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ago to consider the question whether the peak which Mr. MR. ANDREW CARNEGIE, who has been Rector of the UniHodgson called Devadhunga was identical with the peak versity of St. Andrews for the past term of three years, was which Sir A. Waugh called Mount Everest; from the re-elected to that office on November 4. geographical evidence available they concluded that the
An open competitive examination for not fewer than two peaks were not identical, and their conclusion has been found correct. In those early days there had arisen no
twenty situations as assistant examiner in the Patent Office
will be held by the Civil Service Commissioners in January such subtle questions as whether Mount Everest formed
next. The examination will commence on January 2, part of a certain range, or whether it belonged to a certain group of peaks, or whether it was just visible to those who
1903, and forms of application for admission to it are knew where to search for it. To the clear minds of our addressed by letter to the secretary, Civil Service Com
now ready for issue, and may be obtained on request predecessors, to Hodgson and Waugh and Schlagintweit mission, Burlington Gardens, London, w. and Walker, there was but one question at issue, namely, the identity of Hodgson's and Schlagintweit's peak with DR. C. Kassner has been appointed professor of meteorthe Mount Everest of the Survey.
ology at the Berlin Technical College ; Dr. Maurer physicist This question has now been answered, and after fifty to the German Navy; Dr. O. Lummer, from Charlottenyears of discussion the Hindu and Nepalese names have burg, to succeed Prof. O. E. Meyer as professor of been proved to be inapplicable; let us, then, close a con- physics at Breslau ; Prof. London, of Breslau, to succeed troversy that has fulfilled its purpose, and let us suffer the Prof. Heffter as professor of mathematics at Bonn. Dr. English name to rest on our maps in peace.
Augustin, of Prague, has been raised to the rank of ordinary S. G. BURRARD. professor of meteorology, and Dr. Karl Exner has retired
from the chair of physics at Innsbruck with the title of
Hofrat. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
In view of the importance of German to students of INTELLIGENCE.
science, the University College of North Wales founded a OXFORD.-The Vice-Chancellor has appointed Prof. Ray lectureship in German, to which was attached the duty of Lankester, hon. fellow of Exeter College, to be Romanes conducting a beginner's class in that language, with especial lecturer for 1905.
reference to the needs of students qualifying for science Sir John Burdon Sanderson, Bart., hon. fellow of
degrees, and Mr. Rea, of Belfast, was appointed lecturer. Magdalen College, late regius professor of medicine, has
The experiment bids fair to be a complete success, been constituted a perpetual delegate of the university
about thirty students having joined in the first year of
the new venture. The institution of classes of this kind Mr. Walter J. Barton, scholar of New College, has been
in our university colleges will, it is hoped, remove elected to the geographical scholarship for 1904-5.
anomaly which, in the natural order of events, has grown The executive committee of the Oxford division of the
up in Britain, viz. the turning out of graduates in science British Medical Association has had the electric light per
who are debarred from efficiently engaging in post-graduate manently installed in the Pitt-Rivers Museum as a mark of
work by their inability to assimilate readily the subject
matter of Continental scientific literature. their appreciation of the generosity of the university in allowing the association to make use of their various buildings and of the help the university gave them in other ways during the meeting of the association in Oxford in July
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. last. The cordial thanks of the university have been con
LONDON. veyed to the Oxford division of the association for their
Royal Society, June 2.-"Studies on Enzyme Action : most acceptable gift, and the curators of the university chest
The Effect of Poisons on the Rate of Decomposition of have been empowered to erect a suitable record of the occasion in the Pitt-Rivers Museum.
Hydrogen Peroxide by Hæmase.” By George Senter,
Ph.D., B.Sc. (Lond.). Communicated by Prof. E. H. CAMBRIDGE.-Mr. J. C. Willis, of Gonville and Caius Starling, F.R.S. College, director of the botanic garden at Peradeniya, In a former paper (Zeit. physikal. Chemie, xliv., p. 257, Ceylon, has been approved for the degree of doctor of 1903) the author investigated the relation of the reaction science.
velocity to peroxide concentration and amount of enzyme Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S., and Mr. A. E. Shipley, present, as well as the acceleration caused by rise of F.R.S., have been elected members of the council of the temperature; the results correspond almost exactly with Senate.
those obtained by Bredig in his experiments on the decomMr. A. Young, tenth wrangler in 1895, lecturer in mathe- position of hydrogen peroxide by colloidal platinum. In matics at Selwyn College, has been elected a fellow of Clare the present paper, assuming that hæmase is also a colloid College.
in solution, it is suggested that the velocity of reaction Mr. R. P. Gregory, demonstrator of botany, and Mr. between the catalysor and hydrogen peroxide is great in E. Cunningham, senior wrangler 1902, have been elected comparison with the rate of diffusion of the peroxide to the fellows of St. John's College.
colloidal particles, so that what is measured is really a Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S., has been elected president, diffusion-velocity. This would account for the analogous and Prof. Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. Liveing, F.R.S., and results obtained with platinum and hæmase, since the nature Dr. Hobson, F.R.S., vice-presidents of the Cambridge of the catalysor would be of secondary importance. Philosophical Society.
