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channels and the reclamation of land in consequence heavy, and his notation cumbrous in the extreme, but have resulted. It is in this way that the lake occupy- his contributions to the subject are of great value and ing the depression of the Fayum has been diminished generality, although they attracted no notice for many in area.

years, and were re-discovered by others. UnfortuThe floods in the Nile Delta of which records have nately, they are expressed in such a repulsive notation: been kept, that are trustworthy for the past 175 years that no one but an enthusiast would read his works. at least, have been critically studied by Captain Lyons and the student will feel very grateful to Dr. Muir with the view of discovering the determining causes for his analysis of them. Part of this analysis, in of their variations. While no regular periodic alter- some ways the most interesting, is given on pp. 311nations of high and low floods can be detected by the 322 ; this, and the subsequent section on a paper of study of these records, their dependence on the rain Sylvester's, deserve careful reading, because, as Dr fall and the distribution of atmospheric pressure in the Muir points out, Schweins gives some results of highlands of Equatorial Africa is very apparent. alternants which even are not familiar, and There is reason to believe that more numerous, Sylvester makes some hasty statements which, a systematic, and complete meteorological observations they stand, appear to be incorrect, but which, if corin the districts outside Egypt may enable us, in the rected, or rightly interpreted, might lead to important end, to predict from month to month the probable formulæ. fluctuations of the annual Nile flood.

It should be noted that on p. 323 the determinant The space at our command has only permitted the is misprinted, a, a’, &c., being put for a,, az, &c. notice of a few of the more salient features of this Moreover, it is not explained so clearly as it should very interesting volume. In conclusion, we be that Ça" = (x; while the law xp.0,=a., is not usel congratulate Captain Lyons and the Egyptian Govern. The right statement is $(a".ex") = $(48* * *) = 4,70; while ment upon the great amount of valuable work which $(a")$(a") = 1,0g. Readers of Sylvester's papers must has been accomplished and is still in progress. A be careful to distinguish this Š from the square of word of praise must also be added on the excellent the operator 6 It may be noticed, in passing, typography of the volume, and the admirable plates that these generalised alternants present themselves in with which it is illustrated.

J. W. J.

the theory of numbers, both when the elements arr roots of unity and also when they are not, so that

further knowledge of their properties is desirable, and THE HISTORY OF DETERMINANTS,

the suggestion made (p. 325) that Sylvester's resulta The Theory of Determinants in the Historical Order are true when the elements are periodic deserves

of Development. Part i. Second edition. General further examination. Determinants up to 1841. Part ii. Special Deter- Considerable space is given to functional and orthur minants up to 1841. By Dr. T. Muir, C.M.G., gonal determinants, and here, of course, Jacolui F.R.S. Pp. xii + 492. (London: Macmillan and receives most attention.

The results are Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price 175. net.

familiar that it requires some effort of imagination to A MATHEMATICAL history of the right sort is fealise the pain in working power which has resulted

from

In this connection much more than a mere bibliography, and in

attention may be directed to an odd remark on p. 247 some respects is more valuable than a treatise on the subject with which it deals. It helps us to see how Speaking of one of Jacobi's papers, Dr. Muir savs :mathematical ideas originate, and how, as they be

* The only thing worth noticing is the curious cubii come familiar, the symbolism by which they are

equation ..."; this “ curious " equation is nothing expressed becomes compact and appropriate. This

more nor less than the reducing cubic for two ternant is especially the case with determinants, because quadratic forms, in the exact notation of Salmon's a determinant is essentially a comprehensive symbol,

“Conics "'! And Dr. Muir even takes the trouble to and it would perhaps be more proper to speak of

express the invariants e, e' in the forms the calculus than of the theory of determinants.

Aa' + Bb' + &c., Va + B'b+ . . ., &c., It may seem strange, at first sight, to find a history so large as this dealing with a subjectso limited ; as if this were a quite novel idea. but no one can complain that the author is either Returning for a moment to alternants and their diffuse or irrelevant, and his work may be praised applications, attention may be directed to the work of without restriction as a model of its kind.

