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he that being often reproved, yet hard- | he will have the fearful reward due to eneth his neck, shall suddenly be de- the man who destroyed bis own soul. stroyed, and that without remedy," and

RICHARD KNILL.

POVERTY OF MINISTERS.

(To the Editor of the EVANGELICAL MAGAZINE.) DEAR SIR,—And does “ Pastor Rusti- | plan laid down by “Pastor Rusticus" cus” really imagine that his pithy, for our relief. I love to see private earnest appeal to the liberality, or sympathy and liberality in the way be rather justice, of your readers will be of suggests; but let that be shown in adany avail? Is he not aware that the dition to a more perfect development of theme is too unpalatable ever to become the resources of the churches, in the savoury through such plain and truth- shape of Country Associations; by speaking letters as his? Does he not wbich means, whilst relief is extended know that it is a principle of modern to the necessitous, a certain amount of Christianity, in all voluntary churches, labour will be in return 'secured. except the Wesleyans and the Free By the private patronage plan of Church of Scotland,“that they who preach “ Pastor Rusticus," a few forward and the gospel should starve of the gospel!" A complaining spirits will get their £30, bitter experience of twenty-five years as £10, or £50 per annum, as I have a Rustic Pastor compels me to conclude known, from private benevolence, whilst that our case is perfectly hopless, till men of " sanctified intellect" and sterour brethren take up the matter in con- ling excellence are · left to the most nexion with the wealthier churches of agonizing suffering, from the utter, inthe kingdom. Here the evil lies. They adequacy of their income to meet the do appeal to their churches on behalf of most economical expenditure. But our Missionary brethren, and to assist again, sir, I say what avails it to throw and support them, a perfect organization out suggestions, till our more popular exists, and periodical operations are brethren and wealthier churches feel made; but in four-fifths of our churches the love of Christ constraining them to at home no conviction appears to exist be not only generous, but barely just ? that our Rustic Pastors are any other Yours ever truly, than most comfortable on their £100,

ALTER PASTOR RUSTICUS. £80, or even their £60 a year.

August 6, 1851. I decidedly and strongly object to the

Poetry.

THE GLORIOUS CHANGE.

On the Death of an Infant.
That crusted stone, from depths of earth,

The practised eye declared a gem,
Waiting but skill to show its worth,

A jewel for a diadem.
That little speck, its grain contains,

Which needs a microscopic gaze,

Sown, with its fruits, on widening plains,

The harvest of a world displays.
That babe, whose entrance upon life

O'erflows with joy its mother's breast,
Has power for its intensest strife,

And for its holiest, sweetest rest.
It sickens, wastes, and death's cold chill

Creeps o'er its pallid, sinking frame;
But, rising from this world of ill,

A radiant angel it became.

It knew, perhaps, its parent's face,

But now its soul is filled with light; Of kindling love it showed some trace,

But now that flame in heaven is bright. No thought of God its mind could grasp,

Nor acorn's cup embrace the sea, Yet it began, with life's last gasp,

The worship of eternity.

Heaven was its own,* as it can be

To none all scarrd with guilt and care; Born for celestial royalty,

It died, a seraph's crown to wear.

Midst those of yours in that bright throng,

Who worship Jesus night and day,
It pours a still more rapturonis song,
As through Him far more bless'd than

they.

How often have I read those lines!

Admiring more and more;
And, as my sun so swift declines,

I long to reach that shore,
Where I shall walk with Christ in white,
And never wander from his sight.
O mother! mother, come and pray!

I feel I'm going fast;-
I hope my Saviour's mercy may

Redeem my soul at last.
Ile will not, cannot, cast away

One lamb within His fold,
One child who makes His love his stay,

Who prizes more than gold
His merits, and His precious blood,
And says, “ Behold the way to God!"
O mother! mother, come and talk

Of Christ's rich love to me!
How often in the garden walk,

I've prayed His face to see!
Will you, dear mother, speak of Him,

For He is all to me?
And though I am the child of sin,

With Him my home shall be.
He 'll guide me through death's gloomy vale,
I'm sure His promise will not fail.
O mother! mother, now, "good bye!"

