Page images

or actual terror of the throne ? Weari-sant danger in which Czars must live has ness was the solution of Monarchy'im- produced no abdication. The caste will agined many years ago by a clever novel- hold on, we imagine, until opinion is so ist, who predicted that in the year 2,500, modified, even in armies, that thrones or thereabouts, a single capitalist would are no longer possible, and the interval be owner, and therefore 'ruler of the may easily be long enough to allow two world, and that the Kings would be ham- Victors to become crowned rulers in pered by constitutional etiquettes, till Germany and Great Britain. abdication would be a pleasant escape from an intolerable position ; and there is this to justify bis idea, that thrones do go begging when their conditions are unpleasant. Belgium was refused, Greece

From The Examiner. was refused, Spain was refused, - the

OUR RELATIONS WITH MOROCCO. latter under circumstances which made THERE is scarcely a country on the the refusal but little creditable to the face of the globe concerning which we refuser. Leopold of Coburg refused Bel- seem to know and care less than we do gium for months because of her constitu- about Morocco. It is high time, howtion ; Prince Alfred of England refused ever, that a new leaf be turned over in Greece; and Ferdinand, Ex-King of this matter, and a little of the public atPortugal, declined Spain, though proba- tention demanded for a country which, bly the one man in Europe whom Span- from the value of its natural resources, iards would have cordially supported. proximity — within two hours' sail of a But the abdication of a born King has British port - and other causes, ought yet to occur, though the last King of to be of the greatest importance to us. Denmark who also possessed Schleswig- The advancement of commerce and the Holstein, threatened to run for President suppression of slavery have hitherto been if the Hohenzollerns worried him too the two chief objects of all our dealings much. Nobody steps down voluntarily with African nations, except Morocco. out of bis caste, and Kings have quite as It is true, though probably little known, much pride of caste as other inen, that we keep up a costly ambassadorial more, because they are never in their and consular establishment in that counown minds quite sure that their rank is try, but as yet we have kept it up for nothnot part of a Providential scheme, that ing. The splendid field for commerce their right of birth is not, on some inter-which Morocco should afford to our merpretation or other and in some sense, cantile enterprise is practically closed <divine." Kings hold on very hard, un- against us, while the trade in human flesh der all circumstances, and would hold on, fourishes there unheeded under the very we imagine, even if the Crown ceased to shadow of the English flag. be sufficiently or even decently gilded, or A short statement of the present conif the work were exceedingly severe. dition of our commercial and other relaWe could imagine, indeed, a King com- tions with the Moorish empire will plainly pelled to do work which he could not show the necessity that exists for a radiaccomplish, feeling as Lord Althorp used cal alteration in the policy we pursued to say he felt, and resolving to abdicate; in our dealings with Sidi Mohammed, but before the resolution became fixed he and have hitherto continued with his son would learn to trust some one with the and successor. By our present treaty work, and patiently to await results. made some eighteen years ago - British The self-conceit of Kings, Prince Bis- subjects in Morocco are entitled to the marck once said, knows no laws. Even same privileges that " are enjoyed by the Ferdinand of Austria thought himself fit subjects or citizens of the most favoured to govern, and it is said, received in the nations." These privileges are more Hradschin the news of the cession of amply defined in the treaties since made Lombardy with the malicious remark, that by Morocco with France, Spain, the after all his nephew had not made so United States, &c. But though by these much of his work. As to terror, Kings treaties trade is nominally permitted, it feel it like other people, but they do not is placed under restrictions that in reality often abdicate from fear. The certainty keep it at a complete standstill. For of assassination - and as De Quincey instance, Morocco is a grain-growing has shown, it amounted to that did not country, and from its great fertility in diminish the number of candidates for that respect might be made to produce the Cæsarship of Rome, and the inces, wheat enough to supply all Europe

