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Preparing the Warp for a Power-Loom

[See the Cut on the preceding page.) There is abundance of evidence to prove that the art of weaving has been carried on from very early times. It is connected with many interesting periods, scenes, and personages in history, but in its simpler forms Modern inventions have introduced wonder. ful changes.

Before the actual weaving there are several preparatory processes, (says the Pictorial History of the Arts,) one of which is the warping, the nature and object of which may be very readily understood. As the hanks of

spun material, whether cotion or any other, 3 are wrapped up closely, the yarn requires to

be stretched out and laid parallel before it is filted to act as warp for the woven cloth; and this process of arranging it is called warping. There have been, at different periods in the history of weaving, four different modes of performing this process : by the aid of the warping-field, the warping-frame, the warping-mill, and the warping-machine.

In the warping-machine connected with 3 loom-weaving the warping and other pro

cesses are conducted pretty much at the same s time. The bobbins containing the yarn are

ranged with their axes horizontal and parals lel. The yarns are drawn from the bob3 bins, made to pass under some rollers, and

over others, and are at length brought into a s parallel layer, with a comb or grating of five

wires so employed as to separate the yards in an equidistant manner. After having so passed, the yarns are made to coil round a roiler or beam, and are in that state removed from the machine.

Cotion warp has yet to be dressed or sized to keep the threads smooth. The sizing is put on liquid, with a brush, and then dried by stirring the air with a fan.

years past, by giving currency to the doctrine which has become so popular, of the natural superiority of the “Anglo-Saxon race!" Our ancestors and our relatives, to the most remote and almost inconceivable degrees of relationship, have been over and over declared to be a wonderful, a transcendent race of men. This would not be harmless, even if it had stopped at the flattery of national vanity: but what reflecting man would ever have expected tha:? We are so practical in all our habits, that doctrines are soon brought to use ; and hence, we have long since seen intimations, tnat rights grew out of our might, physical and intellectual; and now we find thousands around thirsting to see the overrated territories of Mexico and California in the possession of our government, chiefly on the plea that they would be better managed by Anglo-Saxon hands. Not only so, but we have accounts in the newspapers, of American army-officers and cadets, overwhelming the war department with letters soliciting commands in Texas: and of militia companies placing themselves at the orders of any generals, to march anywhere, to spread the conquest of Anglo-Saxon principles. At all this, the good sense of the country laughs; we wish the prudence of the country, her justice and christianity, might do something to counteract so dangerous, so discreditable, yet so paltry and cowardly a spirit.

Hence we are looking in the face, a people of about one-third or one quarter of our own numbers, and, according to some of the “patriotic” Anglo-Saxon writers, three quarters Indians, &c., having about one Mexican to twenty or thirty of us; and suddenly the bravery of certain persons is aroused, iwo thousand miles off, against that poor, ignorant, uneducated people, hardly alive after thirty years of revolutions, and three centuries of Spanish and Romish oppression. There is a training day in some village, the drums beat, the fifes squeel, the chicken's feathers stick high up on the felt hats and leather caps, the AngloSaxon spirit is roused, and nothing but blood can quiet it! New-England rum and Western whiskey combine to push on the mighty result. Temperance pledges luckily are not universal, or the last sparks of patriotic fire would have been extinguished irrecoverably. Cider-brandy, rye.gin, and boiled cider comes to the rescue, and old “ Pupperlo" is clamor. ous for “ glory."

The Present War Spirit. Whoever overlooks the war-spirit of a portion of our countrymen, will be forgetful of a very considerable, and a very dangerous in. gredient of our national character. We see it now displaying itself, in an unusual degree, because an opportunity is afforded by some prospects of a war with Mexico. We have

long had vaporing enough; and, in our opinŞion, some good, philanthropic, and even pa 3 cific men have unconsciously been hea ping { up fuel for a military combustion for several

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In all this, there is nothing mean, paltry nor cowardly. Ten men, even of the most vagabond character, would hardly think of falling upon one helpless, friendless, feeble ? victim. Certainly they would never hold meetings and pass resolutions beforehand, (any where out of Lexington,j proclaiming the wonderful glories of their enterprize. But when thousands applaud, and the matters is on a larger scale, some are found who will not blush. The Mexicans are fit objects for our compassion and philanthropic attention. Our superior blessings, social and political, have laid us under quite as many duties, as reasons for vaunting; and oh, that our AngloSaxon blood might not display itself wholly in the latter !

bly passed through the hall and out at the front door, standing open at the time. Noi injury was sustained by Miss W. beyond a 3 shock which caused a sensation of numbness in the limb most exposed. Her foot was 3 not even burned by the lightning. Mr. W. S stood in the door-way a few feet from the fire-place, and felt the shock sensibly, but received no injury, although the lighining in its course, to all appearance, must have passed by him while standing in the door-way.