The hæmase catalysis of hydrogen peroxide, like the
platinum catalysis, is retarded by small quantities of many We learn from Science that the will of Mr. James substances, more especially by those which act as poisons Callanan, of Des Moines, makes bequests amounting to towards the living organism. Thus mercuric chloride, 27,000l. for educational institutions. Of this sum 20,000l. sulphuretted hydrogen, and hydrocyanic acid, in the congoes to Talladega College, Alabama.
centration of 1 gram-molecule to i million litres, reduce the The chair of chemistry applied to the dyeing industry at
reaction-velocity to half its value; they are just the subthe Paris Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, rendered vacant
stances which have the greatest retarding effect on the by the death of M. Victor de Luynes, has been given, states
platinum catalysis. Iodine, mercuric cyanide, and aniline the Athenaeum, to M. Maurice Prudhomme, who acted as
have a much smaller effect. Arsenious acid, sodium reporter of the section devoted to textile industries and dye
fluoride, and formaldehyde do not greatly retard the cata. ing at the Exposition Universelle of 1900.
lysis ; although powerful antiseptics, they have little effect
on enzyme actions in general. Carbon monoxide, although The following deans of faculties of the University of an active poison for the platinum catalysis, does not affect London have been elected for the two years 1904–6 :- hæmase. Hæmase, like other enzymes, but unlike medicine, Dr. J. K. Fowler; science, Dr. A. D. Waller, platinum, is very sensitive even to minute quantities of acids F.R.S. ; engineering, Prof. J. D. Cormack ; economics, Mr. and alkalis. The retarding effect of acids is, in most cases, G. Armitage-Smith.
proportional to the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other 1 Vide Proceedings R.G.S., 1858.
words, to the strength of the acid. The ways in which
poisons may act are discussed in the paper, and it is property of lenses : Dr. G. E. Allan. A well suggested that in many cases they enter into chemical com- known method of testing the concavity or convexity of bination with the enzyme.
a lens consists in holding the lens at arm's length and, Royal Microscopical Society, October 19.—Dr. Dukin
while looking through it, moving it from side to side or held H. Scott, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-A com
up and down, when the image in the convex lens is found munication from Mr. W. D. Colver described the antennæ
to move in the opposite direction to that of the lens, whilst of Pulex irritans, on the terminal joint of which Mr. Wm.
in the case of the concave lens it moves in the same direction. Jenkinson, of Sheffield, had discovered a lamellated struc
The above facts hold if, instead of the naked eye, we employ ture that he believed to have an olfactory function. Mr.
a microscope. Jenkinson had found similar structures in several other
Paris. members of the family Pulicidæ. A slide showing the Academy of Sciences, October 31.-M. Mascart in the entire antenna, and another showing the terminal joint,
chair.-Presentation of vol. xi. of the “ Annales de nere exhibited under microscopes, and photographs of the l'Observatoire de Bordeaux": M.