Jacobi and Cauchy on the expansions of rational funcIt is unnecessary to say much of the first part, tions of several variables (pp. 331-345). This is which is mainly a reprint of the volume which important in the theory of functions, in that al appeared in 1900. Dr. Muir has written a new in- algebraic forms, and in that of partitions. In some troduction, and added a few additional notices. Two ways it deserves further investigation; in varies things cannot fail to strike the reader of this part applications the expansions have to be infinite series The first is the great supremacy of Cauchy and and the question of convergency has to be faced, eve Jacobi in everything relating to choice of notation and when the series are used for establishing formal equaclearness of statement; the other is the great and valences; this is a curious case of formal and arith long unrecognised ability of Schweins. Schweins, in metical algebra each marching, so to speak, on the a way, brought this fate upon himself; his style is other's domain.

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There is one more observation made by Dr. Muir i of four separate generic names for the four species of (p. 290) which is rather puzzling. After giving some rorquals, which appears to us as a recrudescence of identities of Lagrange's, which are, in fact, relations one of the very worst achievements of the systematists between determinants, Dr. Muir says, “a reference of the past. In adopting an old scheme of arrangeto the original papers, already described, will make ment for birds, the author is compelled thereby to it almost perfectly certain that Lagrange did not view separate widely the gulls and Limicoline birds, which them in this light. The like is true of Gauss. . many anatomists have concurred in placing in very Now Gauss, at any rate, used the term

close relationship. There are plenty of similar minant"; if this word is used in the modern sense examples to be gathered from Dr. Schmiedeknecht's of the symbol, of course Dr. Muir's remark is correct, pages. If the author errs at all in the number of but is then quite trivial; on the other hand, if it | species which he admits into his manual, it is rather means the function, it is hard to see how Gauss, not on the side of economy than profusion. Of the very to say Lagrange, could fail to see that their ex- long series of - species " of mice admitted, or rather pressions involved determinants, especially as each was insisted upon, by some British naturalists, Dr. quite familiar with them in connection with the theory Schmiedeknecht will only consider four as established. of numbers. This is particularly true of Gauss, who Perhaps he carries this plan a little too far in degives the name “determinant" to (aby) as well as clining to admit the “ Irish weasel,” Mustela to (aB).

hibernica, which is not in any way referred to. It is a matter of regret that, although a biblio- Apropos of weasels, it will certainly surprise some graphy of orthogonants (to 1840) has been given, Dr. persons to learn that the proper name of the common Muir has not been able to include in this volume his weasel is not Mustela vulgaris, but M. nivalis, inasvaluable lists of writings relating to determinants. much as (according to Dr. Schmiedeknecht) Linnæus To have added them would not have increased the gave the name to an individual in winter dress. size of the book very much, and it would have been That the weasel, like its very close ally the stoat, Very convenient have them ere. But perhaps the changes to white in winter can hardly be a fact of author intends to give us the history of his favourite general knowledge, since it is not mentioned in subject subsequent to 1841, the date at which he has any rate

well-known work

upon British non closed.

G. B. M. mammals.

In classifying the snakes, Dr. Schmiedeknecht

follows a somewhat curious plan. He divides the EUROPEAN VERTEBRATES.

European species into five families of equal rank, Die wirbelthiere Europa's mit Berücksichtigung der

which are in the order treated by him) Crotalidæ, Faunen von Vorderasien und Nordafrika.

By Dr.

