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retur. xv. atqui si diligenter, quid Mithridates potuerit et quid effecerit et qui vir fuerit, consideraris, omnibus regibus, quibuscum populus Romanus bellum gessit, hunc regem nimirum antepones : quem L. Sulla, maximo et fortissimo exercitu, pugnae certe non rudis imperator, ut aliud nihil dicam, cum bello invectum totam in Asiam, cum pace dimisit: quem L. Murena, pater huiusce, vehementissime vigilantissimeque vexatum, repressum magna ex parte, non oppressum reliquit: qui rex, sibi aliquot annis sumptis ad confirmandas rationes et

copias belli, tantum ipse conatu valuit, ut se Oceanum cum 33 Ponto, Sertorii copias cum suis coniuncturum putaret. ad

quod bellum duobus consulibus ita missis, ut alter Mithridatem persequeretur, alter Bithyniam tueretur, alterius res, et terra et mari calamitosae, vehementer opes regis et nomen auxerunt; L. Luculli vero res tantae exstiterunt, ut neque maius bellum commemorari possit neque maiore consilio et virtute gestum. nam cum totius impetus belli ad Cyzicenorum

. moenia constitisset eamque urbem sibi Mithridates Asiae

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xv. nimirum] in apodosis, as in de Off. 11. $ 71. Z.

pugnae certe etc.] here I believe 2. rightly emends from pugna certe of MS. Lag. 9.

cum pace] opposed to cum bello. He merely gave up what he had seized : this was in 85 B.C., the first Mithridatic war.

L. Murena] left behind in command by Sulla in 84 B.C. and ordered not to provoke Mithridates; he did not obey this and in the second Mithridatic war fared ill (83—81 B.c.) at the king's hands; here Cicero speaks with great oratorical license.

repressum] so in Catil. 1. § 30.
aliquot] sc. seven, 81—75 B.C.

rationes] his position, both as to plans and material of war, in re. lation to his enemy. cf. § 4, tempestatum rationem. Or 'plans.' cf. ss 46, 83.

ipse] 'unaided,' not, as in the war with Sulla, having many allies to back him. Most editors however

prefer spe conatuque, and perhaps they are right.

Oceanum] the Atlantic. Pontum, the Euxine. i.e., rule the land from sea to sea.

Sertorii] For this see Mommsen, book v. ch. 1.

33. consulibus] L. Licinius Lucullus and M. Aurelius Cotta ; for the full history of this war, called the third Mithridatic, see Mommsen, book v. ch. 2.

ita] with instructions that while the one (Lucullus) was to pursue Mithridates, the other (Cotta) was to cover Bithynia.'

calamitosae] The disaster of Chalkedon, before the arrival of Lucullus,

constitisset] I can see no alternative but to accept this correction for extitisset of the MSS., which seems inexplicable with impetus. We must not however compare Liv. XXI. 49, XXII. 32, for, as H. remarks, the meaning there is ‘had come to a standstill;' here, had come to a

in B.C. 74.

ianuam fore putasset, qua effracta et revulsa tota pateret provincia, ita perfecta ab Lucullo haec sunt omnia, ut et urbs fidelissimorum sociorum defenderetur et omnes copiae regis diuturnitate obsessionis consumerentur. quid ? illam pugnam navalem ad Tenedum, cum contento cursu, acerrimis cucibus, hostium classis Italiam spe atque animis inflata peteret, mediocri certamine et parva dimicatione commissain arbitraris ? mitto proelia, praetereo oppugnationes oppidorum : expulsus regno tandem aliquando tantum tamen consilio atque auctoritate valuit, ut se rege Armeniorum adiuncto novis opibus copiisque renovarit. XVI. ac si mihi nunc de rebus gestis esset nostri exercitus imperatorisque dicendum, plurima et maxima proelia commemorare possem, sed non id agimus. hoc dico: si bel- 34 lum hoc, si hic hostis, si ille rex contemnendus fuisset, neque tanta cura senatus et populus Romanus suscipiendum putasset, neque tot annos gessisset tanta gloria Luculli, neque vero eius belli conficiendi negotium tanto studio populus Romanus ad Cn. Pompeium detulisset. cuius ex omnibus pugnis, quae sunt innumerabiles, vel acerrima mihi videtur illa, quae cum rege commissa est et summa contentione pugnata.

