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chorographic genitive, when this case denotes the name of the more extensive district in which the lesser locality is contained; and in this case the genitive often precedes; as in τῆς Χερσονήσου ἐν Ελαιοῦντι, but ἐς Ωρωπὸν τῆς πέραν γῆς ; τῆς Ἰταλίας Λόκροι, but Μεθώνη τῆς Λακωνικῆς; τῆς ̓Αρκαδίας ἐς Παῤῥασίους, but πρὸς τὸ Κήναιον τῆς Εὐβοίας; τῆς Λέσβου ἐπὶ τῇ Μαλέᾳ ἄκρᾳ, but ἐν τῇ Ἐλαιάτιδι τῆς Θεσπρωτίας. It belongs rather to speculative philology than to practical grammar to trace the various usages of the possessive genitive to their respective origins. But it is clear that they all approximate to the genitive of partition; that, like the adjectives derived from them, they may be rendered by the English "of or belonging to;" and that they correspond to the Latin genitive as distinguished from the ablative.
(bb) The Genitive of Contact.
It may seem strange that the genitive, which primarily denotes motion from a place and separation, should be regularly used after verbs implying contact and adhesion. But this is invariably the case, and we also find the genitive after excola, ἀντέχεσθαι, λαμβάνεσθαι, ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι, ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι, δράτο τεσθαι, ἅπτεσθαι, καθάπτομαι, signifying " to cleave to something, to lay hold of it, to fasten on to it, to grasp it," and generally after Ovyyável and favew, “to touch." Thus we have Xen. Anab. VII, θιγγάνειν 6, § 41: ἢν οὖν σωφρονῶμεν, ἑξόμεθα αὐτοῦ, “if we are wise we shall keep a fast hold of him." Thucyd. I. 140: Tŷs AvTÊs yvwμns exoμal, "I stick to the same opinion." Herod. IV. 169: TOÚTOV exovтai Tixiɣáμμpai, "the Giligammæ come next to these, follow them in close contiguity." Eurip. Hec. 402: Koσòs dρvòs őπws, Tĥod ëçoμai, “I will cling to her, as the ivy clings to the oak,” and similarly with the other verbs of this class. That this genitive is not partitive appears from the fact that either the active form of these verbs is used with the partitive genitive, or, if the middle form is used, a genitive of the word signifying the part is placed by the side of an accusative indicating the whole of the object. With regard to the former distinction, if the partitive genitive follows a transitive verb, we signify that a part of the object is affected, but if the same case follows a middle verb, we signify that we have become a part of the object; thus, exw ToÛTO, “I have this;” ἔχω τοῦ ἀργυρίου, “I have part of the money;” ἔχομαι
Toû ȧpyupíov, "I cleave to the money-I am, as it were, part of it.” Similarly τὸ πῦρ ἦψε τὸ τεῖχος, “the fire lighted the wall;" Tò Tûρ ĥVE TOÙ TEÍXOVS (Thucyd. Iv. 100), "the fire caught a part of the wall;” τὸ πῦρ ἥψατο τοῦ τείχους, “ the fre caught the wall," i. e. clave to it. With regard to the latter distinction, Xaußávei Ti means "to take or receive the whole λαμβάνειν τι of something;" λaußáveiv Tivós, "to take or receive a part of something;" aμßáveolaí Tivos, "to lay hold, fasten on to someλαμβάνεσθαί τινος, thing;" but außáveolaí Tivós T, "to lay hold of something by some part of it." Thus Xen. Anab. 1. 6, § 10: éλáßovTO TŷS CÉVNS Tòv 'OρóvTηy, "they took hold of Orontes by the girdle." Or the τὸν Ὀρόντην, genitive of the part may appear without the accusative of the whole object; as Plat. Parm. 126: кaí μov éλáßeto tŷs Xelpós, “he took hold of me by the hand." This rule applies to other verbs besides those which regularly govern the genitive; thus we have ev τινὰ ποδῶν, “ to drag a person by his feet ;” αὐχένων μάρψας ὄφιας, "having seized the serpents by their necks;" yéρovтa xeɩpòs aviorη, "he raised the old man by his hand;" and even with verbal adjectives, as γυναῖκα κρεμαστὴν αὐχένος, “ a woman hanging by the neck." The true explanation of these usages seems to be that which applies to the use of exeσbai and ȧprâσlaι with the genitive and e. In all such adhesions and attachments, the object attached is regarded as really separable, the idea of conjunction is conveyed by the verb, and the genitive, according to its proper ablative meaning, implies that there is at least a partial disjunction.