Viperidæ, Colubridæ, Peropodidæ, and Typhlopidæ. 0. Schmiedeknecht. Pp. vi + 470. (Jena : Gustav

To give the “pit vipers ” a place in the system which Fischer, 1906.) Price 10 marks.

divides them as far from the more typical Viperidæ

as from the Peropodidæ, or Boidæ as most would 1." T is always convenient to have within covers

prefer to call them, is quite opposed to the minute separated by a moderate distance only an account

details of anatomical agreement between all vipers. of the fauna of a definite district, especially when, To such criticisms, however, the author might well in the present instance, the fauna is one that is fairly reply that his arrangement is rather a sorting than a haustively known. It is not likely that a manual classification, and that, as a matter of fact, judged of the scope of that which we review here will ever by external characters only (and it is these alone that need substantial alteration, or even slight changes, are made use of), the two divisions of the vipers are for many years to come. The volume, in fact, is not

very distinct, and the gulls are remote from the sandonly of permanent value, but contains the marrow pipers, plovers, &c. of a whole library of faunistic works, and includes all

In his preface, Dr. Schmiedeknecht puts himself that the student needs, whether the aim of his studies forward as a champion of the systematic aspect of be purely geographical or whether he desires a handy zoology as a desirable commencement for the student series of definitions of families, genera, and species. of that science There is no doubt that most of us, in Inasmuch as the volume is something less than five this country at least, were led to pursue zoological hundred pages in length, and seeing that the defini- studies by reason of the fervour and enthusiasm tions of family and other characters are often from engendered by the joys of collecting objects of natural twelve to twenty lines in length, the author is com

history. The quality of knowledge possessed by the pelled to deny himself any discussion of points round

pure systematist of mature years is often but little which opinions fluctuate, and is driven to be entirely in advance of this stage, and in remarking that “he dogmatic.

must be as a rule a remarkable systematist who is It is therefore not everyone who will follow Dr. not at the same time a biologist,” the author is exSchmiedeknecht with complete agreement from

pressing an opinion which the annals of museums do brginning to end. He will not, for example, please not confirm. In fact, Dr. Schmiedeknecht's introall of us by placing the reed pheasant,” Panurus ductory remarks read a little like an apology, which is biarmicus, among the tits, though it is frequently not at all needed in introducing so useful and accurate alled the bearded tit; nor can we agree to the use a work as that which we notice here. F. E. B.

as

THE

TREATMENT OF WATER FOR STEAM removal of oil from condensed steam. The contents BOILERS AND MANUFACTURES.

of the second half of the book have been sufficiently Water Softening and Treatment. By W. H. Booth. indicated by the headings of the four sections given

Pp. xvi + 308. (London : Archibald Constable and above; and the descriptions of apparatus are elucidated Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price 75. 6d. net.

by one hundred figures in the text. Altogether, the HE primary object of this book is the softening

book contains complete information with respect to of hard water for use in steam boilers and for

the purification and supply of water to steam boilers,

which will be valuable to users of steam; whilst the manufacturing purposes, but, in fact, it deals largely with other matters relating to the supply of water to

first portion, on water softening, will be very useful the boilers of steam engines. Thus it is divided into

in indicating the methods by which hard water may

be rendered available for various manufactures requir. five sections, the first only of which relates to the

ing pure water. treatment of water by softening, together with the separation of oil and filtration, and occupies about half the book ; whereas the four other sections, con

OUR BOOK SHELF. stituting the second half of the book, consist of Studies in Anatomy from the Anatomical Department “ Section II., Air Pumps, Condensers, and Circulating of the University of Manchester. Vol. iii. Edited

by Prof. Alfred H. Young. Pp. 289; 23 platos. Pumps "'; Section III., Feed Heating and Stage

(Manchester : University Press, 1906.) Price 10%. Heating"; Section IV., Water Cooling ”; and

net. “ Section V., Feed Pumps and Injectors.” Accord

In the struggle to build and equip laboratories for ingly, the volume ranges over the whole subject of

research, the provision of means to secure the full the treatment of water supplied to steam boilers, publication of the fruits of discovery has been sex though dealing more expressly with the all-important often left out of sight. If the best work is to be point of securing, so far as practicable, the purity of

obtained from those who devote themselves to investi.

