has beSuch a process seems just now to be unpromising, come quite manifest (has it not ? and why represe but it may, after candid and diffuse discussion, turn our convictions ?) that the expectation fondly invut otherwise. Surely the Union is valued suffi- dulged of tranquilizing the country by the leg 8ciently to rally for its risk and renovation twenty- lative measures, is delusive. The act for the exfour of the thirty-one States; or are we already pre tradition of fugitives is the pretext for protracted pared to admit that the American people have and persevering war upon the guaranties of the become incapable of self-government, incapable Constitution; and if we are to raise the siege to of appreciating the true sources of their wonderful which that instrument is still subjected, can we do progress, and incapable of discarding the blind better than reiuforce it from the arsenal, and with though boisterous guides, ready to lead them, the orders of the people! I desire nothing so through disunion, into mu'ual and rancorous jeal. much as the safety of the Union. Place it beyond ousies, into dependence on foreign guardianship, the striking distance of cunning, as well as mad into civil and servile wars, and into the poor feuds fanatici-mDo this, if you can, without resorting of village trades and tariffs. I think it always a to the final remedy; but if you cannot, then give inistake to falter in reliance upon the shrewd and to the Constitution an express, positive, prohibitory sober judgment of the great body of our fellow amendment, which shall lor ever end the entanglecitizens. They were wise enough to discern the ments and pretexts of interpretation. untried excellence of the Constitution; they were “ But what, you may ask, if this doubtful and wise enough to amend, ay, and most admirably, dilatory course should prove abortive? Much the work as it came from the hands of Washing-time and opportunity will have been afforded.
Congress, the Executive, and the people will have ern; and the right not to be impressed by British perceived that the resources of the Constitution naval audacity was cherished alike in the fields of for the defense of the State rights were patiently Kentucky and on the Atlantic coast; and so I tell exhausted, and may become sensible that a single you that the right of each State to be accounted further step of invasion will, like the last feather an equal of every other State, and to secure, if she on the camel's back, break down the confederacy. so pleases, to ber inhabitants the enjoyment of as At all events, the responsibility of pertinaciously ample and unrestricted a scope for the exercise of perverting, after reiterated warning, the functions their minds and means as can be secured elseof the Union, will, even more strongly than now, where, is not a sectional, not a Southern, but a rest with those who dare gravely claim to dom- common Union or constitutional right. Such, I ineer the condition and consciences of others. i am sure, was the design of all those who, as master Instead of forbearing remonstrance, of reasoning, workmen, built on the basis of the confederation and of appeals to the bulwark of the fundamental the United States; such I believe to have been compact, the quick instinct of self-preservation will the sense of those who, after the most widely alone be left. * Even at that crisis, when disunion, popular form of consultation, adopted the strucpartial or temporary, shall seem the alternative on ture, and entered upon its occupancy; and such which to shun consolidation, I shall not cease to must be—for the truth is mighty and will prevailhope that faction may yet be stunned into sobriety, the ultimate judgment even of those who, with the and that the confronting presence of liberty and bigoted frenzy of crusaders, would attain what usurpation may, in this western world of ours, ter- their delirium deceives them by depicting as the rify the latter into retreat.