qua ex pugna cum se ille eripuisset et Bosporum confugisset, quo exercitus adire non posset, etiam in extrema fortuna et fuga animum tamen retinuit regium. itaque ipse Pompeius, regno possesso, ex omnibus oris ac notis sedibus hoste pulso, [tamen] tantum in unius anima posuit, ut, cum omnia, quae ille tenuehead.' The ruin of Mithridates' grand xvi. proelia JasTigranocerta, B.c.69. army before Kyzikus 74—73 B.C. 34. hoc...hic] Pompeius was still is alluded to. When the full shock fighting in Asia. ille, Mithridates of the war had fallen at one swoop

had died this very year. upon the fortress-town of Kyzikus. neque tanta gloria Luculli] 'nor,

defenderetur etc.) cf. pro Archia had they done so, would L. have § 21, de im. Gn. Pomp. SS 20-21. won so much glory in it.' tanta

obsessionis] generally occupa gloria is abl. tion,' here'siege.' cf. Caes. Bell. Civ. cum rege] sc. the night-battle or III. 24, obsessionem nostrorum omisit. surprise by the Euphrates, B.C. 66.

acerrimis] sent by Sertorius. cf. A good conjecture is the insertion de imp. Gn. Pomp. & 21.

of nocte here before commissa (F. Italiam] To renew the civil war, Richter). it was thought. Spartacus was at this tenuerat] his kingdom. adierat, time roving about Italy unchecked. the Roman possessions in Asia.

rege Arm.] Tigranes, his son-in- sperarat, the rule of the Caucasian law.

districts. H.

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rat, adierat, sperarat, victoria possideret, tamen non ante, quam illum vita expulisset, bellum confectum iudicarit. hunc tu hostem, Cato, contemnis, quocum per tot annos tot proeliis tot imperatores bella gesserant? cuius expulsi et eiecti vita tanti a Pompeio existimata est, ut morte eius nuntiata denique bellum confectum arbitraretur. hoc igitur in bello L. Murenam legatum fortissimi animi, summi consilii, maximi laboris cognitum esse defendimus, et hanc eius operam non minus ad consulatum adipiscendum quam hanc nostram forensem industriam dignitatis habuisse.

XVII. 'at enim in praeturae petitione prior renuntiatus est 35 Servius.' pergitisne vos tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum

populo, ut, quem locum semel honoris cuipiam dederit, eundem in reliquis honoribus debeat? quod enim fretum, quem euripum tot motus, tantas, tam varias habere putatis agitationes commutationesque fluctuum, quantas perturbationes et quantos aestus habet ratio comitiorum ? dies intermissus unus aut nox interposita saepe perturbat omnia et totam opinionem parva nonnumquam commutat aura rumoris. saepe etiam sine ulla aperta causa fit aliud atque existimaris, ut nonnumquam ita factum esse etiam populus admiretur, quasi vero non ipse

fecerit. nihil est incertius vulgo, nihil obscurius voluntate 36 hominum, nihil fallacius ratione tota comitiorum. quis L.

Philippum, summo ingenio, opera, gratia, nobilitate, a M.

437 c.

a Pompeio] H. inserts this, and it seems to me the best conjecture.

defendimus] cf. on § 5.
xvii. 35.

at enim] cf. Mady. § pergitisne] The thought goes back, as H. says, to $ 18.

locum honoris] place on the roll of office, 'precedence.'

quod enim etc.] Loosely quoted by Quint. VIII. vi. 49, with the remark illud vero longe speciosissimum genus orationis, in quo trium permixta est gratia, similitudinis, allegoriae, translationis.

fretum] especially the Sicilian. Euripum, esp. that between Euboea

and the mainland, said to ebb and flow 7 times a day: see Mr Tozer's Geography of Greece, Lecture vii, for the wonderful tides of this channel.

What strait, what sound, think you, has its waves lashed by such violent storms or turned by such shifting tides as are the squalls and surges in the working of our elections ?'

ratio] so 36, and in § 4 with tempestatum.

comitiorum] Forthe comparison to a stormy sea cf. pro Planc. SS 11, 15.

aura] The abl., according to H. cf. Verg. Æn. VII. 646, ad nos vix tenuis rerum perlabitur aura.

quasi vero] so $ 75, de Off. 111.8 39.

Herennio superari posse arbitratus est? quis Q. Catulum, humanitate, sapientia, integritate antecellentem, a Cn. Mallio? quis M. Scaurum, hominem gravissimum, civem egregium, fortissimum senatorem, a Q. Maximo? non modo horum nihil ita fore putatum est, sed ne cum esset factum quidem, qua re ita factum esset, intellegi potuit. nam ut tempestates saepe certo aliquo caeli signo commoventur, saepe improviso nulla ex certa ratione obscura aliqua ex causa concitantur, sic in hac comitiorum tempestate populari saepe intellegas, quo signo commota sit, saepe ita obscura est, ut casu excitata esse videatur. XVIII. sed tamen si est reddenda ratio, duae res vehe- 37 menter in praetura desideratae sunt, quae ambae in consulatu multum Murenae profuerunt: una, exspectatio muneris, quae et rumore non nullo et studiis sermonibusque competitorum creverat, altera, quod ii, quos in provincia ac legatione omnis et liberalitatis et virtutis suae testis habuerat, nondum decesserant. horum utrumque ei fortuna ad consulatus petitionem reservavit. nam et L. Luculli exercitus, qui ad triumphum convenerat, idem comitiis L. Murenae praesto fuit, et munus amplissimum, quod petitio praeturae desiderarat, praetura

:

36. opera]='activity in the forum. H. cf. on § 22.