gation, and progress made by collective effort the the water employed for raising steam.

means of publication become almost as important as Comparatively few towns are able to obtain a pure

those of investigation. The University of Manchester water-supply by storing up the flow of rain off

has recognised this fact. The present collection of primitive rocks in an uninhabited mountain valley, studies in anatomy-the third issued since Prol. and conveying it at considerable expense to a distance, Young occupied the chair in the Owens College-as has been accomplished for Liverpool, Manchester,

appears as the first volume of the anatomical series

of the publications now being issued by the C'niGlasgow, Birmingham, and New York. Waters

versity of Manchester. In this volume there are ten derived from underground sources, such as springs, papers by men who work or have worked in the rivers fed by springs, or wells, are impregnated more anatomical department under Prof. Young. or less with the soluble salts contained in the strata A number of the papers in this volume, such 35 through which they have passed; and when steam is

those by Profs. Robinson and Thompson, are rfdriven off from a boiler fed with such water, these printed from the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology,

but all of them, old and new alike, are real additions soluble impurities are deposited as scale on the sides

to the knowledge of the subject with which they deal. of the boiler. This incrustation, being a bad con

Dr. J. Cameron's observations on the development of ductor of heat, reduces the efficiency of the boiler, and the optic nerves in amphibians deal with a subject when very thick may lead to an injurious heating of which has been keenly discussed during the last the metal; whilst the necessary periodical removal of thirty years, viz. the manner in which nerve fibres the deposit is tedious and costly, and is liable to

are developed. From a study of the appearances damage the inner surface of the boiler. Accordingly, of amphibians, Dr. Cameron concludes that the fibras

presented by the developing fibres in the optic nerie in selecting a site for a factory, the available water

begin as outgrowths from the ganglion cells of the supply should be carefully considered; and where a retina, but that their further growth towards the bored tube well proves the most economical, and an brain is obtained by the cooperation of the cells out adequate source of supply, the geology of the district the optic stalk, the growing point of the nerve fibre should be studied to secure the best site, and ascer

being formed from substance derived from the apic

stalk cells. tain the requisite depth for the well. In such cases

The longest paper in the collection is Dr. C. WS some softening process is generally expedient-and

Saberton's study of the nerve plexuses of four often even when water from a river or stream is chimpanzees, an accurate and very useful contribuavailable—to avoid incrustation of boilers, to prevent tion to the data which must be collected before he a great waste of soap in laundries, and manufactories finally settle the problem of man's origin where washing is resorted to, and to obtain the soft

Everyone who has worked at this problem is fullt water which is essential in dye works, paper mills,

aware that it cannot be settled by the examination and tanneries.

of single specimens of each species, but by dissertim

of large numbers; the difficulty in obtaining anthroThe author deals successively with the sources and poids, the degree of individual variation, the great impurities of water, the salts contained in it, the re- labour entailed by dissection, and the expense entailed agents used for softening and their reactions, water- by publication, have kept us from reaching a definite softening apparatus of various kinds, filters, com

conception of the exact relationship of man and the pounds added to the feed-water for preventing or re

higher primates to one another. Hence Dr. Suber

ton's contribution to available data is very welcome moving scale from boilers, corrosion of boilers, incrustation of pipes, and the chemical and mechanical the sternum, Dr. Lickley has reverted to the older

In his paper on the development and morphologs of

can

to

on

conception of that bone, viz. that it is of costal origin, information about structure, transformation, setting, but the evidence on which he bases his conclusions &c., besides a good account of the individual species.. is not convincing. For three of the studies Prof. The plates contain coloured figures of the butterflies. Young is either in part or wholly responsible, and he on one side of the page, and plain figures of cateris to be congratulated on the vigour shown by the pillars, &c., on the back, thus doubling the number Manchester school of anatomists.

