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of this system. Some of the large electrical manufacturing author deals with roof-tiles, some of which, for use on the firms have entered actively into the development and supply eaves, are decorated. Earthen vessels are also decorated of machinery in this new field, and some striking illustra- with incised, stamped, or slip-painted designs, and the tions are given by Mr. Franz Koester in the Engineering most effective of these styles is stamping, though some of Magazine (vol. xxxi., No. 5) showing views taken on farms the incised designs produce a very Greek-like effect. The where electricity is used exclusively for motive power. paper is illustrated by three collotypes and numerous blocks
in the text. In the Revue de Métallurgie (vol. iii., No. 2), issued as a supplement to the Bulletin de la Société d'Encourage- The summary of the weather for the werk ended ment, Mr. Guillery describes a new method of determining September 8, issued by the Meteorological Office, shows the elastic limit of metals by recording the variations in that the highest shade temperature in the recent hot spell the electric resistance of the test-piece as the load in the was 96°, at Bawtry, in the Midland counties, registered on testing machine is increased. The method is not yet fully September 2. The rains which occurred with the change developed, but the results of a number of tests made by to cooler weather were very heavy in places, although by the author at Denain, and the simplicity of the apparatus no means general. In parts of London the fall on the used, render it worthy of careful consideration.
night of September 4-5 amounted to an inch, and to 1.68 In the case of an engine using saturated steam, the
inches at Ventnor; while at Glencarron the measurement PV diagram can be converted into the 0$ equivalent either
on September 5 was 1.98 inches, and at Fort William by a somewhat tedious calculative method or by Boulvin's
1.87 inches. In most parts of England the weather has graphic method. The latter necessitates the preliminary
been exceptionally dry for nearly three weeks. At Spurn
Head and Bath no rain has fallen since August 24, and at re-plotting of the diagrams to the pressure and volume scales before the graphic transference can be carried out.
Shields none has fallen since August 26, while at many A modification of this method has been devised by Mr.
places, widely separated, the measurement since about W. J. Goudie, and is described in the Engineering Review
August 25 amounts only to a few hundredths of an inch. (vol. xv., No. 2). A direct transference from the actual
The general type of weather which has characterised the indicator diagrams is effected, and the saving in time and
summer is still continuing. Bright sunshine is unusually labour should render the method useful to engineers who
prevalent, with very dry conditions, but the temperature make frequent use of the temperature-entropy chart.
has fallen, although the days at present are still mostly
At Greenwich, the exposed thermometer on the The September issue of the new bi-monthly journal grass registered 28° on the morning of September 11, and Concrete contains admirably illustrated articles on the the ground in the suburbs of London was coated with hoar. micro-structure of Portland cement by Dr. C. H. Desch, frost. and on reinforced concrete at the Milan Exhibition by Mr.
We have received from the meteorological reporter to F. R. Farrow. This new addition to technical periodical the Government of India a memorandum on the weather literature should prove a valuable source of information to
conditions during June and July, with an estimate of the all workers in concrete and cement. The details of the
monsoon rainfall during August and September, 1906. It uses to which concrete and reinforced concrete are
is stated that the total rainfall of June and July was disput are very remarkable. The use of reinforced concrete
tributed with about the usual uniformity over the greater as a substitute for timber in exposed positions is rapidly part of India; the only areas of large defect were Sind increasing. Railway sleepers, telegraph posts, and fence | (52 per cent.), the Punjab (27 per cent.), and Bengal (21 per posts are being tried, and efforts are being made to prove cent.). In both these months there was, on the average that reinforced concrete is an excellent substitute for brick- of the whole country, a defect of 3 per cent. in the rainwork where structures of great height are required.