will of God.'” * I do not think that I misjudge my countrymen in saying, that the party in the wrong must ulti
Such are the opinions of a sometime mately yield; but it is well to remember, that in Vice President upon the great topics that order to retain the position of right, extreme for have agitated the Union. bearance is necessary, and that perhaps gross op: briefly to review the opinions here presented, pression may for a season be most honorably borne. In contests of speculative politics, a salu- not as possessing any intrinsic merit
, nor as tary something can always be anticipated from the likely to exercise any important influence soothing and truth-disclosing influence of time. To upon thought or action in reference to any Aing the gauntlet while yet the civil controversy great interests, nor yet as emanating from a is undecided; to mutiny from, and quit a garrison within which you may really have more friends source likely to give weight to any opinion than fæes, is chivalry of the kind painted by Cer- by the prestige of an established political vantes. Napoleon, the restive and intractable, leadership; but simply because the transowned and inculcated, as to all projects, the wisdom parent Machiavelism of the distinguished of waiting 'till the pear is ripe,' and cot imitate writer has displayed, what his more adroit the savage who cuts down the tree to reach the fruit. Southern men whose faith wavers in the competitors for the Presidency would fain meaning and purpose of the Constitution, as to conceal, the aims and thoughts of the leadState equality ani non-intervention, are naturally ers of the Democratic party. made testy and choleric by their own misgivings;
Mr. Dallas, in company with a few of the but it is the province of conscious justice and perfection to be patient, and to abide the inevitable same sort, distinguished for the intensity of triumph of truth. Nor ought it to be forgotten, their partisan antipathies, regards consolithat however convenient and admissible in ordinary dation as the especial evil genius of this parlance the language is, there are, under the Republic. The federal bond he regards as Constitution, no such separate realities as South too strong, and likely to merge the separate ern rights; that an outrage upon reserved sovereignty, on any subject, is just as much an infringe sovereignties of the States into one vast, ment of my right in Pennsylvania as of yours in overshadowing empire. And while professTexas, and that a large proportion of the people on ing admiration and devoted attachment for this side of Mason and Dixon's line have been the Union, he proposes to weaken its bond taught by experience and reflection to know that for the sake of enhancing the dignity of the their dangers, in peace or in war, have their sources in the North. A citizen who truly esti State sovereignties. An occasion more opmates and loves the Union, who is capable of portune than the present might have been comprehending that to the domestic tranquillity selected for the promulgation of such deand enduring freedom of the American people it nationalizing opinions; for if the desting of is a political necessity, feels as sensitively a blow the Union is likely to be affected in any inflicted upon one great interest or region as upon another-upon the fisheries, the navigation of the way by the discussion of the great question Mississippi, the liberty of the seas, the freedom of of the day, it will inevitably arise from the the press, or the local sovereignty over soil and preponderance of the centrifugal over the slavery. The right to fish is no more Northern centralizing force. While the harmony of than Southern; the right which was in momentary jeopardy at Ghent, of exclusive use of the waters the States is disturbed by the conflict of a of the Mississippi, is no more Western than East- diversity of policy and interest, there is little
to fear from consolidation. At such times The author of the Schooley's Mountain our study should be to discover how we may letter has displayed presumption if not praisecement most firmly the Union, while the worthy ambition in attempting to mount discussion of such dangerous abstractions the rostrum so recently left by the great should be deferred to times when more is to master-spirit of discontent. He draws about be feared from apathy than from agitation. his meagre limbs the robe of his master, with That there exists no pressing and immedi- less dignity than self-satisfaction, and glances ate necessity for the discussion of this topic, with complacency at his admired proporis strikingly evinced by the fact that such tions, as he counterfeits the tone and manacute politicians as Mr. Dallas discover so ner of his ideal. We will listen to the strong an opposite tendency, that they are voice of the oracle. willing to hazard their expectations and The great error of the day, reasons this reputations, if they have any, upon an effort first-born of wisdom's children, consists in a to ride into place and power upon the cur- misapplication of the term “nation," an "imrent of State-right opinions.
port from old consolidated empires," unsuited If there ever arrives a time when the to the new American condition of mere well-balanced structure of our Union will federal union.” We have been taught by be in danger from consolidation, it will hap- the poets that there is but little in a name; pen when some grand scheme of conquest, but we venture to assert that a nation has like that conceived for the administration of not half the fragrance that invests a mere which Mr. Dallas was a member, shall ab- federal union for the delicate sense of the sorb the thought and feeling of the nation. philosophic Pickwickian. It is left in unSuch unholy bandings to pillage and annex certainty whether Mr. Dallas aims his crititerritory exert the very influence which Mr. cal thrust against those devoted self-laudaDallas dreads. The strongest governments are tors who delight to distinguish ourselves those which exist among plundering hordes; and our country as “a great nation," or while the peaceful pursuits of industry, whether the objects that excite his indignaintellectual and moral culture, the legitimate tion are those inoffensive beings, the makers pursuits of civilized societies, have a ten- of dictionaries, whose single and humane dency to distribute and equalize political effort is to rescue good English from the powers. In ages widely separated by time, hands of murderers; but it is evident that and under dissimilar conditions of social ex- Mr. Dallas is deeply concerned for the safety istence, the republics of Rome and France of our country, while there are those who sank under the weight ofan imperial ambition. are silly enough or wicked enough to call it
The sentiments of Mr. Dallas call to mind a nation. If the stability of our institutions the days of the Titans, when similar doc- is endangered by it, however much we may trines were propounded by a Calhoun. Mr. regret the loss of a euphonious word from Calhoun impressed his age with a conviction our language, interwoven as it is with not a of his earnestness. Those who differed few pleasant associations, we solemnly defrom him saw more reason to regret the clare, and write it with a tirm pen, that danoverwrought sensibility of his temperament gerous word, that emissary from old conthan to censure his motives or doubt his solidated empires, must be forthwith banpower. He was Southern in heart and im- ished from the dictionaries. pulse, and actuated by a generous warmth, We cannot restrain an emotion of pity for that ennobled the man, notwithstanding his one who sees air-drawn daggers in such errors of judgment. The prophetic warn- minute and inoffensive objects ; but as such ings of such a mind challenge the attention, hallucinations are confirmed by opposition, however they may fail to convince the rea
pass without disputing the reality of son, and become the rallying-cry of devoted the phantom to graver topics suggested by partisans.
