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Haldane, M.P., Secretary of State for War; Sir John coincided with entering into the possession of a new Murray, K.C.B.; Sir J. A. Russell, inspector of anatomy legacy which makes the University's outlook on the for Scotland.
future hopeful. The response to the University's (3) Ireland :-Dr. Jas. Little, professor of physic, Uni- invitation on the part of sister institutions and her versity of Dublin ; Prof. John Pentland Mahaffy, senior
sons and daughters was exceedingly hearty. fellow, Trinity College, Dublin, late professor of ancient What began as a primarily academic ceremony history.
(4) Other Countries :-Yacoub Artin Pasha, Under- broadened out into a civic festival, partly through the Secretary of State for Education, and president of the
kindness of their Majesties, partly through Lord Institute of Egypt, Cairo; Dr. G. Stanley Hall, professor of the cordiality of the relations between town and
Strathcona's princely generosity, and partly because of psychology, Clark University, Worcester, America ; Prof. H. J. Hamburger, professor of physiology, gown. But there can be no overlooking the fact Groningen; Prof. Ó. Kellner, K. S. Landwirthschaftliche that the success of the celebrations was the natural Versuchsstation, Möckern, Leipzig; Prof. Oscar Liebreich, reward of most thoughtful and detailed organisation, professor of pharmacology, University of Berlin; Prof. of putting brains as well as goodwill into an arduous Friedrich Trendelenburg, professor of surgery, University task. Vivat, crescat, floreat Universitas Aberof Leipzig.
donensis. The great event of Thursday was the opening of the new buildings at Marischal College by the King and Queen. The whole of the large quadrangle
TWO BOOKS ON ANGLING. was filled with a sea of faces, and Dr. Marshall
N “ Salmon Fishing” Mr. Hodgson deals with Mackenzie's “ granite miracle was the subject of the spirit, rather than the technique, of the sport. universal admiration. The Principal read an address | The first half-dozen chapters of the book are a series from the University, and His Majesty in a strong of essays on different aspects of fishing, and they are voice declared the buildings open. The Rector asked written in a most attractive manner and provide leave to present the following gentlemen :
excellent reading. In the chapter on the “Elusive
Non-migratory Danube salmon, and British fish, in the Thames. The small fish, natives in British waters, are four times the age of the less
small-an alien from the Danube. From “Salmon Fishing," by W. Earl Hodgson.
Mr. Alexander M. Gordon, Mr. Alexander Wilson, Dr. quarry," for instance, the instincts, or rather whims, William Dey, Dr. Angus Fraser, Dr. David Littlejohn, of the salmon are written about very pleasantly. Dr. Albert Westland, Prof. Matthew Hay, Prof. John Mr. Hodgson discusses the old question as to whether Harrower, Prof. Neil J. D. Kennedy, Prof. Robert W.
or not the salmon feeds in fresh water, and is inReid, Prof. James W. H. Trail, Prof. Henry Cowan, Prof. clined to think that when the fish rises to a Ay it James B. Baillie, Prof. Stephenson, Prof. Charles Niven, Prof. David J. Hamilton, Prof. Alexander Ogston, Prof.
does so with the intention of eating. Evidence William M. Ramsay, Mr. Patrick Cooper, Mr. Theodore against this contention was collected a few vears ago Crombie, Dr. John Fleming, Mr. Alexander 0. Gill, Mr.
by the Scottish Fishery Board, and it was shown that David M. M. Milligan, Mr. James Murray, M.P., Mr.
the epithelium of the stomachs of salmon in fresh Andrew R. Williamson, Mr. A. Marshall Mackenzie, water was in a catarrhal condition that made diges. A.R.S.A., the architect, and Mr. W. Wilfred Campbell. tion impossible. It is, on the whole, the simples!
solution of this question that the salmon, when it Their Majesties afterwards visited the parts of the rises to a fly, does so urged by some kind of sporting new buildings devoted to agriculture and modern instinct. languages, and showed great interest in their equip- Mr. Hodgson's book is, however, very practical as ment.
