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AN ELABORATE ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF
FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED ASSOCIATIONS-

ANCIENT AND MODERN

ALSO,

DEFINITIONS OF THE

TECHNICAL TERMS USED BY THE FRATERNITY.

BY ROBERT MACOY, 33°,

AUTHOR OF

THE BOOK OF THE LODGE, MASONIC MANUAL, TRUE MASONIC GUIDE, VOCAL
MANUAL, ETC.; PAST DEPUTY GRAND MASTER OF NEW YORK AND NOVA
SCOTIA, PAST GRAND SECRETARY OF NEW YORK, GRAND RECORDER
OF THE GRAND COMMANDERY OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTATIVE
OF THE GRAND LODGES OF WISCONSIN, ILLINOIS AND NOVA
SCOTIA, AND THE GRAND COUNCIL OF NEW BRUNSWICK, ETC.

Illustrated with upwards of 300 Engravings.

NEW YORK:

MASONIC PUBLISHING COMPANY,
432 BROOME STREET.

1870.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by the

MASONIC PUBLISHING AND MANUFACTURING CO.,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

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PREFACE.

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O supply, to some extent, the increasing demand for knowledge, by students in the science of Freemasonry, and to keep step with the irresistible progress of our institution, were the impelling motives that induced the undersigned to undertake the arrangement of a work of this character. Dr. OLIVER'S Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, notwithstanding its value and usefulness, falls short of the present wants of the Fraternity. Dr. ALBERT G. MACKEY'S Lexicon of Freemasonry, better adapted to the requirements of the Fraternity in the United States than any other work of the kind heretofore published, is also deficient in many respects.

The present volume is intended to remedy many of the defeets and omissions of its predecessors, and to exhibit, in a form of easy reference, the latest developments and progress of the institution, and the results of more recent investigations. It contains a comprehensive explication of the whole system of Freemasonry, and of kindred or similar associations-ancient and modern-being a careful condensation of all that has ever been written on the subject; intelligible to the Fraternity, and mysterious to the profane. My purpose will be effectually and very satisfactorily answered, if the definitions here given of the technical and other terms of Masonry, shall prove of sufficient value to

induce the reader to increase his stc ck of knowledge by a reference to other works, where the subjects are more thoroughly discussed, or to confirm the more advanced Mason in the truth of those noble principles of the Craft, to the study of which he has devoted his time and talents. In the preparation of the History of the Masonic Institution, every available means has been adopted to obtain the most reliable information whereon to found a truthful chronicle of its origin and early progress throughout th several parts of the world. The many and almost insurmountable difficulties in arriving at precise dates, when the materials are scattered in different places, or mixed with doubtful circumstances, are sufficient to almost deter any writer from attempting the undertaking. Notwithstanding the uncertainty with which much of the matter of history is surrounded, a diligent and careful examination of the materials, the probabilities of statements possessing the germs of truth were too convincing to be set aside without calm reflection and mature consideration. With these views the history in the accompanying pages is offered to the Fraternity, in the hope that it will prove satisfactory and useful.

I have been greatly assisted in the arrangement of this work by Bro. AUG. C. L. ARNOLD, LL. D., whose knowledge and correct discrimination upon subjects connected with the history and science of Freemasonry and its kindred. associations, will be a guaranty for their correctness. To Bro. JOHN W. SIMONS, Past Grand Master of New York, whose knowledge of the arcana of Masonry is not excelled by any writer of the present age, I am also indebted for many valuable articles and excellent suggestions. To these and other brethren who have kindly aided me I tender my hearty thanks.

Again asking the fraternal indulgence of the brethren for whatever defects may still be apparent, the work is respectfully submitted to their inspection.

ROBT. MACOY.

GENERAL

HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

"Of all the institutions which have been established for the purpose of improving the condition of mankind, Freemasonry stands preeminent in usefulness as it is in age. Its origin is lost in the abyss of unexplored antiquity. No historical records, no traditionary accounts, can with certainty point out the precise time, the place, or the particular manner of its commencement. While some have endeavored to discover its footsteps amongst the master-builders and artists engaged in the construction of the first Jewish temple, others have attempted to trace it to the Eleusinian mysteries, which are said to have taught the immortality of the soul and the other sublime truths of natural religion. Some again have ascribed its rise to the sainted heroes of the Crusades; while others have endeavored to penetrate the mysteries of the Druids, and to discover its origin amongst the wise men of that institution."-DE WITT CLINTON.

THE difficulty of arriving at the precise time, place, or circumstance in which Masonry or its true prototype began, has been encountered by every writer upon the subject. Some, over-anxious for the dignity of the fraternity, have represented it as coeval with the world.* Others, more moderate, find its origin in the religious mysteries of the ancient world, and particularly in a supposed branch of those religions associations formed by the architects of Tyre, who, under the name of the "Dionysiac Fraternity," constituted an association of builders, exclusively engaged in the construction of temples and other prominent edifices in Asia Minor, and who were distinguished by the use of secret signs and other modes of mutual recognition. Without adopting any untenable opinions, we are justified in avowing that the institution must have been framed by a people who

*Anderson, Preston, and many other Masonic writers claim for the order the highest antiquity. Preston is particular in his expressions as to the origin of the institution, by saying: "From the commencement of the world, we may trace the foundation of Masonry." He undoubtedly meant that its principles were coexistent with the universe-for he qualifies the preceding sentence by the following expressions: "Ever since symmetry began, and harmony displayed her charms, our order has had a being." Regarding TRUTH as the sun of the Masonic system, around which all the other virtues revolve, we may trace then its origin to GOD-the fountain of all truth, with whom there is no confusion or disorder, but perfect symmetry and harmony. In that sense the origin of Freemasonry may be reconciled with the" commencement of the world."

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