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There are many adverbial phrases with κατά, as κατὰ μόνας, alone;” κατὰ μοῖραν, “properly;” καθ ̓ ἡσυχίαν, quietly; κατὰ μέρος, “in turn;” κατὰ κράτος, “ by main force;” κατὰ oμikρóv, "by little and little."
480 'T-Téρ-which is connected with wepí, and appears as the comparative degree of -ó-designates the apex of the compass; whereas Tepí denotes the circle described. If the genitive follows, vπép signifies super relatively, i. e. "over" some object; but if the accusative accompanies it, the meaning is ultra, with motion implied, i. e. "beyond" some object. Thus,
(α) Pind. Nem. VII. 65: Αχαιός ἀνὴρ Ἰονίας ὑπὲρ ἁλὸς oikéwv, “an Achæan dwelling above (on the shore of) the Ionian sea.” Thucyd. I. 46: ἔστι δὲ λιμὴν καὶ πόλις ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ Oaλáoons, "there is a harbour and a city above it (on its shore) away from the sea." Plat. Tim. 38 D: ó leòs eOŋkev 1⁄2λov eis TÒV δεύτερον ὑπὲρ γῆς, " God placed the sun in the second orbit above the earth."
(b) Plat. Leg. 855, init.: Toùs aλovs πaρádevyμa ỏvýσeɩ yevóμενος ἀκλεὴς καὶ ὑπὲρ τοὺς τῆς χώρας ὅρους ἀφανισθείς, “he will benefit the others as an example by being disgraced and hurried out of sight beyond the boundaries of the country." Hence very commonly to denote excess in capacity, measure and number; as Dem. p. 536, penult.: pavía eorìv úπèρ dúvaμív тI πoïîv, “it is madness to do anything beyond one's power." Plat. Leg. 839 D: Úπèρ аνОρшπоν, “beyond the power of man." Herod. v. 64: vπèρ
Hom. Od. 1. 34:
тà теσσаρáкоvта ern, "more than forty years." Vπèρ μóрov, "against destiny;" and since past time is regarded as above (see eπí), we have Plat. Tim. 23 c: vπèp τηv p0opáv, "before, earlier than, beyond the destruction (going backwards and upwards in time)."
As the protecting champion fought over, as well as before his friend, we find both vπép and pó, with the genitive, in the sense "on behalf of;" as in Eurip. Alcest. 690: μn Ovñσx vπèρ Tоûď ἀνδρός, οὐδ ̓ ἐγὼ πρὸ σοῦ. But there is an implication of hostility in the use of ὑπέρ with the accusative; thus, ὑπὲρ ἀμπλακίαν, Pind. Isthm. v. 29. Sometimes vπép corresponds in meaning to the
cognate περί, as in Herod. II. 123: τὰ λεγόμενα ὑπὲρ ἑκάστων. It stands in a certain parallelism to ἐμφί and κύκλῳ in Soph. Antig. 117:
στὰς δ ̓ ὑπὲρ μελάθρων φονώ
σαισιν ἀμφιχανὼν κύκλῳ
(ε) Preposition with the Dative and Accusative. Ανά.
481 'Ανά with the dative is nearly equivalent to ὑπέρ with the genitive, or ἐπί with the dative, i. e. it means super, “ up-on ;”
εὕδει ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ Διὸς αὐετός (Pind. Pyth. 1. 6).
But this usage is confined to the poets.
With the accusative, ává signifies sursum per, "up-to" or "up-by;" as
ἀνέβαινε Μελάνθιος αἰπόλος αἰγῶν
ἐς θαλάμους Ὀδυσῆος ἀνὰ ῥῶγας μεγάροιο
(Hom. Od. XXII. 142).
