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class of believers, who have not, at one time was put to the test, he has nobly indicated or another, of their history, entered into his and defended his convictions. The book is sympathies.
thoroughly orthodox in its whole cast and “ The author," Dr. Aiton observes, " in the complexion; and no one will rise up from its spring of last year, was permitted by Divine perusal with any leanings towards neology, Providence to accomplish what from his or popery, or political despotism, or any of earliest recollections had been the desire of the huge evils, which, in the East, are now his heart-a journey into the Bible-Lands of affecting and oppressing vast portions of the the East, into the once stirring localities of human family. Western Asia, and homeward through the We do not attribute the highest qualities classic countries of Greece, Sicily, and Italy. of critical observation to our author;-but And having accomplished such a jaunt of he indicates much common sense, makes very about ten thousand miles in extent, he feels light of the laborious trifling of many who naturally desirous to record the memorials of have preceded him in travel, shows a vast a summer marked by such change of scenes amount of persevering courage, and comes in and varieties of feeling, that he may share general to conclusions which carry conviction them with those who, from experience in this along with them. way, synipathize with them,—that he may Dr. Aiton's tour extended to Egypt, the recall them for his own satisfaction,—and Holy Land, Asia Minor, and Italy ;-and, that he may interest the reading public with along the whole line of his journey, he found some information, and several pious reflec- ample materials for interesting record, which tions."
will render his book a very instructive comSo extensive a pilgrimage, undertaken and panion to all who are anxious to become prosecuted with a feeling of obvious enthu- acquainted with the actual state and prosiasm, deserved a record; and fastidious, spects of the countries through which he indeed, will that reader be who does not passed. There is great vigour and terseness accompany our author, in his lengthened and in the author's descriptions, even of subjects perilous journey, with more than ordinary very familiar to the reader. We may illusdelight.
trate this, in his sketch of Carthage, in “ I think,” says he, “I have travelled fur- passing up the Mediterranean. ther to the East, and traversed more interest “ To-day," he writes, “at breakfast, our ing countries in one trip, than many single intelligent captain told us, that he had a treat tourists have hitherto done. Different men in store for us this forenoon. We shall be view even the same country with different off Cape Carthage in two hours, and I shall eyes, and several cross lights are required to run the ship as near the shore as I can, that bring out the real state of matters. The you may see the site and ruins of this ancountries referred to in the following pages cient city. It is within the promontory on are at present in a state of rapid transition, the north-east side of the Lake of Tunis.' which should be accurately noticed in detail, In a minute all was excitement, and every as often as travellers have the opportunity. body was on deck, and the words, Dido and In Africa, on the banks of the Nile, in the Holy Æneas, Hanılcar and Hannibal, Scipio, and Land, down the Jordan, and along the shores Cato, and Marius, were in every body's of the Dead Sea, in Asia Minor, throughout mouth. I felt as if one of the wonders of European Turkey, and especially in Italy, of the world was just about to be exhibited. the prophecies are in the act of being speedily And so it was. What a halo of renown there fulfilled to a greater or less amount in the is round these seas, capes, and bays; and how different localities; and important events are many school. boy recollections rose in deturning on the wheel of fortune, which may, lightful succession on my mind! In that ere long, astonish the civilized world. Every deep and noble bay lies the grave of a movement, therefore, should be marked, the fallen empire, once the emporium of the progress towards civilization and Christianity Mediterranean, and the rival of imperial should be detailed from time to time; and the Rome. On that flat and waving shore, now working of the five great rival European within sight, stood a celebrated city, the site powers, which are all greedily gaping for a of which, when I was at school, I little exslice of Turkey, when it is cut up, should be pected ever to behold. The harbour is now detected; and the manners and inclinations choked up, and the ruins are now nearly of a population so enormous should be three miles distant from the sea, but they shadowed forth in every variety of light.” once extended to the very shore. How many
Such are our traveller's views in reference thousands of ships once crowded that bay! to those who aim at accomplishing what he How many hundreds of thousands of Carhas done; and we are free to acknowledge thaginians have left that port to invade Italy, that he has, in his own way, carried out his and Spain, and Sicily, and Sardinia! With plan with considerable success; and that in what pomp and prido must Hannibal have all cases where reverence for Divine truth sailed over these waves to conquer at Canne
and to beard the Romans at the gates of their mere novelty of such sublime desolation had capital! But how changed now the scene! passed away, so far from being joyful at what There was not a ship within sight; utter de- I had accomplished, I felt something unsolation pervaded the shore, and the daughter usually heavy and humbled at the heart. of Tyre sat lonely on her rock by the sea. The impression was so intense that a kind of For two or three miles along the beach there faintness came over me, and without thinkare continuous ruins, buildings of the city, ing of it or being able to prevent it, I first blocks of mortar, columns of marble, frag- burst into tears, and then gave utterance to ments of piers, and jutting foundations. prayer. I saw already several aged and These strew the site of Carthage, to tell feeble Jews, mean and melancholy, engaged us what it once was. The land is now at their devotions, muttering the law aloud, divided into fields, and green with corn. The and tearing as it were the stones of the street. bay is beautiful as ever.