fall. In forming a forecast for August and September, the We have received from the Geological Survey of Canada conditions in various parts of the world are stated; of three reports of special economic interest. The report these, the most powerful factor is thought to be the (No. 923) on the Chibougamau mining region in the pressure in the southern Indian Ocean. An illustration of northern part of the province of Quebec, by Mr. A. P. this is given by a table containing all years since 1875 in Low, records the discovery of an area of serpentine rocks which pressure at Mauritius in July differed from the containing asbestos of excellent quality, together with the normal by more than 0.024 inch, together with the rainfinding of a large vein of gold-bearing quartz and numerous fall of Bombay and bay currents in the ensuing August indications of copper ores. Mr. R. W. Brock submits a and September; it shows that there is a marked tendency preliminary report (No. 939) on the Rossland mining dis- for high pressure to be followed by deficient rainfall, and trict, British Columbia. A more complete report is in pre- vice versa. At Mauritius, pressure this year was below paration. Mr. C. W. Willimott's monograph on the the normal in June by 0.045 inch, and in July by 0-ozo inch, mineral pigments of Canada (No. 913) contains the results a fact which is, therefore, decidedly favourable; but so of an elaborate series of experiments with the various pig- many factors come into play, e.g. temperature, the disments that can be derived from minerals, ochres, and clays tribution of snowfall in the mountain regions north and either in their crude state or by burning. They show that west of India, and probably pressure over South America, in almost every colour a paint of good body and permanent
that Dr. Walker is unable to say more than that there tone may be produced from Canadian material.
appears, on the whole, to be no reason for anticipating An account of Sinhalese earthenware is given by Mr.
either a large excess or a large defect in the rainiall of A. K. Coomaraswamy in vol. iv., part xiii., of Spolia August or September. Zeylanica. Elaborate types are not found, and no glaze is The Royal Society of Canada, which was founded by the used; the sides of the pots are made on the wheel, which Duke of Argyll in 1881, celebrated its semi-jubilee this is turned by a boy; some hours or days later, putting a
The president, Prof. Alexander Johnson, in his smooth stone inside, the potter fashions the lower part address at the annual meeting, described the conditions of the sides so as to form the bottom-a most unusual which led to the society's inception and the development of procedure. In addition to domestic and ritual pottery, the its activities. A large portion of the address was appro
b. m. 6 40
+ 20 22
+ 8 28
22 31 22 30
priately devoted to considering the different conceptions
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. which have been held with regard to matter, culminating
Holmes's COMET (1906).–According to Prof. Wolf's in the theory of atomic disintegration, which had its birth
telegram announcing its re-discovery, as published in No. in Montreal in 1902.
4118 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, the photographic
magnitude of Holines's comet on August 28 was 15.5. As At the end of an interesting and instructive paper in a
the comet passed through perihelion on about March 14 it recent number of the Chemiker Zeitung (No. 61, p. 742) | is not likely to become a brilliant object during the present on the chemical composition of the eruptive products of apparition. The corrections to Dr. Zwiers's ephemeris are volcanic actions, and more especially that of Vesuvius in -6s. and -2'. April of this year, Prof. Julius Stoklasa, of Prague, directs FINLAY's Comet (1906d).-A continuation from M. L. attention to the meagre primitive equipment of the Royal Schulhof's ephemeris for Finlay's comet is given below :Seismological Observatory situated in the immediate neigh- 1906 a (app.)
8 (app.) 1906 a (app.) 8 (app.) bourhood of Vesuvius, where on April 3 Prof. Matteucci Sept. 15
+ 19 19 Sept. 23 7 7
3 observed the first subterranean signs of this year's eruption,
17 6 47 +19 33
25 7 13 and which Prof. Stoklasa visited in May last. In this
19 6 54 +19 44
27 7 19 + 20 17 article Prof. Stoklasa throws out the suggestion that the
29 7 24 observatory should be re-modelled and made an inter- The comet will pass about 1° south of Ś Geminorum on national experimental station with geophysical and chemical September 20, and about 2° south of 8 Geminorum on laboratories, similar, in fact, to the International Biological September 25. Station at Naples, which is being provided with extensions Comet 1906€ (KOPFF).—A further extract from Herr M. to its physiological and chemical laboratories for the pur
Ebell's ephemeris for Kopff's comet (1906e) is given
Ephemeris (12h. M.T. Berlin).