The student must remark the constant antithesis or parallelism of the correlatives àvá and Kaтά, which appear as equivalent particles under the shortened forms av and κév (below, 501). We may represent the force of these prepositions by either of the following forms:
Thus ἀνά, κατά may signify “backwards and forwards,” “hither and thither” (ultro, citroque); ἄνω, κάτω, " up and down” (sursum, deorsum); κατά implies afirmation, ἀνά, negation; κατά signifies progress, ἀνά, retrogression, and so forth. But sometimes it seems a matter of indifference which of these prepositions we employ. Thus we might say, τοὺς ἄρτους πωλεῖν κατ ̓ ὄβολον οι ἀν ̓ ἡμιωβολαία, “ to sell the loaves at an obol” or “ half an obol apiece;" ἀνὰ κράτος, “ up to the full amount of his strength," i. e. “ with all his might” (μετὰ πάσης σπουδῆς, Suidas), or κατὰ δύναμιν, “according to his power;” ἀνὰ πέντε οι καθ ̓ ἑπτά, “by fves or by sevens;” and ἐσκεδάσθησαν ἀνὰ τὰς πόλεις, “ they were scattered
up and down the cities," or kaтà Tóλeis dieкpionσav, "they separated to their respective cities." The following idioms deserve notice: ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν ἡμέραν, “ all the day,” but ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέραν, day by day;” ἀνὰ πᾶσαν γῆν καὶ θάλατταν εἰρήνη ἔσται, "there shall be peace throughout all the land and sea;” àvà μépos, "in turn;" ȧvà σтóμa exwv, "speaking of, having in the mouth" (П. 11. 250; Eurip. Electr. 80); similarly ȧvà στóμa eivaí Tivi (Lucian, Navig. 43); ȧvà λóyov, “proportionally," whence ảvà Tòv avròv λóyov, "in the same proportion;" àvà Sua, "throughout the house" (I. 1. 670); ȧvà σтрaróv, "throughout the army" (Ibid. IV. 209); ἀνὰ θυμὸν φρονεῖν, ὁρμαίνειν (Ibid. II. 36, ΧΧΙ. 137), “ to think or ponder in one's mind."
Obs. 'Avá, as a preposition, is never anastrophized, i. e. accentuated on the first syllable (vide Hom. Od. XIII. 34: velòv av čλкntov); but we have ava for the imper. áváσrno, and this is not elided (vide Soph. Ajax, 194).
(5) Prepositions with three Cases. 'Aμpi and πepí.
482 'Appí, utrinque, and πepí, circum, are nearly synonymous; the former denotes an imperfect, the latter a completed circle. Hence ȧupí is sometimes strengthened by the addition of Kukλ or περί, as in ἀμφιχανὼν κύκλῳ, ἀμφὶ περὶ κρήνην. We find ἀμφί chiefly in the Ionic writers and in poetry; Tepí occurs everywhere. It is to be observed that, while dupí with the dative is never found in Attic prose, Tepi with this case is very rarely used by the Athenian prose writers in the strictly local sense, and that both of these prepositions occur most frequently in connexion with the accusative.
(a) 'Aμpí, πeρí, with the genitive, signify "around, with relation to, yet separation from, something else;" as
ἀμφὶ πόλιος οἰκέουσι (Herod. VIII. 104).
τετάνυστο περὶ σπείους ἡμερίς (Hom. Od. v. 68).
Hence, "about or concerning;" as
τοιάδ ̓ ἀμφὶ σῆς λέγω παιδὸς θανούσης (Eurip. Hec. 580).
περί τε γραμμάτων δυνάμεως καὶ συλλαβῶν καὶ ῥυθμῶν καὶ ἁρμοviv (Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 285 D).
This construction is common with verbs like διαλέγεσθαι, βουλεύεσθαι, πυνθάνεσθαι, πρέσβεις πέμπειν, μάχεσθαι, κινδυνεύειν, δοκεῖν, ποιεῖν, λέγειν, &c.
In old Greek Tepi meant "above," like the cognate preposition ὑπέρ; thus Π. Ι. 287: περὶ πάντων ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, “to be before and above all others;" from this we have in common Greek the phrases περὶ παντός, πολλοῦ, ὀλίγου, σμικροῦ, οὐδενός, ποιεῖσθαι, εἶναι, “ to estimate or be counted above every thing, a good deal, at a little, at nothing."
(6) Αμφί, περί, with the dative, signify " around and upon or close by;" as
πέπλους ῥήγνυσιν ἀμφὶ σώματι (Æsch. Pers. 199).
χιτώνας φεροῦσιν οὐ μόνον περὶ τοῖς στέρνοις, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τοῖς μήροις (Xen. Anab. VII. 4, § 4).
περὶ τῇ χεῖρι χρυσοῦν δακτύλιον φέρειν (Plat. Resp. p. 359 D). περὶ μὲν τῇσι κεφαλῇσι εἶχον τιάρας (Herod. vii. 61).
