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appear a Wit and a Man of Paradoxes; or out of Bravery, to be thought one of a bold daring Spirit, or it may be for Experiment, to try what others will say; or the better to recommend himself to some sort of Company by such an outward Compliance, though at the same time he has nothing of this in the Bottom of his Judgement. But when a Man shall deny Him by the whole Tenor of his Life and Manners, 'tis plain that he really Thinks what the other Speaks, and there is more Reason why he should be believ'd upon his Life, than that the other should upon his Word: nay more than that he himself should be believ'd upon his own word to the Contrary. For the bare Profession of a God is no Convincing Argument that a Man believes a God (though it may be an Argument of Charity when nothing appears to Contradict it) since Interest and Decency may give us a sufficient account of that Matter. But on the other side, a Wicked Life is a plain Demonstration that a Man disbelieves Him, at least during his Continuance in it, an ill Liver being, as I have shewn, no better than an Atheist for the time being. Which in short is the true difference between a Practical and a Speculative Atheist, the Speculative Atheist being in Habit what the Practical one is in Act, and the Practical Atheist being in Act what the Speculative one is in Habit. J. NORRIS

368. REASON AND IMAGINATION. The metaphor employed by Plato was that of a charioteer driving his pair of horses, by which latter he allegorized the concupiscible and irascible passions: but as we have nowadays left off driving our own chariots, but keep a coachman to do it for us, I think the mind may be more commodiously compared to a traveller riding a single horse, wherein reason is represented by the rider, and imagination with all its train of opinions, appetites and habits, by the beast. Every body sees the horse does all the work; the strength and speed requisite for performing it are his own; he carries his master along every step of the journey, directs the motion of his own legs in walking, trotting, galloping, or stepping over a rut, makes many by-motions, as whisking the flies with his tail or playing with his bit, all by his own instinct; and if the road lie plain and open, without bugbears to affright him or rich pasture on either hand to entice him, he will jog on although the reins were laid upon his neck, or in a well-acquainted road take the right turnings of his own accord.

369. ENQUIRY INTO THE CONDUCT OF THE MINISTRY. But, say gentlemen, what is this minister accused of? What crime is laid to his charge? For, unless some misfortune is said to have happened, some crime to have been committed, no inquiry ought to be set on foot. Sir, the ill posture of our affairs both abroad and at home, the melancholy situation we are in, the distresses we are now reduced to, are sufficient causes for inquiry, even supposing he were accused of no particular crime or misconduct. The nation lies bleeding, perhaps expiring. The balance of power has received a deadly blow. Shall we acknowledge this to be the case, and shall we not inquire whether it has happened by mischance, or by the misconduct, perhaps the malice prepense, of our minister here at home? Before the treaty of Utrecht, it was the general opinion, that in a few years of peace we should be able to pay off most of our debts. We have now been very near thirty years in profound peace; at least we have never been engaged in any war but what we unnecessarily brought on ourselves; and yet our debts are nearly as great as they were when that treaty was concluded. Is not this a misfortune, and shall we make no inquiry how this misfortune has happened? LORD CHATHAM


THE PASTORAL STATE. The first great advance beyond this state consists in the domestication of the more useful animals; giving rise to the pastoral or nomad state, in which mankind do not live on the produce of hunting, but on milk and its products, and on the annual increase of flocks and herds. This condition is not only more desirable in itself, but more conducive to further progress; and a much more considerable amount of wealth is accumulated under it. So long as the vast natural pastures of the earth are not yet so fully occupied as to be consumed more rapidly than they are spontaneously reproduced, a large and constantly increasing stock of subsistence may be collected and preserved, with little other labour than that of guarding the cattle from the attacks of wild beasts, and from the force or wiles of predatory men. Large flocks and herds, therefore, are in time possessed, by active and thrifty individuals through their own exertions, and by the heads of families and tribes through the exertions of those who are connected with them by allegiance. There thus arises, in the shepherd state, inequality of possessions; a thing which scarcely exists in the savage state, where no one

has much more than absolute necessaries, and in case of deficiency must share even those with his tribe. In the nomad state, some have an abundance of cattle, sufficient for the food of a multitude, while others have not contrived to appropriate and retain any superfluity, or perhaps any cattle at all. But subsistence has ceased to be precarious, since the more successful have no other use which they can make of their surplus than to feed the less fortunate, while every increase in the number of persons connected with them is an increase both of security and of power: and thus they are enabled to divest themselves of all labour except that of government and superintendence, and acquire dependents to fight for them in war and to serve them in peace.