THE MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH through New Jersey, it is expected, will be completed by the 1st of December; also from Baltimore to Philadelphia in November; to form a continuous line of Telegraph from Washington 10 New York by the time Congress assembles. The important business of ihe next session will be reported in New York, by this arrangement, in fewer hours than it has heretofore taken days for it to reach us by Mail or Ex. press.

THE WHALING FLEET OF New LONDON, Conn., is again all absent from home. Twenty seven ships and barks, and two schooners, (ihe latter for the sealing business) have been fitted out there the present season. Of these, six ships and both the schooners, were newly purchased.

The tonnage of these ships added the present season, is 2865-averaging nearly 487 tons each. The tondage of the whole number of vessels fitted out this season, including the two schooners, is 10,755 tons-showing that an usually large amount of business has been transacted here, although the season has closed somewhat earlier than usual.

Thunder SHOWER.-In a thunder shower at New Haven, Connecticut, a few days ago, several houses were struck. The Íontine Hotel was considerably damaged. The fluid descended by the flag-staff, rending it nearly the whole distance, into splinters, and enter. ing the observatory, tearing that in a terrific manner. It then escaped to the ridge, where it divided and ran down to the eaves, tearing up the shingles and seriously injuring one of the rafters in its course. It was attracted each way from the observatory, without doubl, by the streams of water which ran from it to the metallic trough on the edge of the roof. From thence it followed, probably, to the chimneys on each side, and may bave escaped to the earth by the rods attached to them. In the attic, where much of the dam. age was done, was the sleeping apartment of the help ; and in this room, at the time, was a colored man, who received a severe shock, but escaped with only a temporary prostration of his senses. One or two others felt the shock, but were not injured.

This is the second time that the Tontine has been struck by lightning, owing, probably, to its elevation above the surrounding buildings.

The lightning also struck the house of Mr. John Walton, entered by way of a chimney which led to a kitchen in the rear, at the fire-place of which Miss Walion was employed with tongs in band, removing coals from the hearth to a tin baker standing near. She thinks she saw the flash descend, and dropped the tongs out of her hands. Feeling the shock, she immediately rushed into the adjoining room exclaiming, “my foot is on fire,-my foot! my foot !!" Upon examining her shoe, she found that the ligh!ning had passed through it entirely, and tearing the upper leather near the ball of the foot. Passing between the foot and the sole of the shoe it burnt her stocking in several places, and passed through the shoe on the side almost directly opposite where it entered, and proba. 3

AMERICAN MECHANICS IN RUSSIA.-Estwick & Evans, formerly extensive manufactureis of} rail road engines in Philadelphia, at the soli. citation of the Emperor of Russia, transferred their machinery as well as skill to St. Peters. burg. A vast system of rail roads, joining the extremities of that nation, is to be made. The establishment of Estwick & Evans is said to be vast; and the rail roads in process are under the immediate management of Americans, as well as the locomotive power.

Maj. Whistler, a Bostonian, is chief engi. neer, and three thousand five hundred operalives are employed in it. To keep order in this mixed mass of Americans, English, Scotch, Irish, Germans and Russians, a company of soldiers is kept on duty, in conjunc-> iion with a police force whose duties are confined to the works. If the operatives are refractory they are discharged, unless there happen to be Russians among them; and when any of these offend against the discipline of ihe place, they are immediately tied up to the triangles, soundly flogged and sent to work again. And this practice is conuin. ued, notwithstanding Messrs. Harrison and Estwick have strongly appealed against it.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

{ SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF ADMIRAL

PAUL JONES.
Abridged from the Appendix to Curwen's

Journal, third edition, by George Atkinson
Ward.