Its headlands and With wild lamentations they were imploring rocks in the sea are as picturesque as any in the God of their fathers to restore to them the whole Mediterranean; but altogether the the sceptre that had passed away, and to send scene is lively and lovely.” Pages 20, 21. them the Messiah, that this land might be
On nearing Alexandria our author thus their own. I thought the coincidence resketchily and beautifully writes: “We are markable, when I heard at the same time, approaching Alexandria, the ancient capital, from the minarets of the Turks, the welland still the key of Egypt,—the connecting known Mahonetan cry sounded and sung in link of the eastern and western world,-for long triumphant chorus, ' There is no God but eighteen hundred years the emporium of com God, and Mahomet is his prophet.' The conmerce,--the city of Ptolemies and Cleopatra, trast brought a feeling of fear over my frame, -the burial-place of its founder, Alexander and the expression of Jacob when he awoke the Great, and the best monument modern from his dream at Bethel occurred to me: times can produce of the extraordinary sa "And Jacob was afraid and said, How dreadgacity of that warlike Macedonian of old. ful is this place!' Sympathizing with the Here, too, was collected in ancient times the poor Jews, Pray,' said I, 'for the peace greatest library the world ever produced, and of Jerusalem. They shall prosper that love which was burnt on the principle that if it thee. Peace be within thy walls, and procontained only what was in the Koran it was sperity within thy palaces! And as to the superfluous, and if it contained any thing else | proud prayer of the Mahometan, I said, “ Now, it was dangerous, and ought to be destroyed. indeed, has the sceptre departed from Judah, Here the Septuagint translation of the Bible, and the land become a prey to the spoiler.' one of the noblest works of man on earth, In particular, I was grateful that the Lord was effected. Here, too, stood the ancient had gone before me in this journey, watching light-house, the famous tower of Pharos, said over me in his generous providence through to be one of the seven wonders of the old all my perils and privations both by sea and world.” Page 41.
land. And now I felt elevated that in the All the author's peregrinations in the land language of the Psalmist, he had thus brought of the Pharoahs are described with a certain me to great honour in permitting me a sinner raciness and trueness to nature, which will to visit the city of David.” Pages 176–178. make them both acceptable and entertaining. But we dare not extend our critique. In And his discussion of the vexed question as every successive spot visited by our author, to the part of the Red Sea at which the Is his reflections are striking - in many cases raelites passed to the Asiatic coast, will be original; while the uniform effect is profound found something more than amusing. To us reverence for the oracles and the providence of it appears, that he has fixed the spot which God. best answers to all the miraculous and other Through the Lesser Asia, and to the desoreferences of the sacred text. We commend late spots where once stood the seven Apo- . this portion of Dr. Aiton's work to the at- calyptic Churches, we should heartily like to tentive examination of the Biblical student. follow the author; but space forbids. Suffice
The author's account of his mental impres- it to say, that his sketches of these far-famed sions, on entering Jerusalem, is truly affecting. spots are remarkably vivid, and that his moral
Often," he observes, “ had 1 pondered reflections upon them are truly faithful and what my feelings wonld be when I first set touching to the heart. my unhallowed feet on the streets of the When he arrives at Rome; he is there the Holy City. For weeks before I had won accomplished classic, the well-read historian, dered whether the interest of the reality would the acute philosophical observer of men and come down from the association of these things: but we rejoice to say, he is there, also, scenes so long and so piously cherished. the earnest-the enlightened — the uncomAscend in the scale I imagined it could not. promising Protestant, not carried away by the But in this I was mistaken. Now that the glare and tinsel which have allured and corfirst gaze of curiosity had subsided, and the rupted so many of our namby-pamby Oxford
Divines. After a portrait of Rome, as it now NINEVEH AND Its PALACES. The Discoveis, and once had been, which will never be ries of Botta and Layard, applied to the surpassed in its magnificent outline, and rich Elucidation of Holy Writ.