well as entertaining. Three chapters are devoted to The success of the University celebrations surpassed an account of the salmon rivers of the l'nited Kingeven the most sanguine expectations, and dom, and in one very useful chapter there is an attributable to a combination of factors. The excellent account of salmon passes and some useful weather, though technically autumnal, was better than 1 “Salmon Fishing." By W. Earl Hodgson. Pp. xi +314. Loader: the best Aberdonian summer. The solemn
A. and C. Black, 1906.) Price 75. 6dnet. memoration of a past four hundred years happily (London : Bradbury, Agnew and Co., Lid., 1906.) Price 38. o. Det
"The Science of Dry Fly Fishing.", By Fred. G. Shaw. Pp. xi. 45
suggestions as to their improvement. The account of Little did the young Boltzmann imagine that the the British and Irish rivers is rather depressing read. task he had thus set before himself would occupy his ing. Almost everywhere, save in a few favoured whole lifetime. counties, there is the tale of pollution.
A year later, after having obtained the doctorate, with Mr. Hodgson that this is preventable. The crude and having been appointed assistant in the physical by-products of various manufactures need never be institute at Vienna, we find him writing on the turned into fishing rivers--such a thing, for instance, number of atoms in a gas molecule and the internal as the reckless discharge of sawdust into a stream,
work of gases. and the consequent destruction of hosts of trout, In 1868 he published his first important paper on ought certainly not to be permitted. With modern the law of partition of energy under the title of methods of septic purification it is a scandal that
Studien über das Gleichgewicht der lebendigen salmon rivers and streams should still be the reposi- Kraft zwischen bewegten materiellen Punkte.” The tories of crude sewage; but local sanitary authorities problem had been previously attacked by Maxwell, are difficult to move, and so far as the prevention of but Boltzmann soon found difficulties and objections the pollution of rivers is concerned the law “is a arising out of Maxwell's treatment, and it was one hass.
of the objects of the paper to place the theory on a The book is excellently printed and illustrated. more satisfactory basis. A second paper on the same Particular praise should be given to the series of subject ("Weitere Studien ") was published in 1872, seven plates at the beginning of the volume illus- and in it the important theorem now known as Boltztrating eighty typical salmon" fies. The colouring mann's “ minimum theorem or the “ H-theorem and printing of these plates leave nothing to be first saw the light. That this theorem is not independesired. Altogether Mr. Hodgson's book should be dent of assumed hypotheses has been amply shown by a very welcome addition to the sportsman's library.
discussions in Nature and elsewhere in which Watson, In “ Dry Fly Fishing Mr. F. G. Shaw makes a Burbury, and other physicists took part early in the creditable attempt to make clear that which he terms 'nineties; but, granting these premises, it is proved the “science " of trout fishing. Chapters i. and ii. that in a system of molecules a tendency exists to give directions how, when, and where to cast a trout assume an equilibrium distribution of energy analoflv. Chapter iii. deals with the selection of the fly, gous to the tendency to heat quilibrium in a material and includes a discussion of the range of vision of gas. It was not until 1892 that Boltzmann published the fish. Chapter iv. gives a useful account of some a third part to his “ Studien." In it he deals with aspects of pisciculture, and chapter v., “ The necessi- difficulties that had been raised in the discussion reties of the trout fisherman,” is devoted to a consider. ferred to in connection with the assumption that the ation of the “ gear
necessary for the craft. The kinetic energy of the system could be reduced to a book is abundantly illustrated. If the niceties of sum of squares, and he also examines certain test trout fishing can be taught by means of diagrams and of 'the kinetic theory proposed by Lord practical directions, then Mr. Shaw's book ought to Kelvin. be very useful; but, as he says himself, “ It is of no In 1875 Boltzmann, then a corresponding member use to read books in order to determine your actions of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, treated the when actually fishing. . Common sense is the most problem for the case of a system of molecules in a valuable guide.". Nevertheless, the experience of field of external force. others is always interesting, and no doubt the tyro, From Vienna Boltzmann went to Graz, where he and even those of greater knowledge, will learn was appointed professor in the university. After much from this work.
