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I fear, for ever : Milan and Naples have
My lord Sebastian,
Gon. It is foul weather in us all, good fir,
Foul weather ?
Or docks, or mallows.
It is used in nearly the same sense in Love's Labour's Loft, and in Hamlet. The old copy reads-should bow. Should was probably an abbreviation of the would, the mark of elifion being inadvertently omitted (th'ould). Thus he has is frequently exhibited in the firit folio_h’as. Mr. Pope corrected the passage thus: “ at which end the beam should bow.” “But omission of any word in the old copy, without fubftituting another in it's place, is seldom safe, except in those instances where the repeated word appears to have been caught by the compositor's eye glancing on the line above, or below, or where a word is printed twice in the same line.
MALONE. * Than we bring men to comfort them: ] It does not clearly appear whether the king and these lords thought the ship loft. This passage seems to imply, that they were themselves confident of returning, but imagined part of the fleet destroyed. Why, indeed, should Sebastian plot against his brother in the following scene, unless he knew how to find the kingdom which he was to inherit ?
Gon. And were the king of it, What would I do?
- for no kind of traffick Would I admit; no name of magiftrate, &c.] Our author has here closely followed a passage in Montaigne's Essaies, translated by John Florio, folio, 1503: “ It is a nation (would I answer Plato) that hath no kind of trafficke, no knowledge of letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politick fuperioritie; no use of service, of riches, or of povertie, no contracts, no fucceffions, no partitions, no occupation, but idle; no respect of kindred but common; no apparel but natural ; no use of wine, corne, or metal. The very words that import lying, fallhood, treason, diffimulations, covetousness, envie, detraction and pardon, were never heard amongst them.”—This passage was pointed out by Mr. Capell, who knew so little of his author as to suppose that Shakspeare had the original French before him, though he has almost literally followed Florio's translation.
Montaigne is here speaking of a newly discovered country, which he calls « Antartick France. In the page preceding that already quoted, are these words: “ The other testimonie of antiquitie to which fome will refer the discoverie is in Aristotle (if at least that little book of unheard-of wonders be his) where he reporteth that certain Carthaginians having failed athwart the Atlanticke sea, without the strait of Gibraltar, discovered a great fertil ISLAND, all replenished with goodly woods, and deepe rivers, farre diftant from any land."
Whoever shall take the trouble to turn to the old translation here quoted, will, I think, be of opinion, that in whatsoever novel our author might have found the fable of The Tempeft, he was led by the perusal of this book to make the fiene of it an unfrequented island. The title of the chapter, whieh is" Of the Canniballes,"_evidently furnished him with the name of one of his characters. In his time almost every proper name was twisted into an anagram. Thus, “I moyl in law," was the anagram of the laborious William Noy, Attorney General to Charles I. By inverting this process, and transposing the letters of the word Canibal, Shakspeare (as Dr. Farmer long since observed) formed the name of Caliban, MALONE,
Letters should not be known; no use of service,
And yet he would be king on't.
4 Letters should not be known; no use of service,
Of riches or of poverty; no contracts,
Succeffions; bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none : ] The words already quoted from Florio's Translation (as Dr. Farmer observes to me) instruct us to regulate our author's metre as it is now exhibited in the text.
Probably Shakspeare first wrote (in the room of partition, which did not suit the ftructure of his verse) bourn; but recollecting that one of its significations was a rivulet, and that his island would have fared ill without fresh water, he changed bourn to bound of laud, a phrase that could not be misunderstood. At the same time he might have forgot to strike out bourn, his original word, which is now rejected; for if not used for a brook, it would have exactly the same meaning as bound of land. There is therefore no need of the diffyllabical assistance recommended in the following note.
STEEVENS. And use of service, none; contralt, fucceffion,
Bouru, bound of land, tilib, vineyard, none.] The defective metre of the second of these lines affords a ground for believing that some word was omitted at the press. Many of the defects however in our author's metre have arisen from the words of one line being transferred to another. In the present instance the preceding line is redundant. Perhaps the words here, as in many other passages, have been shuffled out of their places. We might read
And use of service, none; fuccefsion,
Contract, bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none. fucceffion being often ufed by Shakspeare as a quadrifyllable. It muft however be owned, that in the passage in Montaigne 's Ellays the words contract and succession are arranged in the sanie manner as in the first folio.
If the error did not happen in this way, bourn might have been used as a diffyllable, and the word omitted at the press might have been none :
Ant. The latter end of his commonwealth forgets the beginning.' Gon. All things in common nature should pro
SEB. No marrying 'mong his subjects ?
Gon. I would with such perfection govern, sir, To excel the golden age.
s The latter end of his commonwealth forgets the beginning.] All this dialogue is a fine satire on the Utopian treatises of government, and the impracticable inconsistent schemes therein recommended.
WARBURTON, any engine,] An engine is the rack. So, in K. Lear:
-like an engine, wrench'd my frame of nature “ From the fix'd place." It may, however, be used here in its common signification of instrument of war, or military machine. Steevens.
7-all foizon,] Foifon, or foizon, signifies plenty, ubertas ; not moisture, or juice of grass, as Mr. Pope says. EDWARDS. So, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. XIII. Ch. 78:
“ Union, in breefe, is fuyfonous, and discorde works decay." Mr. Pope, however, is not entirely mistaken, as foison, or fizon, sometimes bears the meaning which he has affixed to it. See Ray's Collection of South and East Country words. STEVENS.
nature should bring forth, Of its own kind, all foizon, all abundance,
To feed my innocent people.)“ And if notwithstanding, in divers fruits of those countries that were never tilled, we ihall find that in respect of our's they are moft excellent, and as delicate unto our taste, there is no reason Art should gain the point of our great and puiffant mother, Nature,” Montaigne's Esaies, ubi fup.
MALONE. : I would with fucb perfelion govern, fir,
To excel the golden age.] Šo Montaigne, ubi supra: “ Me
'Save his majesty! Ant. Long live Gonzalo ! Gon.
And, do you mark me, fir?-ALON, Pr'ythee, no more; thou dost talk no
thing to me. Gon. I do well believe your highness; and did it to minister occasion to these gentlemen, who are of such sensible and nimble lungs, that they always use to laugh at nothing.
Ant. 'Twas you we laugh'd at.
Gon. Who, in this kind of merry fooling, am nothing to you: so you may continue, and laugh at nothing still.
Ant. What a blow was there given ?
Gon. You are gentlemen of brave mettle ;' you would lift the moon o’t of her sphere, if she would continue in it five weeks without changing.
Enter Ariel invisible, playing solemn musick.* SEB. We would so, and then go a bat-fowling. Ant. Nay, good my lord, be not angry.
feemeth that what in those [newly discovered) nations we see by experience, doth not only exceed all the pictures wherewith licen. ticus poesie hath proudly imbellished the GOLDEN Age, and all her quaint inventions to fain a happy condition of man, but also the conception and desire of philosophy.” MALONE.
9-of brave mettle;] The old copy has metal. The two words are frequently confounded in the first folio. The epithet, brave, shews clearly, that the word now placed in the text was intended by our author. Malone.
2 Enter Ariel, &c. playing folemn mufic.] This stage-direction does not mean to tell us that Ariel himself was the fidicen; but that solemn music attended his appearance, was an accompaniment to his entry. STEEVENS,