By JOSEPH colouring and effect, our author fixes vividly Bonomi, F.R.S.L. 8vo, pp. 402. the Protestant moral, which all sound-hearted Office of the Illustrated London Library. men ought to feel when in the Seven-hilled City. The title of this most splendid volume
“I had,” says he,“ read the Scriptures as very accurately describes its general design; applicable to the locality of St. Paul's bay at and we have pleasure in announcing to our Malta, on the banks of the Nile and Jordan, readers that the respected and learned auon the shores of the Red and Dead Seas, at thor has most successfully carried out his Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Bethany, at Tyre design; affording demonstrative proof of the and Sidon, at Carmel and Lebanon, and on a great importance of the late Assyrian exhigh rock of a Sabbath evening overlooking humations to the Biblical student, in enabling Athens, and the Hill of Mars; but never did him fully to understand the multiplied referI peruse a portion of Holy Writ with more ences of the sacred oracles to the remote honest conviction that it applied to the spot nations of heathen antiquity. where I was for the time, than when in Rome The author has attempted a system of arI read St. John's vision of the great whore rangement, in his delineations, which, whether sitting on the scarlet-coloured beast, arrayed arbitrary or founded in nature, will greatly in purple and scarlet, with a golden cup in facilitate the understanding of his laborious her hand, from the drinking out of which she criticisms. His plan has been suggested to was drunken with the blood of the saints. him by an examination of the sculptures When from the top of St. Peter's I counted, themselves, as deposited in the Louvre and as pointed out to me by a native papist, the in the British Museum. He has studied the seven hills on which the city was built, viz., ground plans of the respective structures, the Mons Palatinus, Capitolinus, Aventinus, with the original positions of the friezes; and Quirilinus, Cælius, Viminalis, and Esquilinus, thus, selecting for himself a starting-post, he I trembled at the angel's interpretation of St. has pursued a systematic course throughout John, of the mystery of the beast, and of his the whole of the ruined chambers, reading seven heads which are seven mountains on at once the sculptures on the walls, and their which the woman sitteth. And the ten horns illustrative history in the sacred records. are the ten kingdoms of modern Europe. He modestly remarks, “ Whether the tone
And the woman which thou sawest is that of reasoning adopted is erroneous or just, great city, which reigneth over the kings of must be left to the decision of the readers; the earth. And the woman was arrayed in but though my inferences and conclusions purple and scarlet colour, and decked with may be questioned by many, it is hoped that gold, and precious stones, and pearls, having the facts in the subject matter will be intera golden cup in her hand, full of abominations esting to all." and filth of her fornication. And upon her The author is evidently a man of acute forehead was a name written, Mystery, Baby- penetration, and of no mean power of relon the Great, The Mother of Harlots and search. It would be a rashness, which we Abominations of the earth.' Yes; every street, would not commit, to indorse every concluevery square, every church, every mass, the sion he has reached. We will only say, that Pope, every cardinal, and every priest; the we have followed him, with no little satisfacVatican, its gardens and groves, fountains tion into the vast fields of thought into which and fawns, were to my mind just so many he has conducted us; and that, from what we interpretations of the mystery of the beast, have seen of his powers of analysis and logi. and of the woman, the great whore, the cal investigation of recondite themes, we mother of harlots, and abominations of the should exercise some considerable amount of earth.--Rev. xvii."
caution in differing from him. He makes Amen, Dr. Aiton! This is the Bible view every subject he touches very fascinating ; to take of Antichristian Rome. Pagan Rome and if our young intelligent readers will take was not half such a spectacle of wickedness, our advice, they will follow this accomand could not be; because it never fastened plished decipherer of mysterious symbols, its huge system of iniquity and cruelty upon through all his wanderings amidst the Assythe pure and spotless religion of the Holy rian ruins, and listen well to what he will Saviour.