J. J. going there he wrote, in 1876, a paper on the integra
tion of the equations of molecular motion, and several
other minor papers on the kinetic theory. A fresh PROF. LI'DIIG BOLIZMINN.
line was started in 1877. although the underlying ONE
NLY two years ago Dr. Ludwig Boltzmann, pro- idea had been sug nested by Boltzmann in 1871, and
fessor of physics in the University of Vienna, employed by Dr. Oskar Emil Meyer in his book of celebrated his sixtieth birthday. On that occasion a 1877. This was the application of the theory of ** Festschrift " was presented to him containing papers probability to the problem of energy-partition. The by about 125 physicists from all parts of the world. method of treatment adopted is highly instructive; The announcement of Prof. Boltzmann's death, which Boltzmann starts with considering a system of molewas reported in the London papers of September 8, cules the energy of each of which can only have one will be received with regret, not only by physicists of or other of a series, of discrete values-a series of repute, but by every student who has attempted to counters marked 1, 2, 3 ... might be used in illusgain an insight into the mysteries of molecular tration-and he investigates the most probable disphysics.
tribution of energy for a number of them drawn at Ludwig Boltzmann was born on February 20, 1844. random. From this simple case he is led by gradual Before he was twenty-two years old, on February 8, stages to the more complicated case of a gas the 1806, he read a paper before the Academy of Sciences molerular state of which is specified by generalised of Vienna entitled “ l'eber die mechanische Bedeu- coordinates. tung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Wärmetheorie." In 1880 to 1882 Boltzmann published long and The opening sentences of the paper may be freely important papers on viscosity and diffusion of gases, translated as follow's :-
in which the consequences of Maxwell's assumption “ The identity of the First Law of Thermodynamics of the “inverse fifth " law of intermolecular force with the principle of vis viva has long been known, were fully discussed. In 1884 he was evidently on the other hand the Second Law occupies a attracted by Helmholtz's work on monocyclic systems, paculiarly exceptional position, and its proof is based and lost no time in applving the method to the on methods which are not only uncertain here and kinetic theory. In this connection the possibility of there, but are in no case obvious. The object of this building in statistically monocyclic systems was ronpaper is to furnish a purely analytical and perfectly sidered. But a further application suggested itself in general proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the possibility of representing thermodynamic and as well as to investigate the corresponding principle other phenomena by means of mochanical models. in Mechanics."
In his “ Vorlesungen über Maxwell's Theorie," pub
lished in 1891, Boltzmann makes use, not only of making some assumptions, we are, at all events, in monocycles, but also of what he calls“
“ bicycles, possession of theories of molecular phenomena in illustrating the phenomena of mutual induction of which the assumption in question is of the simplest electric currents.
and most self-evident character, and the agreement In 1885 Boltzmann was raised from “ correspond with experiment as close as could expected. These ing” to ordinary member of the Vienna Academy. theories are in a very large measure results of the He remained at Graz until about 1891, when he was labours of Ludwig Boltzmann. called to Munich. A year or two later he visited
G. H. BRYAN. England and called on the present writer at Cambridge, and thus a personal friendship sprang up. In 1894 the British Association meeting at Oxford,
NOTES. with its memorable field-day on the kinetic theory, came simultaneously with Lord Ravleigh and Sir
The results of the Gordon-Bennett balloon race, William Ramsay's announcement of the discovery of announced in the daily papers, show that the sixteen argon. The part which Prof. Boltzmann took in competitors who started from Paris on Sunday afternoon these discussions will long be remembered.
all landed within a belt comprised between the meridians ceived an honorary degree, and expressed some of 1° east and 1° west of Greenwich. The longest and amusement at being made a Doctor of Laws. “It most northerly journeys were those of Lieut. Lahm were better they made me Doctor of Science,” he re- (U.S.A.), who landed near Whitby-about 400 miles from marked. It was, however, pointed out that as
Paris-after a journey of 23 hours; Signor Vonwiller authority on the laws of thermodynamics the title was a fitting one.