of page illustrations without adding to the thickness Refraktionstafeln. By Dr. L. de Ball, Direktor der

of the book. The illustrations in the text are nearly v Kuffnerschen Siernwarte. Pp. xiv + 18. (Leip- all in the introduction. They are uncoloured, and zig : W. Engelmann, 1906.) Price 2.40 marks.

some of them are taken from Sharp, Aurivillius, The methods of computing corrections for atmo

and other trustworthy authorities. spheric refraction have always been more or less un

Mr. South admits sixty-eight species as British, satisfactory. The conditions of the problem do not

but regards only fifty-seven of these as actual natives; Jend themselves to extreme accuracy on account of

but surely, though some of the remainder are extinct, the uncertainty of the meteorological elements intro- (once abundant, but now almost extinct in England),

and others only casual visitors, the black-veined white duced. The determination of the density of the atmoSphere at any precise moment, dependent as it is on

and the red admiral, still one of the commonest of the temperature, the amount of aqueous vapour pre

the Vanessidæ, ought to have been included among seni, and other conditions, is not simple, and custom

the genuine natives. The evidence against the red and authority alike have sanctioned the employment admiral being a genuine British species seems of rough and approximate data. Bessel's tables, so

rest

the assumption of its being a migrant, lung in use, were admittedly founded upon inadequate though this is admittedly not proved, as it is material, and probably would have long since been

abundantly in the case of its nearest ally, the painted

lady. superseded but for the inconvenience that arises when any breach of continuity occurs in a long series of

The rapid disappearance of butterflies in England observations; but in observatories where measures

is doubtless largely due to the wholesale clearing of zenith distance have been made at small altitudes

away of the weeds and plants on which the caterthis inconvenience has had to be faced. It Green

pillars feed, by the utilisation of every scrap of waste wich, for example, corrections to Bessel's tables, or

ground. Yet this cannot be the only reason, or the Airy's modifications of them, have been alternately black-veined white, which feeds on hawthorn as well introduced and rejected in the treatment of observ

as on fruit trees, would not be disappearing. In this ations at large zenith distances.

case the disappearance of the butterfly seems to be due In the tables which Dr. L. de Ball has issued the

to the increase of insect-eating birds. Every fresh difficulty of continuing an unbroken series of correc

book on butterflies records the increasing scarcity tions, available from the zenith to the horizon, has

of many species once common, and there are only a not been attempted. The tables as arranged are

few, such as the clover-feeding clouded yellows, which available up to 75o zenith distance, and within this

are more plentiful now than in former days. limit represent a consistent theory, that of M. Radau. In the case of the smaller and more variable butterThe form in which the tables are constructed gives flies, a considerable number of varieties are figured th: log. of the refraction presumably correct to four (sometimes as many as seventeen on one plate), and plac, of decimals. In the example worked out it

we think that most entomologists who are interested has been necessary to take out five significant integers, in British butterflies will find Mr. South's little book and, if the second decimal place is to be correct, this

a very useful supplement to any they may already may h rather a severe strain on four-figure logs. ; but happen to possess on the same subject. Dr. I. de Ball gives very good and sufficient reasons

W. F. K. for not extending the tables bevond these limits. He reminds us that the determination of the temperature

LETTER TO THE EDITOR. of the air is not so easy as the reading of a thermo- [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions meter seems to suggest. The thermometer bulb is

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake allected by the heat rays emitted by the objects which to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected" surround it, whilst the air absorbs only a part of those manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

On these grounds the temperature indicated by No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] the thermometer may easily differ 0°.2 C. from that