8 (true) Brightness IN 1903, from the occurrence of a number of lines
22 33 common to the spectra of krypton and xenon, Dr. Baly in
+8 16 ferred the existence of a new element present as an impurity
0:48 in those gases. From a study of the spectra of different
+7 52 fractions of the most easily condensable portion of the inert
26 gases of the atmosphere, Dr. Rudolf Schmidt now concludes
0'38 in the Verhandlungen of the German Physical Society (vol. viii., No. 14) that xenon is not a true element, but a
Herr Ebell calculated two sets of elements, obtaining mixture, possibly of several gases. The ultra-violet spec
October 16, 1905, and May 14, 1906, as the respective trum between 1 = 3450 and 1= 2800 of one fraction of the
times of perihelion passage, but, as seen from the residuals
(observed-calculated), there is considerable uncertainty gas was found to contain only about forty lines, the greater attaching to the calculated path. part corresponding with those ascribed to xenon; several, Two other sets of elements, communicated by Prof. E. C. however, were new. Within the same range Baly measured
Pickering, give April 12, 1907, and December 7, 1906, about 500 lines, and the difference in the two numbers respectively, as the time of perihelion, and the resultant might at first sight appear to be due to insufficient illumin
ephemerides show the comet's brightness to be increasing ation in the one case.
at the present time. Observing at Hamburg on August 23, This view is contradicted, however, Dr. Graff found that the comet had a coma of 0.5 by the fact that some of the lines which appeared feeblest diameter, with a nucleus of magnitude 12.5, the magnitude in Baly's spectra showed the greatest intensity in the case of the whole being 11.5 (Astronomische Nachrichten, of this particular fraction, whilst all the brightest lines No. 4118). of "
were missing. The only explanation appears The Planet MERCURY.-Continuing his articles in the to be that the gas hitherto called xenon is a more or less
Observatory (No. 374) on planets and planetary observcomplex mixture.
ations, Mr. Denning this month discusses the best times
and methods of observing Mercury. Dealing with the The Country Press, 19 Ball Street, Kensington, w., legendary lament of Copernicus that he had never seen has added to its series of nature-study picture postcards
this planet, Mr. Denning expresses his doubts as to its twelve cards, which may be obtained for one shilling, de authenticity. The late Rev. S. J. Johnson saw Mercury picting twenty-three species of British
as an evening star about 150 times during the years 1858– grasses.
1905, whilst Mr. Denning has seen it some popular and botanical names are given in each case, since February, 1868, and suggests that, if looked for together with the time of flowering and a magnified re- regularly, this elusive object may probably be seen presentation of the fructification.
about fifteen occasions per annum in the English climate.
In the spring, Mercury should be looked for some days The Nagari-pracharina Sabha, of Benares, has published before the maximum elongation, but in the autumn a “ Hindi Scientific Glossary," containing the
After disterms apparitions some days after the elongation. employed in most of the sciences, exceptobiology and cussing the observing conditions, Mr. Denning proceeds to geology. The glossary has been edited by Mr. Syam
describe the surface markings as seen-with great difficulty Sundar Das, honorary secretary of the Nagari-pracharina Schröter.
on the telescopic image of Mercury since the time of Sabha, with the cooperati and assistance of an editorial committee. The glossary is divided into seven parts, deal
OBSERVATIONS OF SATELLITES.-Prof. Barnard observed ing respectively with terms of geography, astronomy,
the sixth satellite of Jupiter nine times, on February 27
and March 20, during last winter, and found it quite an political economy, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and
easy object, under fair weather conditions, with the 40-inch philosophy. Preference has been given to common and refractor of the Yerkes Observatory, current Hindi terms. In the absence of appropriate Hindi On February 27 the magnitude was equivalents, certain appropriate terms existing in some of
March 20, when Jupiter was lower down at the time of the prevalent vernaculars have been used. When these
observation, it was estimated as 14:5. The positions deter
mined from these observations are recorded in No. 4112 have failed, the existing Sanskrit terms have been taken
of the Astronomische Nachrichten. or the English terms employed.