tell them about sculptures and figures, which We must say, we have read Dr. Aiton's they can little understand without his aid. volume with a high degree of arlmiration; How beautiful are his opening remarks ! and, with whatever defects may attach to it, “ Far away - a thousand miles — from the we recommend it to our readers with the ut- highways of modern commerce, and the tracks most cordiality, feeling persuaded that its fas- of ordinary travel, lay a city buried in the cination will constrain them to read it from sandy earth of a half-desert Turkish probeginning to end as it has constrained us. vince, with no certain trace of its place of
sepulchre. Vague tradition said that it was we could not help feeling that our readers hidden somewhere near the river Tigris; but would be grateful to us for making them acfor above two thousand years its known ex- quainted with a work which, in the narration istence in the world was a mere name-a of simple facts, has all the air and excitement word. That name suggested the idea of an of romance. ancient capital of fabulous splendour and These “ Iron Roads" are a grand feature magnitude ; a congregation of palaces and of the age in which we live; and they are other dwellings, encompassed by walls and spreading far and wide over the whole civilramparts, vast but scarcely real.
ized world. That they have good and evil “ More than two thousand years had it in them; at least as they are managed by thus lain in its unknown grave, when a imperfect beings, will not be readily doubted. French savant and a wandering English Some of the evils are formidable. They scholar, urged by a noble inspiration, sought have generated a vast amount of unhealthy the seat of the once powerful empire, and, and dangerous speculation ; in which we fear searching till they found the dead city, threw many professed Christians have had their off its shroud of sand and ruin, and revealed i full share. And can any sober-minded Chris. once more to an astonished and curious world tian patriot look at our Sabbath Excursion the temples, the palaces, and the idols; the Trains, disgorging every Lord's-day, from all representations of the war, and the triumphs our principal cities and towns, hundreds of of peaceful art of the ancient Assyrians. The thousands of the idle, the thoughtless, and Nineveh of Scripture, the Nineveh of the the gay, without feeling a deep pang of reoldest historians; the Nineveh-twin-sister gret? Neither of these, indeed, is a necesof Babylon - glorying in a civilization of sary evil. The speculation, so far as it was pomp and power, all traces of which were be- dishonest and unchristian, might have been eslieved to be gone ;-the Nineveh, in which chewed; and Sabbath travelling and traffick, the captive tribes of Israel had laboured and save so far as postal arrangements and other wept, was, after a sleep of twenty centuries, necessary provisions were concerned, ought again brought to light. The proofs of an to have been sternly resisted by the legiscient splendour were agnin beheld by living lature. eyes, and, by the skill of the draftsman and But there are other views of rail-roads the pen of antiquarian travellers, made known which we can contemplate with unmingled to the world.
satisfaction and delight. " And the strange and stirring story of What a magnificent proof do they afford how courage and learning, talent and enter of the intelligence and enterprise of the age! prise, patience and industry, rescued from the The engineering power they display is perearth those treasures of a long-gone people, fectly astonishing, as our readers will perit is the intention of the following pages to ceive, if they will make themselves acquainted tell."
with Mr. Williams's laborious statistics of How successfully Mr. Bonomi has told his the overwhelming masses of rock and other tale, we will leave our readers to determine, substances which have been tunnelled from when they have feasted themselves with his the bowels of our mountains. spirit-stirring investigations as we have done. What facilities, too, have they supplied for How the Bible is being exalted and vindicated social and commercial intercourse, in the by all the facts of science, all the mys- length and breadth of the land! Could our terious revelations of Divine Providence, and forefathers revisit the scenes of their earthly all the researches into a remote antiquity! sojourn, wo they not be credulous of the
very testimony of their senses, when they OUR IRON ROADS : their History, Construc- found that journeys which they were wont
tion, and Social Influences. By FREDERICK to accomplish in a fortnight, can now be S. Williams. With numerous Illustrations. performed in the space of ten or twelve 8vo, pp. 401.
hours ? Ingram, Cooke, and Co.
By means also of rail-roads, producers of At first sight, the volume we now intro- all kinds of commodities have been enabled, duce to our readers, did not appear to come with incomparable speed, to convey tliem to within our province as religious reviewers. the best markets ; so that even perishable When, however, we weighed the import of articles can be sent, in good condition, from those words in the author's title-—“ Social the extremities of the kingdom to the meInfluences," we changed our minds, and tropolis. deemed it our duty to say a few words in Have not rail-roads, too, tended greatly reference to our Iron Roads," — those mo to equalize the prices, and to increase the numents of British skill, enterprise, and consumption of many articles both of luxury wealth,
and comtort? In looking too at Mr. Williams's deeply And what marvels are the telegraphic wires interesting annals of the rail-road movement, of our rail. roads, and the submarine tele
graphs suggested by them! For commerce, AN ANALYSIS OF CHURCH PRINCIPLES. for political, for social, for religious, for police, By the Rev. CHRISTOPHER NEVILL. 12mo. and other purposes, what a surpassing invention is this!