The Latest Critic of Biometry. of the atmosphere, and such a difference would

MR. J. J. LISTER in his presidential address to Section D occasion an error of three units in the fourth decimal

at the British Association felt it his duty to go somewhat of the log. of the density, and a similar amount in out of his way in order to urge on biometricians" that the the log. of the refraction. The tables aim at giving old adage should be borne in mind recommending that an accuracy which is sufficient and practical rather before beginning culinary operations it is advisable first to than making a claim to extreme and misleading catch your hare, in other words, to make sure that the rigour. A further proof that the author has con

problein you seek to elucidate is sound from the standsidered the practical side is shown by the fact that he point of biology before bringing a formidable mathematical has included tables designed to assist the computation

apparatus into action for its investigation" (NATURE, of differences of refraction, applicable to the reduction

August 16, p. 400). The importance of the occasion no

doubt prevented Mr. Lister from illustrating his criticism ; of heliometer and photographic observations.

he had much else to deal with, and he probably hoped that The Butterllies of the British Isles. By Richard his words without detailed proof would have all the weight

South, F.E.S. Pp. X+204. (London: Frederick which attaches to presidential utterances. These are not Warne and Co., 1906.) Price 6s. net.

made without careful thought and proper study. But in NOTWITHSTANDING the large number of books relating order that a criticism of this kind should be effective, to British butterflies, there was still room for a

biometricians need more information, and they recognised

that Mr. Lister could hardly refuse to cite instances of the pocket handbook which should do for the present

type of work which led to his advice. generation what Coleman's " British Butterflies

Hoping that we might profit by Mr. Lister's caution, I did for the last, and this want Mr. South has set

wrote to him as soon as I read his paper in your columns himself to provide. He has succeeded in giving us a asking for definite instances upon which we might considerportable little book, well up to date, containing full how to annend our courses. He has kindly consented to.

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give me an illustration, so that the reasonableness of his

ROYAL SOCIETY ADDRESSES. criticism can be tried on perfectly definite and narrow grounds.

HE Royal Society of London is an exclusive and He tells me that he cannot cite a better example than a

retired body, known of few, understanded of paper by Dr. Raymond Pearl which appeared recently in

still fewer. To most of those who are not men of the Proceedings of the Royal Society dealing with a species science, the words The Royal" mean the Royal of Paramecium, and of which a fuller statement was Agricultural Society; many know the Royal Instituoffered for publication in the Transactions. The author's tion and perhaps still more the British Association ; position in this paper, according to Mr. Lister, is traversed but the ancient learned body the home of which is now by the objection that the conjugant individuals are possibly, and indeed probably, differentiated gametes.

at Burlington House is something beyond the know

Until this objection be met, Mr. Lister holds that the elaborate series

ledge of most people. Vor is this to be wondered at: of measurements has no cogency, whatever in establishing known, and, indeed, seems to some to do much 10

the Royal Society makes few efforts to make itseli the results which the author thinks he has obtained. Lister further believes that if Dr. Pearl were more con

keep itself unknown. It gives, it is true, two public versant with the biological aspects of the life-history of

soirées, and it has its anniversary dinner ; but it has Paramecium, or less keen on the biometric aspects of the managed to make the former chiefly reunions of its matter, he would hardly have overlooked this view.

own fellows, and the latter, held in the darkening We have here a perfectly definite charge, not a vague days of early winter" when nobody is in town," insinuation, which can be discussed, and I heartily thank

contrasts, by the paucity, nay, almost the absence, Mr. Lister for stating it so clearly. Now as to the actual

of public and distinguished guests, and the prominfacts :(1) Dr. Raymond Pearl is a brilliant young American

ence of the fellows and their private friends, with the biologist who has spent much time in studying Paramecia annual dinner of its neighbour the Royal Academy. in the biological laboratories of America and Germany. He

The late president of the society seems to have has just been called to a chair of biology at an American

thought it would be well to try to make the general university.

public better acquainted with some of the featur (2) Dr. Pearl demonstrates for the first time in the and aims of the society, and has accordingly published. memoir which Mr. Lister refers that conjugant in an attractive and yet exceedingly cheap rolume, Paramacia differentiated from the non-conjugant richly illustrated with photographic reproductions and population, a fact which his critic only considers as possible pleasing sketches, portions of his anniversary ador probable.