We soon shall meet above:
And, when I'm gone, you must not sigh;

I range in worlds of love.
I'll think of you, my mother dear,

When golden crown I wear,
Then dry up every sorrowing tear,

My bliss you, too, will share,
I found a home in your kind beart; -

In heaven, we shall not, cannot part!
September 1.

T. W.

This thought shall then dry up our tears,

From endless evils thou art free; While we must bear our “tale" of years, Thine is immortal ecstasy!

CHARLES WILLIAMS. August 8th, 1851.

TIIE DYING GIRL'S ADDRESS TO HER

MOTUER.

O MOTHER! mother, come to me;

I want to take your hand! Now, mother, I can scarcely see; Read me

“ The Better Land."

* Such is the force of our Lord's declaration, Matt. xix. 14, Mark ix. 37. defectively rendered "Of such is the kingdom of heaven."

Review of Religious Publications.

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF the close of his ministry at Kilmany, in 1815,

THOMAS CHALMERS, D.D., LL.D. By his - from his removal to Glasgow to the close Son-in-law, the Rev. WILLIAM HANNA, of his Professorship at St. Andrews, in 1828, LL.D. Vol. ii. 8vo. pp. 552.

--and from his entrance on the Theological Hamilton, Adams, and Co.

chair in Edinburgh till his death, in 1847. We have much satisfaction in introducing Before Dr. Hanna, however, bad completed to our readers a third volume of the Life of his second volume, he found it impracticable Dr. Chalmers. The respected Biographer, to adhere to his original design, unless he had we are happy to find, has recovered from that suppressed a mass of materials which he serious illness by which, for a season, he was knew to be interesting to the large circle of arrested in his interesting labours. He had Dr. Chalmers' friends and admirers. Conhoped to make the third volume the last; but trary to all our ordinary notions of Biography, materials have so accuunulated upon him, as we are of opinion that Dr. Hanna bas exer. he liis advanced in his work, that he has cixed a wise discretion, and that there is been compelled to resolve on a fourth. His strength enough in the character of Dr. Chal. original plan was to divide the life of Dr. mers to admit of details which would weaken Chalmers into three periods, and to devote a and destroy an ordinary memoir. As the volume to cach,—from his birth, in 1780, to last volume will trace the efforts of Dr.

595

even now.

Chalmers as the leader of the Free Church deeply bis spirit was imbued with the spirit reform, it will, under the wise Editorship of Dr. of vital godliness. Hanna, be deeply interesting to a large class “And now, my dearest G., let me urge of expectant readers, both in and out of the

on you the great and only essential topics for Free Church. But it will require inuch care, the entertainment of immortal creatures. This and an abundant supply of that candour world, with all these petty and evanescent for which the Biographer is peculiarly interests which now so engross and agitate, distinguished.

will soon pass away. And surely there is In turning to the volume before us, we enough in the greatness and glory, even of cannot but express the high delight we have

our present revelations, to lift us above them. felt in perusing its contents. If it is not quite What is all that is near or around us to the so full of incident as the two preceding worth of those precious interests which attach volumes, it still sustains all our notions of to immortality? Let us lay hold of eternal Dr. Chalmers' mental habits, professional life. Let us cast our confidence for life upon ability, and high Christian character. One the Saviour. Let us enter into this life even of the finest chapters in the volume is that now, by entering upon its graces and virtues which portrays the entrance of Dr. Chal