(cc) The Tentative Use of the Genitive.
The genitive regularly follows a number of verbs denoting the attempt to reach or hit an object. Such are opéyoμaí Tivos, “to reach after, to aim at" (which occasionally also takes the accusative when the object is represented as reached or hit); σтоɣáÇeσðaι, τιτύσκεσθαί τινος, " to propose as a mark or butt;” ὀρούειν, ἐπαΐσèπatoσειν τινός, σew Tiós, "to move eagerly after an object;" iévai Tivós, "to shoot at something;" pirTew Tuós, "to fling at something;" ToĢEÚειν, ὀϊστεύειν, ἀκοντίζειν τινός, " to shoot with a bow and arrow or to dart at a mark;” ἐπιθυμεῖν, ἐπιβάλλεσθαί τινος, " to set one's heart or mind in the direction of an object;" and generally πeipâv, Teiρâσlaí Tivos, "to make an attempt upon something." Thus Hom. I. vI. 466: où πaidòs apétaro, "he stretched out his hands
to reach his child;” but xvi. 322: ἔφθη ὀρεξάμενος (οὐδ ̓ ἀφάμαρτεν pov apap, "he was at once the first to hit his shoulder, nor did he miss it.” Soph. Αj. 154: μεγάλων ψυχῶν ἱεὶς οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρ TO, "if he were to aim at great souls he could not miss." Il. iv. 100: otoтevσov Meveλáov, “aim an arrow at Menelaus." Thucyd. I. 61: πειράσαντες τοῦ χωρίου καὶ οὐχ ἑλόντες, “ having made an attempt on the place, without taking it." Od. XXI. 149: TóĘOU TELρηTIČEV, "he made a trial of the bow." Ibid. 159: èπηv тóžOV πειρήσεται, "after he shall have made trial of the bow." At first sight it may seem most natural to connect this usage with that of the genitive after verbs denoting fulness or want (451, (ff)), and certainly there is much resemblance between deîolaí Tivos, "to be in want of something,” and ὀρέγεσθαι, ἐπιθυμεῖν, ἐπιβάλλεσθαι, opoveш, éπatoσew Twos, "to set one's mind after the attainment of an object." In point of fact, however, this analogy does not seem to furnish the true explanation of the idiomatic usage of the tentative verb. It seems that opéyoua, originally synonymous with epxopal, "I make a straight line for myself," indicates motion in a presumed direction, and that until the object is reached, that is, as long as there is only motion in that direction, the genitive as the case of separation is in its proper place; but that the accusative would appear with the same verb, if the motion were supposed to be completed. We have seen that this is the fact with regard to the usage of opéyoμat, and the same analogy applies to the other verbs. This view is farther supported, as we shall see below, by the use of emi with the genitive, and it is exactly paralleled by the construction of the genitive with the adverb eveÚ (epic i0us), when we wish to signify "straight in a certain direction;" as Plat. Lys. p. 203: evoù Avkelov, “straight in the direction of the Lyceum" (èπ' ev0eías eis Aúkelov, Timæus, p. 127 Ruhnken), for which we have the accusative with eis, or the affix -de, when the motion is completed, as Hom. Hymn. in Merc. 342: εὐθὺ Πύλονδ ̓ ἐλάων; Ibid. 355: εἰς Πύλον ἰθὺς ἐλῶντα.
(dd) The Genitive Absolute.
The absolute secondary predications with the participle (above, 445, 6) occur more frequently in the genitive than in any other The genitive is here causal, i. e. ablative (above, 448), and the Latin ablative is used in precisely the same manner; thus,
éμoû KalεúdovтOS = me dormiente, i. e. quum dormirem = "while, whereas, or because I was sleeping at the time." It is a mistake to confuse this with the genitive as expressing the relation of time, for the secondary predication is contained in the participle itself.
(7) The Dative.
455 The dative signifies that the object referred to is considered as the point of juxtaposition or immediate proximity—that it is receptive of accession or gain-that something is being added to it.
The Greek dative is therefore diametrically opposed to the genitive (see for example Plat. Theœt. p. 160 A, B, above, 450, (gg)). (a) The latter signifies separation, the former proximity; (b) the latter denotes subtraction, the former addition; (c) the latter expresses comparison of different things, the former equality or sameness. Thus compare
(a) ПoλUKρaтeî wμinoe, "he kept company with Polycrates," Πολυκρατεῖ ὡμίλησε, with πάλιν τράπεθ' υἱος ἑοῖο, “ he turned back from his son.”