In No. 4116 of the same journal the same observer
gives the results of his observations of Phæbe, the ninth had brought together a large amount of information satellite of Saturn, made with the 40-inch on July 24 previously scattered in the pages of various publications, and 29. The satellite was about im. in R.A. and o' in The microscopic study of the crystalline structure of declination from the planet, and had a magnitude of 16.5; different portions of steel ingots is rapidly changing the at times it appeared hazy. The observations give the views of engineers in regard to many important problems following corrections, taken (observed-calculated), to Dr.
in connection with the life of steel rails, and there is no Ross's ephemeris :
question that the microscope now plays as important a
part in the laboratory of the metallurgist as in that of the July 24 -0 0.93
Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter next read his paper on struc
tural changes in nickel wire at high temperatures; this ENGINEERING AT THE BRITISH
research, carried out at the National Physical Laboratory,
was intended to throw light on the fact that fundamental ASSOCIATION.
changes occur in the mechanical properties of nickel wire In his presidential address to the section, Dr. Ewing used as the heating coil of an electrically-heated porcelain
dealt with certain aspects of the inner structure of tube-furnace. Here again the microscope was the chiei metals and the manner in which they yield under strain, instrument in the research, and the study of the crystalline and he made a notable departure from the usual custom structure of the wires showed, the author suggested, that of such addresses by illustrating his speculations by experi- wire intended for electrical heating should be as free from ments and by models in order to demonstrate his ideas as gases as possible. A paper by Mr. W. Taylor describing to the processes of crystal building.
à magnetic indicator of temperature for hardening tre! After the presidential address a paper
read by concluded the day's proceedings. Major W. E. Edwards, R.A., on modern armour and its On Saturday, August 4, the section paid a visit of in. attack. The author first gave a very complete and useful spection to the Roundhills Reservoir of the Harrogate history of the application of armour to ships and forts, Corporation. The dam, a masonry one, will, when comand then explained in detail the elaborate and costly pro- pleted, be 125 feet in height above the river berl, and cesses through which the material passes, from the casting members of the section were fortunate enough to spp the of the steel ingot to the completion of the plate. The work when the more difficult operations of such an undersecond part of the paper dealt with the attack of armour taking were just in their most interesting condition. and the various ways in which a plate may yield, and the On Monday, August 6, the first paper read was by Prof. influence of the cap in reducing the resisting power of Hudson Beare, on the new engineering laboratories of the hard-faced plates. In the discussion Sir William White University of Edinburgh and their equipment; the author expressed the opinion that British armour-plate makers had pointed out that he had made special provision in the new introduced many of the more important improvements in laboratories for experimental work of an advanced character the resisting power of armour-plates, and that eventually on the strength of materials and on hydraulics. At the conthe 6-inch gun would be chiefly used for defence against clusion of the discussion of this paper Sir W. H. Preece read torpedo craft.
a communication on glow lamps up to date, and the grading The first paper on Friday, August 3, was on the removal of voltages, in which he strongly advocated that steps of dust and smoke from chimney gases, by Messrs. S. H. should be taken to secure uniformity of practice in regard Davies and F. G. Fryer. The paper dealt with an ingenious to regulation of voltage in connection with the distribution plant the authors have designed and fitted up at the of electrical energy, and also in regard to the grading of cocoa works of Messrs. Rowntree and Co. for thoroughly carbon filament glow lamps; in the latter part of the washing the smoke, and for removing from it the whole paper data were given to show how poor in quality were of the grit and dust and practically all the sulphur acids. many of the lamps on the English market. In the disMembers of the section had an opportunity later on of cussion on this paper Colonel Crompton directed attention seeing this plant in operation; it certainly thoroughly to the fact that only a comparatively small proportion of effects the purposes for which it was installed, and it lamps was used in private houses in America, while in might certainly be adopted with advantage in many this country the proportion was large; he also pointed out factories where a cheap and plentiful supply of water is that the demand for electric current for power and for available.