James Ridgway. But are not rail-roads now, and will they A very instructive book, in this inquiring not be in a coming age more and more, hande | age, and well deserving the careful perusal of maids to philanthropy and Christianity? all who advocate the theory of our EsteAre they not destined, when they shall have blishment. As Nonconformists, we abide by spread all the world over, to aid, in a mar- our doctrine of private judgment, and volun. vellous degree, the diffusion of the gospel ? tary Christianity; and feel that we should And, are they not among the “all things only pass from the solid rock to the shifting which the Son of God will subdue to himself sand, were we for a moment to quit our prinfor the purpose of advancing his own glorious ciples; but in nothing are our convictions kingdom? These are not dreams of fancy, more firmly rooted than this, that, so long but realities, the fruits of which we are al- as we have an Established Church, it must ready beginning to reap. Could we see all remain under the absolute control of the the Sabbath trains arrested, except the mails, State, to prevent the extravagant tyranny we should have everything to hope, and no- and persecution of the High Church and thing to fear from our “ Iron Roads.”
Romanizing party. In their recent public But we must bring these musings to a speeches, and in all their doings for what close. Mr. Williams's volume is the most call liberty, they have approached 80 instructive of its kind that has seen the light. near the spirit and the language of rebellion We took it up, thinking that only rail-road that, had they lived in other times, they proprietors and engineers could take interest would have been called to account for their in it. No greater mistake could have been disloyal references to her majesty the committed. It is a book of extraordinary Queen, the unquestionable Head of the Engingenuity and power, and of most suggestive lish Episcopate. No, no—we say to all character, which we commend to the perusal Churchmen, “You may leave your Establishof all thinking men.
ment, and claim for yourselves that liberty wherewith Christ makes his servants free;
but, for the safety of all national interests A HISTORY OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT, —the liberty of Englishmen, and the peace
compiled from a Comparison of various and quiet of godly ministers in the EstablishWriters;
with a Chronological Summary. ment, we must hold you, while you remain By the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, Churchmen, to your original bargain,—there B.A., Chaplain of Christ Church, Editor of would be no end of mischief, if you were Translations of the “ Decrees and Canons" relieved from state control, while you reand “ Catechism of the Council of Trent," tained your church power. Make a disrupgc. 8vo, pp. 582.
tion, gentlemen, if you please;--but the State
Church must remain the loyal subject of the George Routledge.
State.”— Nothing can shake us in this ;-100 WHATEVER variety of opinion may be all the soplistry of Dr. Pusey or Mr. Glad. entertained as to some of the opinions ex
We call on all the friends of liberty pressed by this historian of the Council of to keep wide awake on this subject in these Trent; we think there can be but one feeling times. Something is in the wind; let Eng. produced on the minds of candid readers, lishmen deterinine that it shall evaporate that it is by far the best work in our own, or into thin air. any other language, on the subject of which it treats. This, we are aware, is high praise; A DISCOURSE ON THE GREATNESS OF THE but we venture on it conscientiously, after a Christian MINISTRY, delivered before the careful examination of the work; and express Students and Supporters of Horlon College, it the more readily, because we perceive that Bradford, Yorkshire, on Wednesday, August Mr. Buckley is by far too high a churchman 4th, 1852. By J. P. MURSELL, of Lei. for us.
The work will be of eminent service cester. Published by Request. 8vo, pp. 44 to all who, in our times, are called to wage
Arthur Hall and Co. war with the antichristian church of Roine. The choice thoughts and the eloquent and The author w.ll says, and he might extend earnest appeals of this discourse, preached at his reference, that " in reviewing the history the anniversary of one of our colleges, pecuof the Roman Church, we must not consider liarly adapt it to the necessities of our rising mankind as free agents, yet living under ministry. As it thrilled the hearts of those the dispensation of God; but as fettered in brethren who listened to it at Bradford; so their enjoyment of that dispensation by trus- will it thrill many other hearts as, far and tees, whom they have preferred to the Divine wide, it issues from the public press. It is, Author of the covenant itself."
in all respects, a fitting testimony, for Christ