Let us cultivate a present holimers on his duties as Professor of Moral

ness, not merely as a preparation, but as a Philosophy in the University of St. Andrews. foretaste of our future happiness. These The narrative is done to the life; and there children of ours have a vast and momentous is verily a life in the subject of the narrative interest associated with them. They have rarely to be met with. Never, perhaps, did imperishable spirits, and they have a right a public lecturer enter upon his career more at our bands of having provision made for brilliantly than did Dr. Chalmers. It was a them. I desire to feel the weight of all this, new era in the history of St. Andrews, when and to act upon it far more vigorously and our lecturer began his course; and many faithfully than I bave ever yet done." happy fruits were the result of his instruc- In this volume we have an opportunity of tions, though his labours were restricted to marking the conduct of Dr. Chalmers in his the moral philosophy class. We look upon church extension movement. It must be Dr. Chalmers' residence and labours at St. confessed that he was just as zealous behind Andrews as a most prolific section of his the scenes as in his public showings, and public life. He produced an effect upon that he was constantly doing what was very many minds which continues to tell with unwelcome to his voluntary friends ; but, power to the present hour.

making due allowance for human infirmity, He had many battles to figlit, while occu- and what we hold to be erring notions, there pying this post, and made himselt obnoxious is a manliness about his conduct which can to bis fellow Professors by certain acts, which create no festering wound in the heart of an reflect the greatest honour upon him now opponent. He lived to see that Statesmen that he is dead. We refer our readers to this and legal tribunals were not such manageable part of Dr. Hanna's narrative with full confi- affairs as he wished to make them; and the dence that it will place the character of Dr. disruption itself is a striking proof of the Chalmers in the most amiable point of view. folly of even good men in thinking to commit

In this volume we follow Dr. Chalmers the interests of religion to the conservation from St. Andrews to Edinburgh; from the of secular tribunals. Had the result, in rechair of Moral Philosophy to that of Theo- ference to the late reforming party in the logy; and, at every step of our course, we Church of Scotland, been different from what cannot but mark the movements of a man of it was, it would have been no proof to us that God," full of the Holy Ghost and of faith." the Church and State connexion is anything It is delightful, amidst all the public ques- other than a doubtsul and dangerous human tions which often and anxiously engaged his expedient, altogether unsanctioned by the thoughts, his

pen,

and his eloquence, to find doctrines and laws of the New Testament. him unbending so naturally and so sweetly in The volume will be read by multitudes, all the scenes of domestic and private life. with the enthusiasm it deserves. It is indeed, His Journals and his Tours are models of all

a most instructive collection of deeply inwe could desire in a man intensely devoted teresting facts, well grouped, and so disposed to the public service; and his transitions from of as to present an accurate and striking sprightly repartee and the details of passing portrait of one who must ever be dear to events, grave matters too,are often very striking, posterity, and of whom every Scotchman After giving to Mrs. Chalmers an account of may well be suffered to think with the most a visit to the country of Burns and of Dr. profound admiration and love. Thomas Brown, with all the ease and interest peculiar to such a document, he closes in the following remarkable terms, showing how

The Second ReFORMATION; or, Christianity deem it our duty, as guardians of the public Developed. By A. Alison, Esq.