heating was now becoming a very important factor in the In the next paper, on standardisation in British engineer- working of central stations. ing practice, Sir John Wolfe-Barry gave an account of
In a paper on the advent of single-phase electric fracthe admirable work which has been carried out by the tion, Mr. C. F. Jenkin directed attention to the rapid Engineering Standards Committee since its first institution advance of electric traction on railways, and pointed out in 1901 at the instance of Sir John Wolfe-Barry himself. its advantages. He pointed out that the real advantage There are now thirty-six subcommittees with 260 members of electrification was that it would make the line par dealing with some thirty different branches of the work. better. Mr. Jenkin then dealt with the two alternative The work of the committee has been invaluable both to systems-alternating current transmission, manufacturers and to engineers, and the publications of current distribution with low-tension third rail, and alterthe committee are indispensable to all engineers.
nating current transmission with high-tension trolley wire: Dr. Ewing has during recent years done much valuable he was of opinion that the latter method had very crear research work on the crystalline structure of metals, both advantages, and he advocated also single-phase instead of in a strained and in an unstrained state, and it was only three-phase currents. natural that there should be several papers this The business of the section for this day concluded with important branch of the subject of the strength of a paper by Mr. A. J. Martin on a general supply of as materials. Mr. W. Rosenhain dealt with the deformation for light, heat, and power production. Mr. Martin pinta and fracture of iron and steel, and his paper was illus- out that the main obstacle to the general use of trated by a number of beautiful lantern slides. The author purposes other than lighting was its cost, and thus tine of this paper has done such admirable work in the micro- chief causes of this high cost were the standards of illuminascopic study of the crystalline structure of metals that ating value to which gas has to conform and the banden everything he has to say on this subject is sure to be of prices paid for coal. At the present day both natural pals value. In his latest researches he has hy a most ingenious and coal gas have been piped in America to great disang method been able to study the crystalline structure of the (in the case of natural gas to 200 miles) with sucren jad actual fracture itself in broken test-pieces. The second Mr. Martin was of opinion that it would be partoutlet paper on this subject of the crystalline structure of metals feasible to generate gas cheaply at large works in the was by Mr. J. E. Stead, and dealt with segregation in centre of our coalfields, and then to steel ingots and its effect in modifving the mechanical pressure to all our large cities for manufacturing and be *** properties of steel. To all those concerned either with the ing purposes. manufacture or with the employment of steel in industrial In the course of the aiternoon mans hors o operations this paper was most valuable, for the author | section took part in an excursion to Middlesbrough to * -it
contes it wider
the works of the Cargo Fleet Iron Co., Ltd. The whole ideal black body, the author dealt with pyrometers based of the plant at these works has been recently remodelled on these laws, such as Féry's, and the optical thermometer and fitted with the latest labour-saving devices and plant of Holborn and Kurlbaum. for recovery of by-products; the Talbot continuous steel Mr. S. Cowper Coles read a paper on electropositive process, which was introduced to the notice of English coatings for the protection of iron and steel from corrosion, metallurgists only in 1900, has been adopted, and at the and showed a number of beautiful examples of electroCargo Fleet Works each of the three furnaces holds about deposition. In the discussion Colonel Crompton stated that 175 tons of molten steel.
the processes invented by the author had solved a very On Tuesday, August 7, the section began its proceed- difficult problem in connection with the piston rods of ings with a paper by Prof. W. E. Dalby on experiments steam engines using very high-pressure steam, for it was illustrating the balancing of engines. The beautiful work- now possible to give these rods a very hard, incorrodible ing models which Prof. Dalby has designed to illustrate surface without any sacrifice of strength. the principles which underlie the problem of balancing In a paper on suction-gas plants, Prof. Dalby dealt with various types of engines were shown in operation, and, as the principles underlying the design of such plants, and the president remarked during the discussion, it was then described a number of plants which were entered for pity that the London County Council had not made use the recent trials in connection with the Royal Agricultural of the author's services in this field of engineering research Society's show at Derby, and the methods of starting such before it began the design of a large generating station plants. In reply to the discussion, Prof. Dalby stated that 1100 half a mile away from Greenwich Observatory.