Admiral Paul Jones was a native of the parish of Kirkbean, Scotland, son of a farmer } named John Paul. He was born in 1747. ŞHe early became a seaman; and at 18 was s master of a West India vessel. Having

given a sailor a fatal wound in suppressing a mutiny, although acquitted by a court in the island where it occurred, he was so much persecuted on his return to England, that he took up his residence in Virginia with his

brother, who afterwards left him considera} ble properly.

When the Revolution commenced he was s appointed senior first lieutenant in the navy,

on the recommendation of Robert Morris, Mr. Hughes and Gen. Jones, of North Carolina, whose sirname he afterwards assumed in gratitude for his friendship. He made a

cruise in the 28 gun ship Alfred, and in Febs ruary, 1776, took command of the Providence,

12 guns, in which he took sixteen vessels in

six weeks, and destroyed the fishing estabs lishment at Isle Madame. He also fought the Solebay, 18, and twice the Milford, 32.

He was made Captain, Oct. 10, 1776, and s in the Alfred destroyed the fisheries at Port 3 Royal, and took all the vessels there, with { their cargoes. February 20, 1776, being at s Brest in the Ranger, 18, he received from

Count D'Orvilliers, the first salute ever given to the American flag by a foreign man-ofwar. In April he scaled the fort of Whitehaven, and spiked the guns. 28 in number. Soon after he landed on St. Mary's Isle, on the Scotch coast, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk, not, as has been pretended, as a freebooter although his men plundered the house of plate : for le bought it up and restored it to the owner, and received an honorable letter 3 in return, conveying the thanks of the Earl and his Countess. The Drake, of 20 guns, being sent out against him, he captured it in sight of numerous spectators.

He spent the next year at Brest, in morti3 fying delays, waiting a promised squadron ;

when he was struck by the first of “Poor Richard's Maxims," then recently published by Dr. Franklin: “If you wish your business s aithfully and expeditiously done, do it your ?

self; if otherwise, send.” He set off directly for Paris, and soon sailed with five ships : the Alliance, 36; Pallas, 30; Ceres, 18; Vengeance, 18; and Duras, 40, which he named 3 Le Bon Homme Richard, in memory of the adviser he had followed "Poor Richard."

This vessel was a worn-out East Indiaman; but in it he sailed from L'Orient to capture the Baltic fleet, which he probably would have taken if supported by his squadron. He took the Serapis, 50 guns, and Countess of Scarboro'20, after a desperate action, with a loss of 306 men out of 380 in his own vessel, 7 feet water in the hold and on fire in two places. After this he engaged with Holland in the war against England, and was noticed by Louis the 16th. Congress struck a medal for him and gave him the command of a fine 74 which was building at Portsmouth, but afterwards presented it to France. He then joined the French fleets.

In 1786 he was appointed agent to Denmark and Sweden, to obtain indemnity for prizes delivered by them to England, and afterwards entered the Russian navy as Rear Admiral. For his services against the Turks, June 7th, 1788, he was made Rear Admiral, and decorated by the Empress. The opposi. tion of his enemies is said to have embittered his latter years; and he resigned his office and lived in France until September 12th, 1792, when he died soon after he had been appointed by Gen. Washington agent for captives al Algiers. He was buried in Paris with public honors.

For our own rar: we cannot look upon such a sketch of desperate and bloody deeds without pain and revoluing of heart, especially as some were performed against his own native-born countrymen, and some of them were of doubtful necessity. If war can justify all these, then we say, God in mercy preserve peace!

DISTINGUISHED GRADUATES OF
NASSAU HALL, OR PRINCETON
COLLEGE.
[From the Tronton Emporium.)

Class of 1766. Oliver Ellsworth was born at Windsor, Conn. on the 29th of April, 1745. He soon after commenced the practice of law, and became a distinguished ornament to the profession.He was a member of the continental Congress, and of the Convention that framed the Constitution of the United States. On the orga

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nization of the federal government he was eleciej to the Senate of the United States, and conunued a member of that body for eight years. In 1796 he was appointed by Presi. dent Washington, Chief Justice of the United States, and in 1999 he was sent as envoy ex. traordinary to the court of France. Judge Ellsworth was distinguished for talents, learn. ing and patriotism, and received the degree of Doctor of Laws, both from Dartmouth and Yale. He died November 261h, 1807, at the age of sixty-five years.