M. Herennio) consul in B.C. 93.
Gn. Mallio] consul 105.

Q. Fabio Maximo Eburno) in 116.

putatum est] Very rare, but found in de Div. I. § 84. Z.

nam ut etc.] Quoted loosely by Quint. VIII. iii. 80.

tempestates] For the metaphor cf. Dem. F. L. § 136, p. 383.

obscura est] sc. commota tempestas.

esse videatur] cf. Quint. x. ii. 18, Tac. Dial. 23.

xviii. 37. ratio) if one must account for Murena's having been returned as praetor later than Sulpicius.

desideratae) the want of which was felt when he was standing for the praetorship.

muneris] He had not been aedile,

and had had no chance of giving any great show. The other candidates (and their agents) had made the most of this defect in Murena's qualifications for office.

creverat] ‘had reached a great height, owing to a general report, and the remarks of rivals coloured with party-spirit.'

provincia] T. refers this to his service in Asia under his father.

legatione] as legutus to Lucullus.

decesserant] Regular word for quitting a province, $ 68 etc., the triumph of Lucullus was deferred by intrigues from the year 66 B.C. to 63.

comitiis] at the election,' cf. gladiatoribus, & 67; this conjecture seems necessary to be adopted. MSS. comes.

L. Murenae] dative after praesto fuit. H.

38 restituit. num tibi haec parva videntur adiumenta et subsidia

consulatus? voluntas militum cum per se valet multitudine, cum apud suos gratia, tum vero in consule declarando multum etiam apud universum populum Romanum auctoritatis habet suffragatio militaris; imperatores enim comitiis consularibus, non verborum interpretes deliguntur. quare gravis est illa oratio : 'me saucium recreavit, me praeda donavit : hoc duce castra cepimus, signa contulimus : numquam iste plus militi laboris imposuit quam sibi sumpsit; ipse cum fortis, tum etiam felix. hoc quanti putas esse ad famam hominum ac voluntatem? etenim si tanta illis comitiis religio est, ut adhuc semper omen valuerit praerogativae, quid mirum est in hoc felicitatis famam sermonemque valuisse ?

XIX. sed si haec leviora ducis, quae sunt gravissima, et hanc urbanam suffragationem militari anteponis, noli ludorum huius elegantiam et scaenae magnificentiam valde contemnere, quae huic admodum profuerunt. nam quid ego dicam populum ac vulgus imperitorum ludis magno opere delectari ? minus est mirandum, quamquam huic causae id satis est; sunt enim populi ac multitudinis comitia. quare, si populo ludorum

restituit] As praetor urbanus he mus te, imperator, salvum recepimus celebrated the ludi Apollinares with ..ego tecum, imperator, in Arme. great splendour, thus the chance of

nia, ego in Rhaetia fui, etc. winning popular favour, lost before, quanti putas esse] cf. $ 48, quam was 'given back’to him as his due. securim etc., Madv. § 492 b. H. 38. cum...cum...tum]

ad famam] cf. on g 29, ad honoRosc. Am. § 62, pro Rabir. § 2, de leg. Agr. I. $ 9.

omen praerogativae] The order of valet multitudine] Plut. Lucull. voting being determined by lot, the 36, as H. well remarks, throws some vote of the first century was taken light on Cicero's statements. Pom- as an omen or indication of the vote peius left him but 1600 soldiers to to follow, cf. de Div. I. § 103, pro share his triumph, and even these shewed little eagerness in attending xix. urbanam] 'civilian,' cf. SS him, cf. 8 69.

19, 41. suffragatio] .canvassing,' as also vulgus imperitorum]= vulgus imI believe in pro Planc. $S 15, 44: peritum as in de Orat. III. § 195.

verborum interpretes] In which huic causae] For the matter in case the soldiers would be the worst hand the fact is sufficient. id, the of critics : the phrase is a hit at fact that the shows please the mob. Sulpicius.

Cicero argues, how then can one ipse] Personally. For the reception be surprised at Murena's defeating of a popular general cf. Velleius, II. you ? 104, 5, at vero militum conspectu populi] Possessive genitive, cf. eius elicitae gaudio lacrimae...... vide- Madv. § 281.

cf. pro

rem.

Planc. $ 49:

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