Christian mind, to warn our readers against London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. it as a direct, malignant, and unmitigated asWho, or what A. Alison, Esq. is, we know suult on all the doctrines of the gospel. Fornot, and conseqnently we can entertain no tunately, indeed, its power of doing mischief preju lice either for or against him. Nor, it is not equal to its intention. The book is is probable, should we have noticed his ill- flimsy, shallow, and illogical in the extreme. starred and mischievous publication, did we Assumption is so constantly mistaken for not fear that unwary readers might be be- / argument, questions at issue are so often trayed into a perusal of its pages by the false begged, and there is so frequently such a and deceptive title which he has adopted. 'jumble of rhapsody, ignorance, and mis-stateThe title, “ The Second Reformation ; or, ment, that, a3 we passed through his pages, Christianity Developed,” would lead one to we were perpetually haunted with the im. expect, at least, something like an advocacy pression that the writer must be the subject of or enforcement of the great fundamental doc some bewildering hallucination, or mental trines for which Luther, Calvin, Melancthon, obliqnity. and Zwinglius contended; and a semblance, if We cannot, within our limited space, follos not a strong and healthy manifestation, for the Mr. Alison throughout the loose and flimsy cardinal and distinctive verities of the gospel. 'net of error, misconception, and false reasonBut instead of this, the reader will find that a ing he has woven, and therefore must confine " Second Reformation," in Mr. Alison's esti. ourselves to two or three points, which our mation, is the utter rejection of all the Divine reniers may take as a sample of the whole. and precious truths for which martyrs bled and Like all shallow-minded men, having lighted reformers contended; and that “Christianity on certain general terms, he allows himself Developed "is, in his views, the extinction of all ; to be drawn into the notion that they solve evangelical religion, and the universal as all difficulties and reveal all mysteries. The cendency of a cold and chilling rationalism. terms-nature, experience, truth, will, intellect, We do not indeed recollect anything, among instinct, &c., he tosses and tumbles about with the locust-like clond of irreligious publica- the utmost nimbleness and volubility, and tions now issuing from the press, more appears to cheat himself into the belief that thoroughly imbued with the spirit and letter he thus puts orthodox Christianity, with all of infidelity, thin the volume now before us. its essential doctrines and attesting miracles, The title-page is a misk; but beyond that, , to flight. Multiplying the echoes of his own concealment or deception does not extand. sweet voice around him by repeating, in alThe rever has scircely passed the preface, most every conceivable sense, the terms we and entered on the few first pages of the book, have mentioned, he imagines that men canbefore he finds himself startied by an un not but listen to his discourse as the “ divinest blushing avowal of the worst forms of infi- philosophy." Having sent up a succession of delity. And as he advances, he finds every 'rockets, which fall in ashes about his ears, doctrine that distinguished the first Reform:1- | he conceives that the strongholds of the faith tion assailed ; and every principle of the for which martyrs died and reformers Christianity which Christ and his apostles struggled, and which he can desiguate by no tanght, trampled under foot, or scattered to gentler or more charitable term than “superthe winds.

stition," have fallen before the resistless fire It is truly marvellous, and can only be ex of his argument. He intimates indeed, in no plained on the ground of that craftiness which very equivocal language, that all the Christian enters so largely into modern infidelity, that philosphers, divines, and reformers of past ages such a title as the one borne by this volume, were a set of purblind drivellers, who knew could be prefixed to a publication intended to nothing of “nature," and were incapable of condemn and repudiate a special providence, 1 distinguishing truth from error. And by immiracles, moral evil, original sin, the inspiration plication, he would give us to understand that of the Scriptures, the atmement, the personality the greatest of all Teachers was inferior to of the Holy Spirit, conversion, justification by him in fairly and cleurly stating truth. For faith, and every kindred truth belonging to men resisted Him, although he spake as man Christianity. But as Mr. Alison does not never spake, and although grace and truth weir his mask beyond his title-page, the in were poured into his lips; and yet, Mr. Alitelligent reader cannot be deceived, nor can son, after affirming, “ We believe that nature is the Christian be seduced into the perusal of so constituted that man cannot resist the such gross and unblushing impiety. It is ' force of truth when it is fairly and clearly possible, however, that some may be ensnared stated,” has the presumption to declare, “ It is into the purchase of this book, under the im- under this impression that we have not pression that it is an honest and earnest en thought it useless to discuss the elements of forcement of the “ things which are most belief." If, then, Mr. Alison makes but a surely believed among us;" and, therefore, we , sorry figure as a logician and a philosopher,

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it will be seen that his failure can in no way the additional absurdity, that he admits at bə ascribed to his modesty or diffidence. once the fact and the necessity of their mani

But let us see what are his views of pro- festation, whilst he denies their possibility. vidence, miracles, and atonement, which are He regards creation and Christianity as superso essentially connected with the Christianity natural or miraculous in their origin, and taught by Christ and his apostles.