a 15 h.p. engine would use about 0.7 lb. anthracite coal Mr. G. Stoney then read a paper on recent advances in per B.H.P. during running, or, if allowance is made for steam turbines, land and marine. The figures given by lighting up and standing by, about 10 lb. per B.H.P. hour. the author showed how wonderful had been the advance
Mr. W. A. Scoble, in a paper on the strength and since Jr. ('. A. Parsons built his first turbo-dynamo of behaviour of ductile materials under combined stress, deabout 10 h.p. in 1884 ; at the present time 6000 kw. scribed the results of a series of tests of steel bars with generators are in course of construction, while turbines
a distribution similar to that which occurs most frequently of 10,000 kw. are proposed for the great power scheme
in practice, as obtained under combined bending and twistto supply electric energy in bulk for London. The use
ing; the experiments showed conclusively that the maximum of large turbine blowing engines in metallurgical work has principal stress and the maximum shear both varied also rapidly developed during the past three or four years, through a wide range, the point used as a criterion of while for marine purposes the total horse-power of turbines, strength being the yield point. either completed or on order, now approaches 1,000,000. The section concluded its business with the reading of a Mr. Stoney also described the vacuum augmenter,' paper by Mr. D. Mackenzie, on waterproof roads as a device for increasing the vacuum in the condenser without
solution of the dust problem. The various processes at increasing unduly the volume of the circulating water by present in use were described and their deficiencies pointed the use of a steam jet placed in a contracted pipe between Tar alone was most unsatisfactory; at the end of the condenser and the air pump, which compresses the twelve months it had entirely disappeared ; the best air and vapour from the condenser and delivers it to the
material, he considered, was “ tarmac, made from blastair pump through a small auxiliary condenser.
furnace slag broken when hot and immediately immersed The next paper was by Mr. J. Smith, on an application in hot tar; only forge pig slag should be used for this of streamline apparatus to the determination of the direc
purpose. tion and approximate magnitude of the principal stresses
It a great pleasure to see the section so well in certain portions of the structure of ships; this valuable
attended, especially when it is remembered that the early paper was, the president stated, one of the first fruits of days of the meeting clashed with the summer meeting of the laboratory of the Royal Naval College at Greenwich.
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. No doubt much The author showed that a strain diagram of the deck of a
of the increased interest shown in the work of the section ship
very closely approximated to the stream-line shown was due to the personal popularity of its distinguished hy Prof. Hele-Shaw's well-known apparatus, in which a
T. H. B. very thin film of water is compelled to flow between two sheets of glass. In the afternoon the section had a joint meeting with
EDUCATION AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. the physical and educational sections, and a discussion on the teaching of mechanics was opened, by a paper by A MONG the growing points mentioned by Prof. Mr. C. E. Ashford, headmaster of the Royal Naval College, M. E. Sadler in his address were the keenness of Dartmouth. In his paper Mr. Ashford pointed out that intelligent workmen to make the elementary schools there was a serious danger that school science might be better, the demand by adult workers for an education come as academic as classics, and he directed attention to touched by imagination, humanity, and civic idealism, the absolute necessity of employing for laboratory experi- the encouragement of education by employers of labour, mental work, not toys, but apparatus such
educational experiments carefully planned and systematicjacks, Weston's blocks, &c., and also to the great need ally watched (e.g. in practical courses of study and corporal of experiments for showing the phenomena of kinetics ; training in higher elementary schools for ages twelve to several new pieces of apparatus designed for this purpose fifteen, and in the actual results of postponing the beginning by the staff at the college were described and illustrated. of Latin until twelve years of age), and the need for con
Wednesday, August 8, the last day of the meeting. was tinuation schools to check the drift into the physical and an unusually busy one for the section; no fewer than intellectual disorder of the unemployed. six papers were dealt with. Prof. Ashcroft described, and
of Prof. Sadler's address appears in the School World for showed in operation, the Central Technical College lecture September. table testing machine, exceedingly ingenious and The list of schools and other institutions to which visits brautiful piece of apparatus ; Prof. Ashcroft has adopted, had been arranged included the Yorkshire School for the with, however, considerable simplifications, the plan first Blind, the classes in domestic economy for employees at derised by Prof. Kennedy, of using a Spring bar ” to Messrs. Rowntree's Cocoa Works, the British Botanical mrasure the loads upon the specimen under test, and to Association, with its extensive arrangements for the supply give one of the two necessary motions to the recording of botanical material, and two hospitals for the insane, apparatus, thus overcoming the difficulties unavoidable the latter typifying the help which the schools may expert when an attempt is made to keep the steelyard of the to receive from all contributions to mental science. testing machine foating during the final drawing-down Health at School and Physical Education are topics stage prior to fracture.