this subject. The history of the severest struggle It would have been gratifying to have through which our Union has yet been eall- learned from Mr. Dallas the precise causes ed to pass, leaves little to fear from the same which in his judgment are productive of weapon in hands such as those of Mr. Dal- danger to the existence of the State soverJas. It is the club of Hercules in the hands eignties, and it would hardly be deemed unof Paris,
reasonable to have required him to establish
his premises before proceeding to discuss the different signification, and points to an agconsequences flowing from them. But this gressive spirit supposed to lurk in the framehe has carefully avoided, as much out of work of the Federal Constitution, struggling regard for the danger as for the difficulty of by insidious encroachments to overwhelm such an attempt.
the State sovereignties. Without consulting either the prudence The nationality of the United States is in or the apprehensions of Mr. Dallas, we no respect inconsistent with the independent will venture to present a few thoughts sovereignty of the States. The States are upon that part of the subject under con- not subordinate, but, like the United States, sideration which he has so signally neg- limited sovereignties, each supreme, indelected. It requires a mind of somewhat pendent and self-sustaining within its proper enlarged capacity to comprehend the divisiou sphere; that is to say, where the exclusive of powers established by the Constitution powers of the General Government are not between the General Government and those encroached upon. of the States. The Federal Government is Every citizen resident within the States is supreme and sovereign, though constitution at once a member of the general and the ally restricted to certain powers affecting local community—a citizen of the United equally all the members of the Union. It States and of his own State. From him possesses all the attributes of sovereignty: all loyalty and sincere attachment is due to it can legislate and enforce its legislation ; both. The immediate and intimate bearing it is self-sustained ; possesses powers ade- which the institutions of his State have upon quate to its own protection, and for the de- his social and material interests will assure fense of every member of the confederacy. at least as firm an attachment to them as to It establishes its own tribunals, not only a system more remote from his observation, authorized to adjudicate all questions arising and whose operations affect his interests in under the laws and treaties of the United a manner more remote and more difficult to States, but with power to determine contro- understand. Under such circumstances, for versies between the citizens of different a citizen of the United States to become an States, and between States themselves. And instrument of erecting a consolidated empire still higher in importance, its tribunals are upon the ruin of the State sovereignties, imclothed with authority to determine all ques- plies treason to an authority which affection, tions arising from a collision of the consti- duty and interest conspire to preserve in its tutions and laws of the States with those of integrity. the United States. With foreign nations it Who, then, are the conspirators whoso treats on the footing of a sovereign power, machinations excite so lively an apprehenand its compacts and guaranties depend for sion in the brain of our philosopher? Whotheir efficacy on no higher authority than ever they may be, the first act of encroachthat reposed in it by the Constitution. ment upon the State sovereignties, the first
Such are the admitted powers of the breathings of such treason, are not recorded Federal Government; and whether we choose in the history of our political existence. Are to apply to such a political system the name of not the Northern States struggling to ena “nation" or a “mere federal union," cannot force the constitutional guaranty of a purely add to or abate from its essential character- local State right, under circumstances evincistics, or from the powers rightfully exercised ing the strength of their attachment for the under it. For ourselves, designing to dic- Union ? Are not sacrifices of honestly entate definitions to no one, we deem the word tertained opinions and prejudices daily made, "nation" more expressive of the dignified to maintain the supremacy of law? The character of the United States than any less warmth of the discussion, the fermentations significant term.