Loewy.—Trypanolatter slide were exhibited in the room and on the screen. somiasis in French West Africa : A. Laveran. The sleep-Part xvii., being the concluding part, of Mr. Millett's
ing sickness is endemic in several regions of Senegal ; an report on the recent Foraminifera of the Malay Archipelago examination of six specimens of biting flies from this district was taken as read.—The President then gave a demonstra
showed that they were all Glossina palpalis, the fly which, rion on the reconstruction of a fossil plant. The plant according to the researches of Dr. Bruce, propagates human plected was Lyginodendron Oldhamium. The growth of
trypanosomiasis. In the blood of horses from French our knowledge of its construction was illustrated by a Guinea, in two
trypanosomes number of actual sections and lantern slides shown on the
encountered. In the flies from this region, Glossina palpalis screen. The identification of the stem of a Pinites, the
predominated. On the Ivory Coast, sporadic cases of fern-like petiole of Rachiopteris aspera, and the foliage of human trypanosomiasis are common; here one specimen of Spkero pteris Höninghausi as being corresponding parts
G. palpalis was found, together with several G. morsitans. of Lyginodendron was demonstrated. It was discovered
Round Lake Tchad numerous trypanosomes, having the that the stem was frequently branched, and certain fossil
characteristics of Trypan. Brucei, were found in the blood weds are now, on structural evidence and association, con- from infected horses ; G. tachinoides here appears to be the -jdered to be the fruit of this plant. The reconstruction characteristic tsetse fly.-On a case of long phosphorescence of the plant is, however, still incomplete, for the male emitted by the wood of a cherry tree : M. Clog.-The ergans have not yet been identified with certainty. The rotation of Venus: P. Lowell. The results of spectroposition of Lyginodendron as a seed-bearing plant allied at scopic observations show a velocity of about 0.005 kilometre once to cycads and ferns was now established. A picture of a second, which favours a long period of rotation. the reconstructed plant was shown on the screen, and For a twenty-four hour period, the velocity would models of the seed lent by Prof. F. W. Oliver were exhibited. be 0.450 kilometre a second.-The rotation of Mars :
Physical Society, October 28.—Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, P. Lowell. The spectroscopic measurements give a F.R.S., president, in the chair.--An interference apparatus velocity of 0.228 kilometre per second, as against 0.241 for the calibration of extensometers : J. Morrow and E. L. kilometre calculated from the previous eye observations.Watkin. The paper describes an apparatus for calibrating
micrometer. History of the question : G. mitensometers and similar instruments by comparison with Millochau. An account of previous applications of the use the wave-length of sodium light. The apparatus is self- of parallel glass plates as a micrometer.-On a new safety contained and easily made ready for use. It consists arrangement for electrical mains at high tension : L. Neu. sentially of two metal cylinders of equal diameter, with Each line is furnished at its source with an interrupter their axes in the same straight line, but with a small gap which works automatically in the case of a wire breaking, between their adjacent ends. The gap is increased or de- of a bad insulation, or in the event of an accidental contact creased by the inovement of a lever actuating a screw, and
between the high tension wire and a telegraph or telephone the alteration in its amount is measured by the interference wire.--On the atomic weight of aluminium : M. Kohnrings produced in an optical system situated inside the gap. Abrest. Aluminium, the impurities in which had been --4 sensitive hygrometer : Dr. W. M. Thornton. The determined by analysis, was treated with acid, and the instrument is made by enclosing the cooled surface of a evolved hydrogen burnt to water. The mean of seven experiRegnault's hygrometer in a glass globe so that only the ments gave 99.15 parts of water from 100 parts of the pure mass of vapour contained in the vessel is available for con- metal, corresponding to an atomic weight for the aluminium drasation. The cooled surface is made much smaller than of 27.05 (oxygen, 15.88). --The action of halogen derivatives usual-about i sq. cm. The surface-density of the deposited of the metalloids on halogen alkyl compounds : V. Auger. munsture depends on the total quantity of water-vapour pre- The alkyl iodides, bromides, and chlorides react with phosseni. If this is more than a minimum to be determined phorus iodide, giving alkylphosphinic acids. No reaction later, it will be visible either by the loss of brightness by occurs with the chloride of arsenic; chloride of bismuth scattering, or by observing, as in the Dines hygrometer, simply gives rise to an exchange of halogens, whilst with the scattered light itself. Little is known as to the manner chloride of antimony the quantity of antimony-alkyl was n which moisture is deposited on smooth cold surfaces. too small to separate.—The tetrahydride and decahydride Dr. Park has shown that the thickness of the deposit is of naphthalene : Henri Leroux. These addition products of the same order as that of the black spot in interference were obtained from naphthalene by means of the Sabatier films. The reflection of light from such a clear layer of and Senderens reaction. Their properties and those of some uniform thickness backed by a bright surface is considered halogen derivatives are described.—The action of the in the paper, and it is shown that the loss of light due to chlorides of phosphorus on the organomagnesium compounds the thinnest possible films can be perceived. The opposite of the aromatic series : R. Sauvage. The action of phos