dresses, with the addition of a brief narrative of the (3) Further, Dr. Pearl demonstrates that among these differentiated conjugants there is an assortative mating ; in

early days of the society. other words, he shows that conjugants with certain charac

The topic on which he dwelt in his address of swoj, teristics tend to conjugate with conjugants of like

namely, the relation of the Royal Society to other characteristics.

scientific societies, illustrates indirectly the exclusive (4) Dr. Pearl assigns with a high degree of probability ness of the former, not only towards the general the definite physiological basis for this assortative mating: public, but even towards workers in science. This He thus shows for the first time that the physiological exclusiveness seeins to have been at least encouraged selection of Romanes plays an important part in the by the change in management brought about in lower living forms, and suggests the physiological origin 1847. It was then decided, whether because the of differentiation of species, i.e. all sections of a conjugant number chosen seemed sufficient for that day ur population cannot equally readily conjugate together.

Surely such problems have a very sufficient biological through some prescience that it would result in the reality.

society attaining and keeping its present size, that Dr. Pearl's paper seemed to me, as a mere biometrician,

not more than fifteen new fellows should be elected a most brilliant piece of work. That view was shared by

each year.

Since that day the workers in sciener the then Chairman of the Zoological Committee of the have largely increased and are continuing to increay Royal Society, who at once passed the abstract for public rapidly, but the number elected annually remains the cation-all that lay in his power to do. The referees of the

Hence the number who yearly join the society full memoir failed, so I am told, to see " the biological | is a continually diminishing fraction of those who in significance of the constants calculated by Dr. Pearl.

1847 would all have been looked upon as fit and This appears to be Mr. Lister's condition also. The full desirable persons to become fellow's. Hence also the memoir will shortly be published in Biometrika, so that a

admission to the fellowship, the gaining of the right judgment may be formed of the value of Mr. Lister's criticism. It would have been published there originally continually increasing value, and the allotment of

to use the letters F.R.S., has become an honour of but for two reasons.

I to be exceptionally brilliant one, which the Royal Society ought the honour an increasingly important function of the to be proud to publish, and, secondly, that in every other society, possibly encroaching on some of its other branch of science papers which are very extensive, and so

duties. This relative narrowing of the society's body costly to print, naturally go to societies largely endowed tends to accentuate its exclusiveness and emphasises for the publication of such memoirs, and not to private its isolation from the younger workers in science. journals. I see no reason why biometry should be cut off

Nor is this tendency to exclusiveness counteracied by from such assistance, because biology has not yet become

any very direct efforts to establish relations between bionomy, a transition which it must make sooner or later,

those within and those without the narrow circle. as astrology passed to astronomy. Meanwhile Mr. Lister has chosen his own ground. He

Indeed, even within the circle itself the relations of

the fellows to each other are not very close. The cites a paper by a biologist--who happens to have studied biometric methods--as one where the hare has been cooked temple of science at Burlington House is, at each before it was caught, as one which deals with problems weekly Thursday service, brightened by the presence unsound from the biological standpoint. I challenge Mr. of many eager worshippers; and the fact that the Lister to substantiate his statements :

are increasing in number shows that the society i: (1) That Dr. Pearl has neglected the differentiation putting forth the vigour of youth in one of its several between conjugants and non-conjugants.

great means of advancing natural knowledge. But (2) That such differentiation, whether it exists or not, between times the temple is well-nigh empty. What makes the least difference to Dr. Pearl's investigation of

in other places would be called “weekday attendwhether among conjugants like conjugates with like.

1 "The Royal Society, or Science in the State and in the Schore' By (3) That Dr. Pearl has dealt with a problem unsound Sir William Huggins, K C.B., O.M., Pp. xv +131 (Luodon: from the standpoint of biology.

KARI. PEARSON. Metbuen and Co., 0.d.) Price 4s. Od. net.

same.

&c.

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