and disturbances occasionally arising in To a certain extent the term “nation” some of the Northern States, and gradually implies consolidation. As applied to our Con- yielding to the peaceful sway of law, furnish stitution, it implies the consolidation of the the strongest argument in behalf of the loyfederal
powers in an organic, objective gov- alty of the North to the Constitution. These ernment.
indications are rightly interpreted by generBut the term consolidation, when applied ous minds in every section of the Union, and by the declaimers as a bug-bear, has a far I give strength to the conviction that there yet exists among us enough of forbearance vities to achieve some strange destiny for us. with the opinions of others, and of fraternal Does the secret lie in prosperity at home sympathy, to transmit our noble Constitu- and honor abroad-in industry, abundance tion-the gift of a generation that is past and contentment? It may perhaps be porin all its purity to the generation which shall tended in the silence that pervades and sursucceed to us.
rounds certain closed and deserted buildings, To minds constituted like that of Mr. not long since noisy with the clangor of Dallas, these considerations are inapprecia- wheel and anvil. Then again may it not ble. But fortunately, if they do not possess lurk in the necessity for electing a Democratthe power of appreciating that which is ic successor to Fillmore? noble and dignitied, they are themselves the It would seem highly probable that this more easily appreciated in their length and last is the true origin of Mr. Dallas's apprebreadth, compass and volume.
hensions for the future; for throughout his Mr. Dallas has mistaken the indications of patriotic letter he nowhere loses sight of this the political horoscope. From the lofty means of accomplishing that beneficent conelevations of Schooley's Mountain he may summation. have observed all the stars in the firmament We will venture, then, to assume that the in their courses, but he has failed to discover impending ruin can only be averted by the their conjunctions; his astrology is as much election of a Democratic President at the at fault as his philosophy. The most sen- approaching presidential election; and thus sitive and jealous among the sisterhood of having placed ourselves in sympathy of purStates have no need nor desire for his sym- pose and feeling with Mr. Dallas, we will pathy, and can gain as little from his cham- examine in order to admire the adroitness pionship as the Union can lose by the worst with which he applies the means requisite act of treason of which his genius is capable. to that end, or to wonder at the presump
Mr. Dallas thinks that we are, as a peo- tion involved in the attempt, as the result ple, rather too conservative and calm; too may warrant. much so for our good; too much so to fulfil Two notable champions of Democracy are the destiny marked out for us by our Con- at this moment watching each other over stitution. It may be so; but it seems strange the wide regions that separate the peninsula that so apathetic a race “should endure of the North from the farthest South, ready years of dangerous agitation, unsettling our to meet in terrible encounter some day: sentiments as fellow-citizens, and winding gradually up to a social convulsion.” That
“Two planets rushing with aspect malign
Of fiercest opposition in mid sky." must be a strange conservatism that can agitate to the verge of a social crisis, but But for a certain "noise and confusion," cannot remove the cause of agitation with one would long since have spoken to some out belying its own principles; that a most purpose; while the other prudently keeps desirable calmness that can maintain itself silence, lest a worse noise and confusion throughout such fermentations.
should ensue. But it matters little whether we be con- At this juncture, a feeble trumpet-note is servative or radical, calm or impetuous, if heard in an unexpected quarter. A former the fact be that we are winding up to a politician, supposed long since to have been social convulsion. Let us stand upon this dead and buried and embalmed, is lustily firm ground---not so elevated as the summit piping away like a very Anthony Van Corof Schooley's Mountain-and look about us laer, till the little valleys of the Schooley for the portents of the coming storm. Is it ring again with the clangor, though the in the honor recently achieved by our com- sound is scarcely audible so far off as the mercial marine? Is it in the widely-expand Atlantic. ing wings of our commerce ? Are railroads, With a composure worthy of the highest telegraph lines and canals, stretching into conscious rectitude, the discontented are and subduing forests, the emissaries of the invited to unite in an agitation for an amendinfernal power, forging chains for freedom ment of the Constitution designed to guarin the dark caverns of the earth? All these antee more effectually and for ever to secure agents are about us, coiling their folds the rights of the States from federal entighter and tighter, and straining their acti- I croachments. There is—what a politician