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The sense of death is most in apprehenfion;
And the poor beetle, that we tread upon,
In corporal-sufferance finds a pang as great
As when a giant dies.?

Why give you me this same ?


I can a resolution fetch
From flowery tenderness? If I must die,
I will encounter darkness as a bride,
And hug it in mine arms.

Ijab. There spake my brother; there my father's grave
:Did utter forth a voice! Yes, thou must die :
Thou art too noble to conserve a life
In base appliances. This outward-sainted deputy,
Whose settled visage and deliberate word
Nips youth i'the head, and follies doth enmew,8
Asfalcon doth the fowl, l-is yet a devil;
His filth within being cast, he would appear
A pond as deep as hell.

The princely Angelo ?
Ifab. O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
The damned 't body to invest and cover
In princely guards.!'3 Dost thou think, Claudio,

If 7. The reasoning is, that dearb is no more tban every being must suffer, thougb ibe dread of it is peculiar to man; or perhaps, that we are inconsistent with ourselves, when we su much dread that which we carelessly inflict on other creatures, that feel the pain as acutely as we. JOHNSON.

The meaning is fear is the principal sensation in death, which has no „pain; and the giant when he dies feels no greater pain than the beetle.

This passage, however, from its arrangernent, is liable to an oppolite conAtruction, but which would totally destroy the illustration of the fenti

Dauce. 8 Forces,follies to lie in cover, without daring to show themselves.

JOHNSON 9 In whose prefence the follies of youth are afraid to show themselves, As the fowl is afraid to flutter while the falcon hovers over it.

STLEVENS. 2 To cast a pond is to empty it of mud. Mr. Upton reads:

His pond within being caft, be would appear

A filth-as deep as bell. JOHNSON. 3 The Stupid editors, mistaking guards for fatellites (whereas it here



If I would yield him my virginity,
Thou might'st be freed'?

O, heavens! it cannot be.
Isab. Yes, he would give it thee, from this rank offence,
So to offend him still: This night's the time
That I should do what I abhor to name,
Or else thou dieft to-morrow.

Thou fhalt not do't, Ijab. O, were it but


I'd throw it down for your deliverance
As frankly as a pin.

Thanks, dear Isabel,
Ijab. Be ready, Claudio, for your death to-morrow.

Claud. Yes.- Has he affections in him,
That thus can make him bite the law by the nose,

When fignifies lace,) altered priesiy, in both places, to princely. Whereas Shak. {peare wrote it priestly, as appears from the words themselves ;

'Tis tbe cunning livery of bell, The damned' Jt body to invest and cover

Witb priestly guards.In the first place we see that guards here fignifies lace, as referring to livery, and as having no sense in the fignification of satellites. Now priestly guards means sanctity, which is the sense required. But princely guards means nothing but ricb lace, which is a sense the passage will not bear. Angelo, indeed, as deputy, might be called the princely Angelo; but not in this place, where the immediately preceding words of,

This out-ward-fainted deputy, demand the reading I have restored. WARBURTON.

The first folio has, in both places, prenzie, from which the other folios made princely, and every editor may make what he can. JOHNSON

Princely is the judicious correction of the second folio. Princely guards mean no more than the badges of royalty, (laced or bord -red robes,) which Angelo is supposed to atlume during the absence of the Duke. The ftupidity of the first editors is sometimes not more injurious to Shakspeare, than the ingenuity of those who succeeded them. STEEVENS.

A guard, in old language, meant a welt or border of a garment; '“ because (rays Minshieu) it gards and keeps the garment from tearing." These borders were sometimes of lace. MALONE.

4 I believe means, from ibe time of my committing this offence, you might persist in finning with safety. The advantages you would derive from my having such a secret of his in my keeping, would ensure you from Further harm on account of the same fault, however frequently repeated.


When he would force it ? 5 Sure it is no fin;
Or of the deadly seven it is the least.

Isab. Which is the least ?

Claud. If it were damnable, 7 he, being so wife,
Why, would he for the momentary trick
Be perdurably fin'd ? _ Isabel !

Ifab. What says my brother?

Death is a fearful thing.
Isab. And shamed life a hateful.

Claud, Ay, but to die, and go we know not where;
To lie in cold obstruction, and to rot;
This sensible warm motion to become
A kneaded clod; and the delighted spirit

то s Is be actuated by pasions tbat impel him to transgress the law, at the very moment that be is enforcing it againsi asbers ? [1 find, he is.] Surely there Since this is so general a propensity, since the judge is as criminal as he whom he condemns, it is no fing or at least « venial one. MALONE.

• It may be useful to know which they are ; the reader is therefore pre. sented with the following catalogue of them, vis. Pride, Envy, Wrath, Sloch, Covetousness, Gluttony, and Lechery. To recapitulate the punitha ments hereafter for these fins, might have too powerful an effect upon

the weak nerves of the present generation ; but whoever is desirous of being particularly acquainted with them, may find information in some of the old monkish systems of divinity, and especially in a curious book entitled Le Kalendrier des Bergiers, 1500. folio, of which there is an English traní. lation. Douce.