(b) Aidwμí σo тà Xpημатa, “I give the money to you," with Séoμaι Xpημáтwv, "I am in want of money."
(c) Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ αὐτὸς ἐκείνῳ, “ this man is the same as that,” with ἐπιστήμη ἐπιστήμης διάφορος, “ one science different from another."
Hence the dative is capable of expressing whatever is close at hand; (a) coincidence or contingency in time, place or definition; (b) instruments or proximate causes of the action; (c) recipients or persons immediately interested in the action; (d) special limitations. In general, where we use the English prepositions "at," "in, " "with," "by," "to," or "for," to express any of these notions, we may employ the Greek dative; as the following examples will show:
(a) The Dative of Coincidence or Contingency.
456 (aa) The locative case, which in Greek is identical with the dative, seldom appears in its original and proper sense, namely, as denoting rest in a particular place, without the support of some preposition, like év. We have it, however, in proper names of
places, as Plat. Menex. 245: Μαραθῶνι καὶ Σαλαμῖνι καὶ Πλαταιαῖς. And sometimes with a specialty of form, as in the names of Attic demes and other places, in the singular, e. g. Σφηττοῖ; Ισθμοί, Πυθοί, and in the plural, as ̓Αθήνησι, Πλαταιᾶσι, Ολυμ πίασι, &c. In the poets the dative is found as locative in other words, as Soph. Εl. 313: ἀγροῖς τυγχάνειν. Eurip. Suppl. 874: τιμὰς ἔσχεν Αργεία χθονί. Ηom. Il. Ι. 499 : τόξ' ὤμοισιν ἔχων. Οd. χν. 523 : αιθέρι ναίων. Soph. Αntig. 225: ὁδοῖς κυκλῶν ἐμαυτὸν εἰς ἐπιστροφήν.
(bb) In the secondary application of the locative, to express the point of time, the Greek dative is commonly and regularly used. Thus we have παρῆν τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, “ he was here on the third day;” τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ τὸ στράτευμα ἀνέπαυσε, “ he rested the army on the following day;” τῷ τρίτῳ ἔτει οἴκαδε ἀπέπλευσα, "I sailed home in the third year." And so of regular feasts or stated occasions, as τοῖς Διονυσίοις, " at the Dionysia;” τῇ νουμη νίᾳ, " on the first day of the month;” ταῖς πόμπαις, " at the time of the processions;” ἐς τὸ πεδίον ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἐσβολῇ οὐ κατέβη, “ he did not descend to the plain in that invasion." The preposition ἐν may be prefixed in such phrases as ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, ἐν τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ, ἐν τῷ Θαργηλιῶνι μηνί, ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καίρῳ, and always appears in the phrase ἐν τῷ παρόντι.
(cc) The dative is constantly used without a preposition to indicate a coincident or contingent circumstance of manner, accompaniment, and the like, so that it is really equivalent to an adverb. Thus we have παντὶ τρόπῳ (or πάντα τρόπον) πειρᾶσθαι, “to make the attempt in every way;” οὐδενὶ κόσμῳ εἰσπίπτειν, “to fall on without any order;” βίᾳ εἰσιέναι, “ to enter forcibly;" πολλῇ κραυγῇ ἐπιέναι, “to attack with loud shouts ;" or with a tertiary predication (Thucyd. VIII. 27), ἀτέλει τῇ νίκῃ ἀνέστησαν, “ they started off with their victory incomplete." Hence we have a number of substantives, or adjectives indicating by their gender the substantives to which they tacitly refer; as βίᾳ, δρόμῳ, κύκλῳ, παρασκευῇ οι ἔργῳ as opposed to λόγῳ οι γνώμῃ, ὀργῇ, θυμῷ, προφάσει as opposed to τῷ ὄντι οι τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, σιγῇ, σπουδῇ, πολλῇ σπουδῇ οι σπουδῇ πανυ, σχολῇ, οι δημοσίᾳ, ἰδίᾳ, κοινῇ, πέζῃ, ταύτῃ, εἰκῇ, ἐκείνῃ, ᾖ, &c. For the substantives thus used we have sometimes a combination with a preposition, as σὺν δίκῃ, μετὰ δίκης, μετὰ πολλῆς ἀκριβείας, and the like.