(Italy), near Hull; Comte de la Vaulx (France), near In 1895 Boltzmann was transferred from Munich
Walsingham, four miles from the Norfolk coast; and the to Vienna, where he resided until his death, with one
Hon. C. S. Rolls, near Sandringham. A second group exception. In 1904 he was called to the University landed in the south of England, this group comprising of Leipzig, and actually went there for a short time, M. J. Balsan (France), at Singleton, near Chichester; but the change did not suit him, and he was back Prof. Huntington (Great Britain), at Sittingbourne, Kent: again in Vienna almost immediately.
and Captain Kindelan (Spain), near Chichester. The next In 1899 he was elected corresponding fellow of our group were carried from Paris in directions between west Royal Society, and allusion has already been made to and north-west, and landed on or near a strip of the French the universal and widespread enthusiasm shown over his diamond jubilee five years later.
coast extending from Dieppe to near Caen. These were Those who knew Boltzmann will remomber the (England), Comte de Castillon (France), and Señor
Herr Scherle (Germany), near Dieppe ; Mr. F. H. Burler pair of heavy, highly-powerful spectacles resting on a deep groove in his nose. For many years his eye
Salamanca (Spain), all three at Blonville, near Trouville : sight had been failing, and he found it increasingly Baron von Hewald (Germany), at Coudé, near the mouth difficult to complete the many researches which were
of the Seine ; Captain von Abercron (Germany), at Villerson his mind. He appears to have ended his life during sur-Mer ; and Lieut. Herrera (Spain), at Cabourg. A little a summer holiday at or near Abbazia, a neighbour- south of this group, M. Santos Dumont landed at Broglie, hood which he frequently visited with his wife and after having met with an accident to his arm. A differen! family.
course was followed by the Belgian competitor, M. van den We have alluded to some of Boltzmann's earlier Driesche, who landed at Bretigny, a place 19] miles scath writings more or less in chronological order. One of his most important later works is his book
of Paris, soon after midnight. “ Vorlesungen über Gastheorie" (Leipzig: Barth), the first volume of which bears the date 1895 and the
SIMULTANEOUSLY with this competition, another of the second 1898. It fills an important gap in the litera
same character, in which seven balloons took part, starird ture of the kinetic theory, and renders much of Boltz
from Milan. This was one of a number of aéronautical mann's own work more accessible to general readers competitions organised during the month of September in than it would be if his separate papers had to be con
connection with the exhibitions, other contests being sulted. While Boltzmann's chief energies were con- arranged for aëroplanes, machines, and models, both with centrated on the difficult problems of the kinetic and without motive power. Whether owing to this clashtheory, other branches of physics were by no means ing or to other causes, the aëronautical pavilion at the neglected. In evidence we have his book of lectures
Milan Exhibition shows a remarkable dearth of exhibits, on Maxwell's theory, papers on Hertz's experiments, the only really successful attempt at a complete and welland an address on the methods of theoretical physics. organised exhibit being what of the Prussian Aeronautical Artificial flight also interested the Vienna physicist
, Observatory in Lindenburg. These exhibits mostly illuswho some vears back gave a discourse on the subject, illustrated by models. Among his recreations allusion
trated apparatus for the meteorological study of the upper may be made to music. His
thick fingers descending layers of the atmosphere, and their systematic displat on the keys of the piano well knew how to produce under the charge of Prussian officials in their smart those variations in timbre which are understood in military uniforms only made the absence of other impuriant Germany, but the want of which makes English exhibits the more conspicuous. people often say that the piano is devoid of soul. He would often play in trios with his son and eldest The second International Conference on Wireless Teden daughter.
graphy, which is now sitting in Berlin, is likely to prose It may be that the kinetic theory of gases is even
of great interest and importance from both the national now regarded as being less complete and perfect in
and commercial points of view. Delegates from nearly all itself than many other physical theories, such as the electromagnetic theory of light. But the study of
countries have accepted the German Government's inside irreversible phenomena stands on a far higher order tion, and are now in Berlin. The preliminary conferenin of difficulty than that of purely reversible effects.