David Howell was born in New Jersey, in S 1747. Becoming a resident of Providence, he

was appointed Professor of Mathematics, and subsequently of Law in the University of Rhode Island. He was a judge of the supreme court of the State, and a member of the Con. tinental Congress, and in 1812, was appointed Judge of the United States Court for that district which held until his death. He was a man of great talents and learning, a profound Jawyer and an honest man. Judge Howell died on the 291h of June, 1824, aged seveniy. seven years.

Daniel McCalla, D. D., was born at Neshaminy, Pa., in 1749. He became a chaplain in the army, and having been captured by the enemy, was sometime confined in a prisonshin. He spent the greater portion of his life in South Carolina, where he was celebrated for his learning and eloquence, and received from the College in that State, the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He died on the 6th of April, 1809, at the age of sixty years.

Nathaniel Niles was a native of Connecticut. After due theological preparation, he preached for some time as a candidate, and devoted himself to the practice of law. Mr. Niles attained eminence at the bar, and filled various public stations, among others that of Judge of the Supreme Court of Vermont. He was dis. tinguished as a theologian, jurist, and metaphysician, and was an author of considerable repute.

John Woodhull, D. D., devoted himself to the sacred office, and was settled in the town of Leacock, Lancaster county, Pa. Afier remaining at this place for some vears, he was called to the congregation at Freehold, Monmouth Co. N. J., where he continued until

the period of his death, having been pastor s of that Church for more than half a centu.

College of New Jersey, in 1767. Mr. Barber was distinguished during his College course, for the extent and accuracy of his literary attainments. In 1769, Mr. Barber became ihe principal of a classical school in ElizabethTown, N. J., where he devoted himself to the instruction of his pupils, and the pursuit of science. At the breaking out of the American Revolution, Mr. Barber closed his school, and accompanied by many of his pupils, repaired at once to the theatre of war." In 1776, he received from Congress, a commission as Ma. jor of the third battalion of the New Jersey troops ; and at the close of the year, he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the third re. giment of New Jersey. He was soon afier appointed assistant inspector general, and received from Baron Steuben, the highest ieslie mony in favor of his talents, activity, and ser. vices.

Col. Barber was in constant service from the time he entered the army, until the close of the war. He served with his regiment under General Schuyler at the north. He was at the battles of Ticonderoga, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth, and took a prominent part in the balile of Springfield. In 1781, he was at the capture of the British army, under Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. The Rev. Dr. Murray, in his interesting work on Elizabethtown, from which the above facts have been derived, states, that at the close of the war, and on the very day on which Washington was about to announce to the army the signing of the ireaty of peace, Col. Barber was killed in the vicini. ty of Newburgh, as he was riding along the edge of a wood by the falling of a tree upon him. “He was " says the author just named, “a fine scholar-a skilful and brave officerand rendered great and important services to his country. He has many descendants.Among the pupils at the school at Elizabethtown, when under the charge of M2. Barber, were Gen. Hamilton, Brock holst, Livingston, and others, distinguished in the history of the country. At the time that Mr. Barber closed his school, bis Assistant was Aaron Ogden, who had a short time before completed his education at Princeton. Young Ogden, whose patriotism was as glowing as that of his prin. cipal, accompanied Mr. Barber when he repaired to the standard of his country, and when Mr. Barber joined the army as a Major, Og. den entered it as a Captain, and they were to gesher at Brandy wine, Monmouth, Springfield and Yorktown.

[We find in the old New Jersey Gazette, the following notice of Col. Barber's death. It appears in the form of a letter from New Windsor barracks, and is dated February 12, 1783.)

Col. Barber was killed by the most extraordinary accident He leit on horseback about 10 o'clock to ride to his quarters, and in going through The woods in our rear, the top of a large tree which some soldiers were

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"Dr. Woodhull was a sound theologian, an able and powerful preacher, and an ardent patriot. He took part in the balıle of Monmouth, and was an unshrinking supporter of the Independence of America. Dr. Woodhull was for more than forty years a trustee of the College of New Jersey. Dr. Woodhull mar. ried a step daughter of the celebrated Gilbert Tennant. He died at Freehold in 1824, and his descendants are among the most respectable citizens of New Jersey.

Class of 1767. Francis Barler was born at Princeton, N. J., in the year 1751, and wa graduated at the

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