7 Shakspeare shows his knowledge of human nature in the condu&t of Claudio. When Isabella first tells him of Angelo's proposal, he answering with honest indignation, agreeably to his settled principles,

Thou shalt not do't. But the love of life being permitted to operate, foon furnishes him withe sophistical arguments; he believes it cannot be very dangerous to the foula since Angelo, who is so wise, will venture it. Jonnson.

& Perdurably is lastingly. STELVENS.

9 i.e. the spirit accustomed here to ease and delights. This was properly urged as an aggravation to the sharpness of the torments spoken of, The Oxford editor not apprehending this, alters it to dilased. As if, bea cause the spirit in the body is said to be imprisoned, it was crowded togetber likewise ; and so by death not only set free, but expanded too ; which, ir true, would make it the less sensible of pain. WARBURTON.

This reading may perhaps ftand, but many attempts have been made to Forrect it. The most plausible is that which substitutes

be benighted spirit, alluding to the darkness always supposed in the place of futpre punish. VOL, I,




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To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside
In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice;
To be imprison'd in the viewless winds,
And blown with restless violence round about
The pendant world; or to be worse than worst
Of those, that lawless and incertain thoughts ?
Imagine howling !-'tis too horrible !

The wearieft and most loathed worldly life,
That age, ach, penury, and imprisonment
Can lay on nature, is a paradife
To what we fear of death,

ljebo Perhaps we may read :

ibe delinquent spirit, a word easily changed to delighted by a bad copier, or unskilful reader. Delinquent is proposed by Thirlby in his manuscript. JOHNSON.

I think with Dr. Warburton, that by the deligbred spirit is meant, tbe foul once accustomed to delight, which of course must render the sufferings, afterwards defcribed, less tolerable. Thus our author calls youth, blefed, in a former scene, before he proceeds to show its wants and its inconve. niencies. STEEVENS.

2 Conjecture fent out to wander without any certain direction, and ranging through possibilities of pain. JOHNSON.

3 Mot certainly the idea of the spirit bathing in fiery floods," or of refiding “ in thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice," is not original to our poet; but I am not sure that they came from the Platonick hell of Virgil. The monks also had their hot and their cold hell; "the fyrste is fyre that ever brenneth, and never gyveth lighte," says an old homily:--" The Ieconde is paffyng cold, that yf a greate hylle of fyre were cast therin, it fhold torne to yce." Onefof their legends, well remembered in the time of Shakspeare, gives us a dialogue between a bishop and a soul tormented in a picce of ice which was brought to cure a brenning beate in his foot; take care, that

you do not interpret this the gout, for I remember Menage quotes a canon upon us :

« Si quis dixerit episcopum podagrâ laborare, anatbema fit." Another tells us of the soul of a monk fastened to a rock, which the winds were to blow about for a twelvemonth, and purge of its enormities. Indeed this doctrine was before now introduced into poetick fi&tion, as you may fee in a poem, " where the lover declareth his pains to exceed far the pains of hell," among the many miscellaneous ones Tubjoined to the works of Surrey: of which you will soon have a beautiful edition from the able hand of my friend Dr. Percy. Nay, a very learned and inqui. Sitive brother-antiquary hath observed to me, on the authority of Blef. . kenius, that this was the ancient opinion of the inhabitants of Iceland, who were certainly very little read either in the poet or philosopher.



1/ab. Alas! alas!

Sweet fifter, let me like ;
What fin you

do to save a brother's life,
Nature dispenses with the deed so far,
That it becomes a virtue.

O, you beaft!
O, faithless coward! O, dishonest wretch !
Wilt thou be made a man out of my vice?
Is't not a kind of incest, to take life
From thine own fifter's shame? What should I think?
Heaven shield, my mother play'd my father fair !
For such a warped flip of wildernesss
Ne'er iffu'd from his blood. Take


defiance : 5
Die; perish! might but my bending down
Reprieve thee from thy fate, it should proceed :
I'll pray a thousand prayers for thy death,
No word to save thee.

Claud. Nay, hear me, Isabel.

O, fie, fie, fie!
Thy fin's not accidental, but a trade : "
Mercy to thee would prove itself a bawd :
"Tis best that thou dieít quickly.

(Going Claud,

O hear me, Isabella.

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Re-enter Duxe.
Duke. Vouchsafe a word, young sister, but one word.
Jab. What is

will ?


Y 3

Lazarus, in Tbe Sbepbard's Calendar, is represented to have seen these particular modes of punishment in the infernal regions;

« Secondly, I have seen in kell a Aoud frozen as ice, wherein the en. vious men and women were plunged unto the navel, and then suddainly came over them a right cold and great wind that grieved and pained them sight fore," &c. STIEVINS.

4 In Isabella's declamation there is something harsh, and something forced and far-fetched. But her indignation cannot be thought violent, when we consider her not only as a virgin, but as a nun. JOHNSON, s Wilderness is here used for wildness, the date of being disorderly.

STIIVINI Defiance is refusal. STILVENS. ? A custom; a practice; an established habit. So we say of a mia much addicted to any thing, be makes a trade of it. JOHNSON.


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