After verbs of fearing, &c. and with nouns of the same meaning, περί is frequently an accompaniment of the dative; thus I. VIII. 183: ἀτύζεσθαι περὶ κάπνῳ. Thucyd. 1. 60, § 1 : δεδιότες περὶ τῷ χωρίῳ. Plat. Phaedo, 114 D: θαῤῥεῖν περὶ τῇ ἑαυτοῦ ψυχῇ; also conversely, περὶ τάρβει, περὶ φόβῳ, περὶ χάρματι, and the like. But φοβεῖσθαι also takes the genitive with περί or ὑπέρ, as in the phrase: περὶ ἑαυτῶν φοβοῦνται καὶ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν.
(c) Αμφί, περί, with the accusative, signify “ motion or extension around.” Thus Herodotus, in the passage quoted under (6), adds, περὶ δὲ τὸ σῶμα κιθῶνας, because while the tiara remains firm on the head, the tunic floats about the body; but see the preceding example from Xenophon; we have an implied motion in
ἀμφί τε ἄστυ ἕρδομεν ἱρὰ θεοῖσιν (Π. ΧΙ. 706).
ὁ μὲν δὴ περὶ Πιερίην διέτριβε ἡμέρας συχνάς (Herod. VII. 131).
Both ȧupí and Teρí are used with vague indications of time or number, as ἀμφί οι περὶ πλήθουσαν ἀγοράν, " about the time when the market is full ;” similarly ἀμφὶ δείλην, " about evening;” ἀμφὶ τὰ ἑκκαίδεκα ἔτη γεγονώς, “ about sixteen years old;” similarly περὶ τούτους τοὺς χρόνους, " about those times ;” περὶ μέσας νύκτας, “ about midnight;" περὶ τρισχιλίους, " about three thousand." These prepositions are also used with verbs signifying "to be busied about anything,” εἶναι, ἔχειν ἀμφί τι; εἶναι περὶ τὴν θήραν,
διατρίβειν περὶ τὴν γεωμετρίαν, σπουδάζειν περί τι, εὐσεβεῖν περὶ θεούς, ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς περὶ τὴν πόλιν, and the like. Hence we have περί in a periphrasis, like οἱ περὶ Κύρον, " Cyrus and his attendants," or even Cyrus himself (above, 399, (y)).
483 'Em, which is another form of dupi, by itself denotes superposition.
(a) With the genitive therefore it signifies superposition with separation. There are two applications of this meaning. We may either imply, that, although there is total separation, yet the object is so placed that a line drawn from it would pass over or through the object designated by the genitive; or we may signify, that, although one object is placed on the top of another, yet the whole of the superimposed object does not rest upon the supporting surface. In the former case, èπí with the genitive may denote direction or motion at a certain height, e. g. a ship at sea was considered to be up in the air (μετέωρος); hence such phrases as πλεῖν ἐπὶ Σάμου (Thucyd. 1. 116), "to sail in the direction of Samos;" Tà èπì Θράκης, Opárns, "the Thraceward districts." Past time is considered as up or above (cf. the augment è- for ává, and see above, 480, (b), for a similar use of ὑπέρ); hence ἐπὶ Δαρείου ἐγένετο (Herod. VI. 98), "it happened in the time of Darius." In the other case, éπí with the genitive denotes partial superposition, as when a line is regarded as passing over two points (hence called ep' v, Arist. Eth. Nic. v. 4, § 12), or when planks are laid across piles fixed at intervals (Herod. v. 16 : ἴκρια ἐπὶ σταυρῶν ὑψηλῶν ἕστηκε), or when burdens are laid upon the head or shoulders, so as to extend beyond them on both sides (Herod. II. 35 : οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν κεφαλέων φορέουσι, αἱ δὲ γυναῖκες ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων). Hence such phrases as ἐπὶ θρόνου καθίζεσθαι, ἐφ ̓ ἵππου ὀχεῖσθαι, because in sitting and riding the legs hang down by the side. But we have in Eurip. Phoen. 74: éπì ζυγοῖς καθέζετ' ἀρχῆς, and in sch. Agam. 1538: κρατούντων τῶν ἐπὶ ζυγῷ δορός, of the officers, whose seats were placed on the ζυγά, so that their whole body was superimposed, as contrasted with the rowers, who would be said καθῆσθαι ἐπὶ ζυγῶν. This usage of ἐπί with the genitive applies to every description in which a body rests