moreover declares, in reference to the latter His notions of providence ara in direct that “min is not so constituted to receive an opposition to the whole tenor of Scripture, extraordinary revelation, which contradicts and are at variance with the soundest lessons prior experiences, without supernatural eviof philosophy. He professus to admit the dence." And yet, as if utterly incapable of doctrine of a general providence, but regards perceiving the preposterousness of his position, the idea of a special providence as fraught he contends that all idea of miracles must be with incalculable mischief. Now, how any relinquished as contrary to fact, and unsupmın laying claim to common intelligence, ported by evidence. As if he had discovered acknowledging the being of a Göd, can admit somo unheard-of and conclusive argument a general providence, and deny that which is aguinst miracles, he dwells, ad nauseam, on special or particular, is to us altogether in- experience, forgetting that, unless it extend comprehensible. A moment's dispassionate to all time and space, it can prove nothing. thought must convince every one that, what- And further, losing all idea of omnipotence ever is general must necessarily comprehend in the weakness of man, and, in the spirit of specialities or particulars. Let any min sit | the ancient Stoicz, regarding the course of down, and calmly and seriously ponder the nature as a species of adımantine fate, he idea of a general providence, or superintend seems to look upon the Deity as altogether ence by an omniscient, omnipresent, and om passive and powerless amid its onward and nipotent God, and we feel satisfied that spe- resistless sweep. Becanse Mr. Alison has cialities, down to the falling of a sparrow, had no experience of an internal or external and the numbering of the hairs of our heads, miracle—as if his experience were that of all must force themselves on his convictions. ages and all lands—he jumps to the conclu. When, indeed, men like Mr. Alison strip the sion that miracles are contrary to universal Deity of all personality, and resolve his exist- experience; and because Mr. Alison cannot ence and attributes into wliat-in the parade put his hand on the mechanism of the uni. of ignorance, or the cant of infidelity, verse, and suspend its operations, he forththey designate“ nature," or “ laws,” it is with is guilty of the impiety that strips Jehoeasy to see how they may slide into the cold vah of omnipotence, and hedges him round and chilling belief of a general providence, with the weakness of min. Having admitted whilst they deny that which is special or the miraculous nature of creation, had he particular. A law, or an influence, which is allowed the idea of omnipotence to find a diså blind, unconscious thing, miy, perhaps, be tinct lodgment in his mind, he would not, we general, without entering into all that is are inclined to think, have penned the preminute in specialities or particulars; but a posterous nonsens to be found in this volume. living, omniscient Creator, who is at once the The doctrine of an atonement for sin Mr. Father and Governor of the universe, must, Alison utterly repudiates, pronouncing it “the from the necessities of his nature, as well as offspring of the scholastic theology of the from the exigencies of his rule, exercise an im- dark azes." Here, again, he falls back upon mediate and personal providence in reference experience - thit “ friend in need ” — that to circumstances, events, and objects, the solver of every problem that perplexes him – most minute. Without this, it is obvious that and affirms, that when this test is applied, anarchy and chaos would speedily pervade the doctrine of the atonement “ will be rethe universe ; for what is minute and appa- moved.” How this test is to be applied, Mr. rently insignificant is the gerin and origin of Alison does not condescend to inform his wat is great, and mıgnificent, and imposing. readers. Perhaps that is one of the refined Besides, if there is no special providence-if mysteries of infidelity reserved for the initiaJehovah governs his intelligent offspring by ted. Further, he gravely tells us, that the cold and sweeping generalities, which admit notion of an atonement "condemns the wis. of nothing special, what becomes of prayer ? dom of God;" and, to crown all, he affirms, it Must it not be pronounced a mockery and a can only be a fiction, as "there is nothing delusion? What does Mr. Alison say to this ? to call for an atonement.” By what process Surely it is sufficient to convince him of the he arrived at these extraordinary conclusions unphilosophical and unscriptural nature of he does not tell us, deeming it enough, doubthis notions of providence, unless he is pra- less, that one, with his unlimited experience pirel to embrace the absurdities of Atheism, and infallible kuowledge of “ nature and and abjure every idor of religion.

"law 3,” should speak oracularly or dogmaOn the subject of miracles, he holds the tically. He does, indeed, venture to employ old and oft-refuted notions of Hu ne, with an analogy on the subject, reminding his

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