lf of 1903, which was also convoked by the German Goverit has been impossible to build up a statistically irre
ment with the hope of securing general support for its versible. system out of reversible elements without contention—that intercommunication between ships tirred
with wireless telegraphy apparatus and shore stations invited to take part in the work of the congress are actively should be made compulsory without regard to the system engaged in cancer research, and a number of important employed-ended in a protocol embodying the German view papers were contributed, so many, in fact, that discussion being signed by all the delegates attending the conference had to be restricted; and the clinical, experimental, and except those of Great Britain and Italy. The basis of the statistical branches of the cancer problem were fully rediscussions at the present conference will be the protocol presented. Their Royal Highnesses the Grand Duke and above mentioned, though further proposals arising out of
Grand Duchess of Baden were present at the opening the recommendations contained therein have been put for- ceremony. ward. At first sight the proposition of universal inter
Tue council of the Institution of Civil Engineers has, communication seems to have considerable attractions, but many difficulties will have to be overcome before it can
in addition to the medals and prizes given for communibe carried out. The present conference may, therefore,
cations discussed at the meetings of the institution in the
last session, made the following awards in respect of other have greater issues and unforeseen results than are pected, and the scientific world will be especially interested,
papers dealt with in 1905-6:-a Telford gold medal to
Mr. G. A. Denny; a George Stephenson gold medal to as should the proposed treaty be entered into by our delegates—who are drawn from the Post Office officials,
Prof. W. E. Dalby; Telford premiums to Messrs. W. R.
Baldwin-Wiseman, G. N. Abernethy, H. R. C. Blagden, the Army, and the Navy-future improvements in wireless
M. R. Collins, and James Kelly ; a Crampton prize to Mr. telegraphy would be more or less confined to a specified
P. T. Gask. For students' papers the awards are :basis. As to which is the best system of wireless tele
Miller prizes to Messrs. Ralph Freeman, A. F. Harrison, graphy of the many now at work, the question is one that may well puzzle the delegates, and may take many years
A. J. Grindling, T. R. Grigson, J. W. D. Ball, and A.
Morris. Mr. A. F. Harrison also gained the James of practical working of wireless telegraphy before it can
Prescott Joule medal. The awards will be presented on be satisfactorily answered.
Tuesday, November 6, when an inaugural address will be A short description of a new method of colour photo delivered by the president, Sir Alexander B. W. Kennedy, graphy, described by Prof. Lippmann before the Paris
F.R.S. Academy on July 30, was given in NATURE of August 30
The authorities of the Clifton Zoological Gardens, (p. 459). Mr. F. Cheshire, writing from the Birkbeck College, London, states that Mr. Julius Rheinberg sug
Bristol, have recently made considerable improvements degested in the British Journal of Photography of January 1,
signed for the increased comfort and display of their
collections. Two years ago a new lion house was built, 1904, a method which is, I think, identical for all prac. having the cages within communicating with four opentical purposes with that now proposed by M. Lippmann." | air ones iron barred on three sides. The animals placed We have referred Mr. Cheshire's letter to Prof. Lippmann,
in these cages showed so distinct a preference for the open who, in the reply with which he nas favoured us, expresses
air, and improved so materially, that the older range of regret that he overlooked Mr. Rheinberg's article, and
houses has been entirely reconstructed, and was thrown agrees that the method proposed in it is the same in prin
open to the public on Saturday, September 22, for the ciple as that described by him. Prof. Lippmann adds that first time. As now reconstructed, seven open-air cages are about three years ago he obtained successful results by placed along the front of the old house, and communicate this method, using very imperfect apparatus, still in his with the dens within. The cages are lofty, being between laboratory, and a grating roughly made by hand. In July
10 feet and 12 feet in height, about 12 feet wide, and last he obtained a more suitable grating, and the results
14 feet long. They are supported upon a brickwork base of his experiments with it were described in his recent
4 feet in height, and separated from the public by a stout paper.