ase to that of a smooth layer is that of clear spherical phorus oxychloride upon organomagnesium compounds of particles resting on the surface. This is also considered, the aromatic series leads to the production of compounds and the surface-density to give a visible deposit is calcu- of the type R, :P:0) and R, = POCI, the latter, after treatlated. In connection with this an interesting note was re
ment with water, giving acids R, = PO.OH. The tetraoxyseived from Lord Rayleigh in reply to an inquiry, in which cyclohexane-rosanilines: Jules Schmidlin.. The author ho shows that the maximum brightness of a cloud is about quotes some experiments of Lambrecht and Weil as affording 4*10-4 that of the sun. Comparing all values, it is taken a new confirmation of his views on the quinonic structure ituat 10-4 grams per sq. cm. can be detected by unaided of these compounds, and also as showing that the benzene
ston with diffused light. The time taken for moisture to ring of the carbinol passes through the hexahydrobenzene dotluse from a state of uniform distribution throughout the ring before forming the quinone ring.–The density of nitrous globr towards the centre is then calculated, and found to oxide and the atomic weight of nitrogen : Philippe A. Guye by less than ten minutes for a sphere of 20 cm. diameter. | and Alexandre Pintza. The nitrous oxide used in these The paper is an attempt to make the somewhat neglected experiments was prepared from sodium nitrite and hydroxylRegnault hygrometer an instrument of precision in the amine sulphate. After weighing the flask full of the gas, detection of small quantities of moisture.-- Note the latter was condensed by connecting the flask with a
side tube, well cooled, and containing charcoal. The effect of some of the impurities in the gas was thus eliminated. The atomic weighi deduced for nitrogen from these experiments is 14.013. Previous values obtained in the author's laboratory by different methods are, from the limiting density of nitrogen, 14.004 ; by weighing nitrous oxide, 14.007; by the volume analysis of the same gas, 14.019. The mean of the four methods gives 14.011.-On the oxidation of ethyl and methyl alcohols at the temperature of their boiling points: René Duchemin and Jacques Dourlen. The rapid deterioration of some alcohol lamps had been attributed to the presence of some acid impurities in the alcohol used. It is now shown that these alcohols are rapidly oxidised at their boiling points in the presence of copper, and the effects noticed are possibly due to this action.-On the anatomy of some fishes of the genus Orestias : Jacques Pellegrin. The difference in the pharyngeal apparatus in these fishes is caused by a special adaptation due to the special food, small molluscs with very hard shells.-Contribution to the study of resorption of the vitellus during the embryonic development: H. Dubuisson.-On the coincidence between the geosynclinals and the great circles of maximum seismicity : de Montessus de Ballore.—On the continuity of the tectonic phenomena between the Ortler and the Hohe Tauern : Pierre Termier. -On the pit of Trou-de-Souci, Côte-d'Or : E. A. Martel.
tions of the Gnomonic Projection to Crystallography; (2) The Construc
WEDNESDAY, November 16.
thalene Series : R. Meldola and J. H. Lane.-Theory of the Production
Pyrazolidone Derivatives : B. Prentice.
(a Vindication of the Abbe Theory): A. E. Conrady.
the Antarctic: Lieut. Charles Royds, R.N.-Decrease of Fog in London during recent Years : F. J. Brodie. - Hurricane in Fiji, January 21-22,
1904: R. L. Holmes.
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 17.
Avebury, F.R.S. -Observasions on Undescribed or Little Known Specie
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 18.
Wrought Steels of Commerce : A. E. Seaton and A. Jude.
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
PAGE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.— The premiums awarded Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Mohr. By T. E. T. 25
for papers read or published during the session 1903-4. will be presented. The Bionomics of Exotic Flowers. By Prof. Percy and the president, Mr. Alexander Siemens, will deliver bis inaugural address.
26 Mathematical Society, at 5:30.-Annual General Meeting.–Presi. Recent Philosphical Works
27 dential Address on the Theory of Waves on Liquids : Prof. H. Lamb.- The Christian Century in Japan. By F. Victor Dickins 27 Note on the Application of the Method of Images to Problems of Vibra.
Our Book Shelf :tions : Prof. V. Volterra. ---On the Zeros of Certain Classes of Integral Taylor's Series : G. H. Hardy.- The Linear Difference Equation of
Hutchison : “ Lectures on the Diseases of Children". 28 the First Order : Rev. E. W. Barnes. -Curves on a Conicoid: H. Riggs: "Elementary Manual for the Chemical LaboraHilton.--Remarks on Alternants and Continuous Groups : Dr. H. F. Baker.-On the Expansion of the Elliptic and Zeta Functions of SK in
28 Powers of q: Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher.-Examples of Perpetuants :
Wegner : “Die Einheit der Naturkrafte in der ThermoJ. E. Wright.-Two Simple Results in the Attraction of Uniform Wires
29 obtained by Quaternions, with, for comparison, their Verification by Jones: “The Science and Practice of Photography.”the Geometry of the Complex : Prof. R. W. Genese. On the Reducibility of Covariants of Binary Quantics of Infinite Order : P. W.