which seem amenable to scientific treatment, and as such The next paper was one by Prof. J. B. Henderson, on were very properly placed in the forefront of the programme, recent advances in our knowledge of radiation phenomena Sir Edward Brabrook presented the report on the conand their bearing on the optical measurement of tempera- ditions of health essential to the carrying on of the work ture. Alter discussing the four laws of radiation from an of instruction in schools. This report deals with hearing,
A full report
teeth, playtime, and leisure. Some standard method of active and constructive work on the part of children should testing the hearing of children is desirable. Reports from be largely substituted for ordinary class-teaching, To make other countries show that 12 per cent. to 20 per cent. of this possible, smaller classes, trained teachers, and sympa school children may be defective in their hearing, An thetic inspectors are necessary. Supplementary reports of examination of the teeth of 10,500 English and Scotch boys subcommittees were presented by Prof. R. A. Gregory en and girls of an average age of twelve years in poor law arithmetic and mensuration, by Mr. R. H. Adie on nature. schools, workhouses, and reformatories showed only 14 per study, and by Mr. George Fletches on domestic WOTE. cent. of these children with teeth free from decay. The There was an eager and universal request for copies of children in our public elementary schools are in a much the full text of these reports, and the printed supply prored more neglected state than the poor-law children. The very unequal to the demand. The committee of the section committee thinks that daily cleansing of teeth should be proposed to arrange for further reprints. Proi. Green saiu enforced by parents and teachers, and that dentists employed that primary teachers needed training to use the freedom by school authorities should make systematic examination now given them, and needed also the opportunity or a of teeth.
higher professional course at the universities for those Sir Lauder Brunton spoke on physical education, and desirous of promotion. Mr. Cyril Jackson admitted the showed that mind development was brain development. difficulties of large classes, Mr. T. P. Sykes cmphasisd The teaching of hygiene might begin with the washing the need for freedom to experiment, and Dr. Traill the and dressing of dolls. He urged the medical inspection of importance of training teachers before trying to schools, and brought to the notice of the section the reforms through the schools. National League of Physical Education and Improvement. In the discussion on School Training for the Home His lecture was supported by a most welcome and generous Duties of Women, Prof. A. Smithells said that at present distribution of pamphlets sent by that league, and his home training reveals the methods of superstition, ignor. dispiay of lantern-slides in the adjacent room when the ance, prejudice, and folly. Nor does a formal course oo botanists adjourned for lunch allowed of the presentation the oxides of nitrogen and chlorides of phospborus always of evidence to a section which does not always find it easy produce a scientific attitude of mind in a household where to get at the facts which underlie opinions.
ovens will not heat and meat will not keep. A shoul. Dr. Ethel Williams gave careful estimates of the time, mistress with a scientific degree may fail io understand cost, and usefulness of medical inspection. In Newcastle, the hot-water system, the gas meter, or the filter. There with 45,000 children on the books, three officers could is a more excellent way, and it is possible to develop a inspect each child thrice in its school life at a cost of science of the household free from pedantry and free frun. about 2000l. per annum, equivalent to a farthing rate. empiricism in that vast undeveloped intellectual region For the whole country 200,000l. would give similar inspec- connected with the domestic work of women. The dis tion of children, with supervision of epidemics and of cussion was continued by Prof. Armstrong, Prof. Millicent school buildings. Prof. Sadler pointed to the crux of the Mackenzie, and others. disficulty in getting parents to act on medical officers' The morning of Monday, August 6, was reserved for reports, and Mr. Ernest Gray spoke of the attitude of those public- and secondary-school questions relating to thr suspicion in the working classes. Major Salmon spoke of Balance of Subjects in the Curriculum, the perennial interest the Swedish system of gymnastics as developed in Den- in which has lately been revived by " Kappa and by the mark. To keep the air clean for breathing exercises a “ Upton Letters. Papers contributed by the Hon. and damp felt or sacking is passed over the floors before every Rev. E. Lyttelton and by Mr. A. C. Benson were read in lesson.