iron rail, placed 3 feet away from the cage fronts. It is The fifteenth International Geodetic Congress was held noteworthy that a Rhesus monkey was formerly kept in at Budapest last week. Sir George Darwin invited the
an outer cage in the gardens for quite a number of years, congress to meet at Cambridge in 1909.
winter and summer alike, and fared well even in hard
frost and snow. When taken into the monkey house, Os September 27 a series of severe earthquakes was
however, it quickly sickened and died. felt at San Juan de Puertorico, and a sharp and prolonged earthquake shock occurred at St. Thomas, Danish West The news of the death of Monsignor Molloy, ViceIndies.
Chancellor of the Royal University of Ireland and Rector Tue Vienna correspondent of the Daily Chronicle
of the Catholic University, Dublin,' will be received with
deep regret by all who knew him in Dublin and elsewhere. announces that Herculaneum is to be excavated by the
Mgr. Molloy was one of the delegates to the Aberdeen united action of England, France, Germany, Italy, the
University celebrations, and died suddenly at the house of C'nited States, and other countries.
his host in Aberdeen on Monday morning. Dr. Molloy To honour Prof. Ronald Ross, Prof. Boyce, and Dr.
was born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, on J. L. Todd, and in recognition of the decoration recently September 10, 1834, so that he was in his seventy-third conferred on them by the King of the Belgians for services year. From 1874-1887 he was professor of natural philoin research into tropical diseases at the Liverpool School sophy in the Roman Catholic University College, Dublin. of Tropical Medicine, the Lord Mayor of Liverpool gave
From an obituary notice in the Times we learn that toward a luncheon at the Town Hall on Monday. Sir Alfred
the close of 1883 the bishops, who were the governing Jones announced that the king of the Belgians bas just body of the University, transformed the old buildings in subscribed the sum of 1000l. to the Liverpool School.
Stephen's Green to the Jesuit Order, and the Rev. W.
Delany became president under the new régime. Dr. The first International Congress for Cancer Research Molloy remained in residence in the college, and, putting met last week at Frankfurt-on-Main under the presidency his talents as a teacher at the disposal of the new adminisof Profs. von Leyden, Czerny, and Ehrlich. All those tration, he succeeded Dean Neville, of Cork, as Rector of
the University in the sanie year. During the last quarter Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, and collectively known as of a century Dr. Molloy took an important part in the the Rhino-Linga Archipelago. The large series of mammal administration of Irish education. He acted on the Com- skins collected there is described by Mr. G. S. Miller in mission on Manual Training in Primary Schools, and filled No. 1485 of the Proceedings of the C.S. National Museum, the post of assistant commissioner under the Education with the usual liberal allowance of nominal new species, Endowments Act. He was at the time of his death a based, in most cases at any rate, on what are nothing member of the Intermediate Education Board.
more than local phases. No. 1483 of the same serial is popular lecturer on scientific subjects Dr. Molloy had few devoted to a review, by Mr. P. Bartsch, of the longequals in Ireland, and he was a frequent speaker at the spired urocoptid land-shells from the American mainlectures of the Royal Dublin Society, of the council of land in the collection of the museum, with the description which he was a member. He was the author of several of a number of new forms. scientific and literary works, including “Geology and
ALTHOUGH Japanese waters, according to Messrs. Jordan Revelation," published in 1870, and “Gleanings in
and Starks, in a paper published in the Proceedings of the Science, in 1888.