C. E. Kenneth Mees.
29 Wood.-On some Properties of Groups of Odd Order : Prof. W. Burn.
Forel and Wheeler : “Ants and Some Other Insects. side.
An Inquiry into the Psychic Powers of these Animals " 29 FRIDAY, NOVEMBER II.
Letters to the Editor :Roval ASTRONOMICAL Society, at 5:--Note on the Variation of n Aurigæ : Archebiosis and Heterogenesis.—Dr. H. Charlton Col. E. E. Markwick.-On a very Sensitive Method of Determining the Irregularities of a Pivot; on the Pivot Errors of the Radcliffe Transit
Bastian, F.R.S.; Ed.
30 Circle, and their Effects on the Right Ascensions of the Radcliffe Cata
Average Number of Kinsfolk in each Degree.-Dr. logue for 1890: A. A. Rambaut. - The Determination of Selenographic
Francis Galton, F.R.S.
30 Positions and the Measurement of Lunar Photographs : Third Paper- Misuse of Words and Phrases.-A. B. Bassei, F.Ris 30 Results of the Measurement of Four Paris Negatives : S. A. Saunder.Discussion of the Long.Period Terms in the Moon's Longitude: P. H.
The Coming Shower of Leonids.-W. F. Denning; Cowell.-A Determination of the Apex of the Solar Motion and the
John R. Henry .
30 Constant of Precession from a Comparison of Groombridge's Catalogue The Definition of Entropy.-Prof. G. H. Bryan, (1810) with Modern Greenwich Observations: F. W. Dyson and W. G.
F.R.S. . Thackeray.-Magnetic Disturbances 1882 to 1893, as Recorded at the
31 Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and their Association with Sun-spots :
The Direction of the Spiral in the Petals of Seleni. E. W. Maunder.-Ephemeris for Physical Observations of the Moon, pedium.-George Wherry
31 1903 : A. C. D. Crommelin.
Thinking Cats. --Ř. Langton Cole .
31 MALACOLOGICAL SCciety, at 8.-Descriptions of Three New Species of Opisthostoma from Borneo : E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-Two Apparently New
Change in the Colour of Moss Agate.-W. A. Whitton ži Species of Planispira from the Islands of Java and Gisser: Rev. R. Ash- The Origin of Life.- Geologist
31 ington Bullen.-The Anatomy of Siliqua patula, Dixon : H. Howard On the Occurrence of Widmannstätten's Figures in Bloomer.-On the Genus Tomigerus, with Descriptions of New Species : H. von Ihering.--Notes on Some New Zealand Pleurotomidæ : Henry
Steel Castings. (Nlustrated.) By Prof. J. O. Arnold Suter.- Notes on Some Species of Chione from New Zealand : Henry
and A. McWilliam.
Forestry in the United States.
32 SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 4.-- Relation between Sociology and Ethics : Prof. Höffding.
Technical Education in London. By A. 1. S. 34 PHYSICAL Society, at 8.- Investigation of the Variations of Magnetic
35 Hysteresis with Frequency: Prof. T. R. Lyle.-- The Determination of
Our Astronomical Column :the Mean Spherical Candle Power of Incandescent and Arc Lamps : G. B. Apparatus for Measuring the Velocity of the Earth's Dyke. -Exhibition of Physical Apparatus : Robert Paul.
39 TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 15. The Perseid Shower
40 INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Discussion of Papers--Coast The Dumb-bell Nebula
40 Erosion : A. E. Carey, and Erosion on the Holderness Coast of Yorkshire : E. R. Matthews. — Succeeding Paper :-Distribution of Electrical Energy: Iron and Steel Institute
Harvard College Observatory
nando Po, collected by Mr. E. Seimund ; (2) On Hylochærus, the The National Antarctic Expedition
Mount Everest : The Story of a Long Controversy. the Genus Ochotona : J. Lewis Bonhote.
(Illustrated.) By Major S. G. Burrard, F.R.S. MINERALOGICAL Society, at 8.--Anniversary Meeting. - New Localities University and Educational Intelligence for Gyrolite and Tobermorite : J. Currie.-Occurrence of Brookite with
Societies and Academies Anatase in the Cleveland Ironstone: C. R. Lindsey. 11) Some Applica
Diary of Societies .
40 40 41 41
46 46 48
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