37I. THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL A.D. 1642. It was near three of the clock in the afternoon before the battle began; which at that time of the year was so late, that some were of opinion that the business should be deferred till the next day.' But' against that there were many objections; 'the king's numbers could not increase, the enemy's might;' for they had not only their garrisons within distance, but all that county so devoted to them, that they had all provisions brought to them without the least trouble: whereas, on the other side, the people were so disaffected to the king's party, that they had carried away or hid all their provisions, insomuch as-there was neither meat for man or horse; and the very smiths hid themselves, that they might not be compelled to shoe the horses, of which in those stony ways there was great need. This proceeded not from any radical malice or disaffection to the king's person; but by the reports and infusions which the other very diligent party had wrought into the people's belief, 'that the cavaliers were of a fierce bloody and licentious disposition, and that they committed all manner of cruelty upon the inhabitants of those places where they came, of which robbery was the least.'


372. OF ERROR. The opinion of Epicurus, that the gods were of human shape, was rather justly derided than seriously confuted by the other sects, demanding whether every kind of sensible creatures did not think their own figure fairest, as the horse, the bull, and the like, which found no beauty but 34


in their own forms, as in appetite of lust appeared. And the heresy of the Anthropomorphites was ever censured for a gross conceit, bred in the obscure cells of solitary monks that never looked abroad. Again, the fable so well known of Quis pinxit leonem, doth set forth well, that there is an error of pride and partiality, as well as of custom and familiarity. The reflection also from glasses so usually resembled to the imagery of the mind, every man knoweth to receive error and variety both in colour, magnitude, and shape, according to the quality of the glass. But yet no use hath been made of these and many the like observations to move men to search out, and upon search to give true cautions of the native and inherent errors in the mind of man, which have coloured and corrupted all his notions and impressions.


373. FLATTERY. The third thing wherein flattery consists is, the perverse imitation of any one's defects or vices, which seems to carry it higher than the former, forasmuch as actions are much more considerable than words or discourses. A man, for many causes, may be brought to commend that which he will never be prevailed upon to follow : but for any one to transcribe and copy out in himself whatsoever he sees ridiculous or impious in another, this argues a temper made up of nothing but baseness and servility. And to any generous and free spirit it is really a very nauseous and a fulsome thing to see some prostitute their tongues and their judgments by saying as others say, commending what they commend, dispraising whatsoever things or persons they dis-. praise, and framing themselves to any absurd gesture or motion that they observe in them; making themselves as it were an echo to their voice and a shadow to their bodies. a word, no man can be exact and perfect in this way of flattery without being a monkey and a mimic, and a lump of wax for any fool to stamp his image upon. But surely few would be so sottish and servile, as to break a leg or an arm, or put out an eye, because they see the great person whom they depend upon and adore, deprived of any of these parts. And if so, do they not consider that a man is to be more tender of his manners and the dignity of his soul, than of anything that belongs to his body, which would give him but a small pre-eminence above the brutes, were it not animated and exalted by a principle of reason.



374. PARLIAMENTARY REFORM. That some working men should be deluded by impudent assertions and gross sophisms; that, suffering cruel privations, they should give ready credence to promises of relief; that, never having investigated the nature and operation of government, they should expect impossibilities from it, and should reproach it for not performing impossibilities; all this is perfectly natural. No errors which they may commit ought ever to make us forget that it is in all probability owing solely to the accident of our situation that we have not fallen into errors precisely similar. There are few of us who do not know from experience that, even with all our advantages of education, pain and sorrow can make us very querulous and very unreasonable. We ought not, therefore, to be surprised that, as the Scotch proverb says, 'it should be ill talking between a full man and a fasting;' that the logic of the rich man who vindicates the rights of property, should seem very inconclusive to the poor man who hears his children cry for bread. I bring, I say, no accusation against the working classes. I would withhold from them nothing which it might be for their good to possess. I see with pleasure that, by the provisions of the Reform Bill, the most industrious and respectable of our labourers will be admitted to a share in the government of the State. If I would refuse to the working people that larger share of power which some of them have demanded, I would refuse it, because I am convinced that, by giving it, I should. only increase their distress. I admit that the end of government is their happiness. But, that they may be governed for their happiness, they must not be governed according to the doctrines which they have learned from their illiterate, incapable, lowminded flatterers. LORD MACAULAY

375. SPEECH OF A CITIZEN OF LUCCA TO THE PEOPLE. You have often heard and must needs understand that things done of necessity are neither to be praised nor condemned. If therefore you accuse us of having drawn this war upon you by suffering the Duke's forces to assault you, you are highly mistaken. You cannot be ignorant of the ancient and inveterate hatred the Florentines bear you; so that it is not any injury in you, nor any resentment in them, but your weakness and their ambition which has provoked them; the first giving them hopes, the other impatience to oppress you.

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