L'.S. National Museum (No. 1484), abound in fat-fishes, A West India hurricane has quickly
the most esteemed British representatives of that group, followed the China Sca typhoons noted in last week's namely, the turbot and the sole, are unfortunately wanting issue. The permanent Atlantic anticyclone has recently
in the far eastern islands, where, indeed, the genera occupied a position more over the south-western quarter
Rhombus and Solea, as restricted by the authors, are of the ocean, while it has been flanked on its north-eastern
absent. The authors make no mention of the respective side by the extensive and stationary high-pressure system
values as food-fishes of any of the numerous species rewhich has remained centred over the British Isles for corded. They regard the theory that the flounders arr several days past. In these circumstances a disturbance related to the Zeidæ, and that both groups trace their developing anywhere in the neighbourhood of the West ancestry to the extinct Amphistiidæ, as an ingenious guess Indies would be unable to take the usual sweep round
for which there is no positive warranty. In No. 1450 of by the great American bight and Bermuda for the Banks the same publication Messrs. Jordan and Snyder discuss of Newfoundland. Instead, an almost direct westerly course
the Japanese killifishes (Pæciliida), of which only two would have to be followed into the Gulf of Mexico. This
species are at present known. is what appears to have been the case on September 26 ACCORDING to a writer in the September number of the and 27, when a violent hurricane, centred on the eastern Zoologist, hybrids between blackcock (or grey-hen) and the side of the Gulf, ravaged the Southern States, the coastal
pheasant are by no means uncommon in England : in Scorregions in particular suffering severely. The tempest raised land they are more rare, and on the Continent appear to the waters of the Gulf so high that not only were the low- be very unusual. In addition to a portion of Messrs. lying lands inundated, but the streets of Mobile, Pensacola, Clark and Rodd's notes on the birds of the Scilly Islands, New Orleans, and other large towns were several feet
the same issue contains a notice of a specimen of the under water. Numbers of lives were lost, and thousands
pelagic fish Scomber thunnina taken off Yarmouth, bring of families rendered homeless. It is stated that
at apparently the first of its kind recorded from British Pensacola every house along the water front for a distance
There is also a notice of a sea-monster of ten miles was wrecked, and Fort McCrae, a military
off the Irish coast. Judging from the sketch sent by one station, was completely destroyed, nearly every soul
observer, it seems probable that the creature was a baskperishing In the various towns factories and ware
ing-shark (Selache maxima), unless, indeed, it could have houses were demolished, and their contents carried out been a straggler of the Indian basking-shark (Rhinodos There were hundreds of maritime casualties,
typicus), which attains dimensions more nearly in accord many of them total losses. One navy vessel was carried
with those estimated by one of the observers for the Irish 200 yards inland, and a large iron steamer forced through
monster. buildings to a distance of a block from the wharf. Inland there was great destruction amongst the cotton, sugar-cane,
We have received a copy of No. 45 of the Journal of and other crops, while very considerable structural damage
the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (June, was occasioned by the violence of the wind. The storm
which contains a number of articles on subjects connexed is said to be the worst since the one which destroyed
with zoology, botany, folk-lore, native manufactures, ard Galveston.
such like. Mr. C. B. Kloss communicates notes on the
Sumatran pig recently described as Sus oi, in the course MR. J. A. Rein, Bedford, has just published a reprint,
of which he points out that the species does not occur on price twopence, of Huxley's essay Time and Life : the mainland of the Malay Peninsula, but only on the Darwin's • Origin of Species, " which originally appeared
adjacent island of Pulo Battam, the fauna of which is in Macmillan's Magazine for 1859.
essentially of a Sumatran type. The longest article in the
issue is one by Dr. H. N. Ridley, giving an account of a It is announced in the September number that the
recent expedition undertaken by himself to Christmas Museum Gazette will for some time to come take more
Island (Indian Ocean). The author was enabled to make notice of the humanities, while attention will also be
considerable additions to the list of indigenous plants, and directed to some of the aspects of botanical studies.
communicates some interesting observations on the changes Articles on fish as food, a seaside museum, mushroom
which are taking place in the coast fauna and flora as eating, the potato-disease, and pea-pods, are included in
the result of colonisation. Mr. R. Sheliord continues hs the contents of the number before us.
list of Bornean butterflies, while Mr. Kloss records a zerint With praise worthy assiduity, Dr. W. L. Abbott, the
python from Johore. well-known amateur collector, continues his zoological ex- We have received the report on the Scientific Investin ploration of the Malay islands. One of the latest areas gations of the Northumberland Sea-fisheries Committee explored is the cluster of small islands lying between the for the year 1905. The delay in publication is due to an