the absence of the authors. The possible omission of Latin Mr. A. Burrell said that freedom to move in one's in the preparatory school seems to have come within the clothes and a sense of cleanliness were the bases of true range of discussion; at any rate, precedence for French hygiene. The rightly dressed, clean child, and the well- seems agreed upon. Mr. T. E. Page proposed a committee ventilated class-room were the best lessons. Organised to draw up a scheme of general study, to indicate the games had been approved, but playing centres had not yet method and purpose of teaching the various subjects, and been provided. A medico-ethical training was necessary to show at what stage specialisation should be allowed for the teacher who was to stand hour by hour before weak Mr. G. Gidley Robinson spoke of the preparatory-school sight, incipient deafness, and malnutrition. There should master as not a free agent, scholarships being the root of be a standard of health in training colleges analogous to the mischief. Mr. Arthur Rowntree assumed that training that demanded by the Army and Navy.
for power of work and service should be the prime object Mrs. J. R. Macdonald showed how all schemes for the of education, and asked for an unburdening of the curri education of wage-earners of school age were bound up culum to allow of individuality in leisure hours, with social and economic questions. She urged a better Scientific Method in the Study of School Teaching was enforcement of the Employment of Children Act, 1903. described by Prof. J. J. Findlay. Progress has been Mr. Hugh O. Meredith described the Workers' Educational hindered by those earlier advocates of training who treated Association--an effort to organise the higher education of education merely as applied logic and ethics, but progress working men by means of collegiate life in local guilds may be expected from experimental psychology and genetis associated with the University Extension movement. Mr. psychology or child study. The popular interest in educa. Arnold S. Rowntree explained how similar ends tion leads to the ready adoption of opinions rather than achieved by the adult schools meeting on Sunday morn- the encouragement of prolonged investigations; but results ings.
in methods of school teaching can only be secured bt The discussion in Section I on the physiological value observation of children. Educational experiments require of rest might almost have been called a joint meeting, the cooperation of several teachers for several years without considering its interest for those attending Section L. Dr. external interference. Reforms have recently been intrAcland found that sleep was necessary for the growth of the duced by external pressure, and only very inadequate brain and nervous system, and that many schools had not tested by scientific experiments within the schools. secured sufficient sleep either for younger boys or for those Teachers should work in their schools as in a laboratory older boys who needed it. Mental and bodily health can- but scientific habits are not easily acquired. and men not be severed, and muscular exertion is not a remedy for trained in one branch of science do not readily transfer brain fatigue. Dr. Bevan Lewis correlated brain-fag with their scientific habits to the regions of prejudice and tradi. muscular fatigue. The minimum of sleep for growing tion. The demonstration schools at Manchester propose to children was not defined, but no one advocated less than investigate a few special topics, such as the elementar nine hours. Laboratory investigation into the general laws teaching of modern languages, practical mathematics, the of fatigue is needed in the opinion of Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. association of parents with school life, and a school r2777 Dr. Macdougall suggested that early morning sunlight Prof. Findlay 'applied his experimental methods for more should be shut out of a child's room.
than five years in Cardiff to discover the Processos invis Sir Philip Magnus presented the report upon the course in the Acquirement of a Foreign Language. The proces of Experimental, Observational, and Practical Studies most is fundamentally one of acquiring habits of automata mf Suitable for Elementary Schools. The committee asks that action in the association of foreign symbols with ideas