and yet the exportation of wheat is alto- came due the debtors for the most part gether probibited. It is known that gold, repudiated them, and on the marter being silver, copper, lead, and quicksilver, exist laid before the Sultan by the diplomatic in the country in large quantities, but no representative, he supported the debtors attempt to reach this mineral wealth by by saying that the treaty clause did not the opening and working of mines will be apply to Government officials, such as permitted. Besides wheat, several other the debtors were. Yet it was on the valuable articles of commerce are placed strength of their being men in official under prohibition - notably palmetto, position, and, as such, men of standing which grows in Morocco in the greatest and substance, that the European merabundance. But even with the trade that chants had made the advances. After is allowed, difficulties are thrown in the some negotiation the Sultan consented way, so great as to be completely inter- that the claims of the merchants (amountdictory. Chief of these is, that it is not ing to a very considerable gross sum) allowed at all with several, and some of should be adjudicated upon by a legal these the best, of the Moorish ports. tribunal. But in this tribunal the law Santa Cruz, the finest port in the Em- was administered by Shraa, the law of pire, is altogether closed to Europeans, the Koran. By this law of Shraa no eviwhilst at others, where it is permitted, dence is admitted from witnesses of other the anchorage is most insecure ; some than the Mohammedan faith ; and as in also being faced by reefs of rocks, which this case the claimants were all of them often prevent vessels communicating with either Christians or Jews, their evidence the shore for many weeks at a time. was not received, and no fair decisions Some of these ports might be greatly were arrived at. The claims are thereimproved at a small outlay, but the late fore for the most part still outstanding, Sultan would neither undertake this him- and in all probability will never be setself nor allow it to be done by foreign- tled. The following affords another ers. For example, at Tangier the foun- instance of evasion. By treaty the goods dations still remain of the moles con- of European merchants are not liable to structed by the English in the reign of pay any tax or duty after they have Charles II., but afterwards destroyed on passed through the custom-house and our evacuation of the place. These paid the import duty. According to this might be made serviceable again at a stipulation a European merchant might trilling expense, but the Sultan had remove his goods from one port to always refused to permit it as it would another by land without additional impost. interfere with the profits of those of bis But the Moorish Government has lately subjects who now make it their business evaded this by charging a duty on every to carry goods and passengers from ves- camel, or mule, or donkey's load of goods sels on shore on their backs. Another which enters the gates of a Moorish and most serious impediment to trade is town. It declares, however, that the the fact that the supply of lighters for duty is paid on the animal, not on the unloading ships' cargoes is kept as an goods he carries, and that it is charged to imperial monopoly. A very few are the driver, who, being a Moorish subject, placed at each port, and vessels have to may be taxed ad libitum. But of course wait, in some cases for weeks, to take the camel or mule driver has to charge their turn to be loaded or unloaded. the duty to his European employer, and

But even such as these treaties are, it this is virtually equivalent to the merhas been found that the Sultan has not chant's paying an additional duty. The hesitated to break them. For instance. last instance which we shall give, though By one treaty-stipulation subjects of for- not concerned with trade, is an equally eign powers were allowed to trade with unfair and vexatious proceeding on the any Moorish subjects, and they were em- part of the Moorish Government towards powered to recover debts from them. the subjects of foreign nations. By Acting oa this, many European mer- treaty the Sultan of Morocco engages chants advanced money or goods to gov- that “ British subjects residing in his ernors of Moorish provinces, on the dominion shall enjoy their personal secusecurity of legal and official acknowledg- rity in as full and ainple a manner as ments of the debts, and written promises subjects of the Sultan are entitled to do for their repayment at the time of har- within the territories of her Britannic vest or sheepshearing, when the govern- Majesty.” But now the Moorish Govors would collect the tithe-taxes from the ernment declares that no foreigner shall people. When, however, the debts be- ! travel anywhere outside of a Moorish town unless accompanied by a Moorish | his “ Travels in Morocco," quotes a case soldier, or, if he does, he does it on his in which slaves were brought from Gibown responsibility. So that if an Eng- raltar to Tangier in the English mail lishman were robbed in the market-place boat, and like instances have occurred of Tangier — just outside the gates - hc quite recently. could obtain no redress, unless he were The reason for this excessive submis. under the charge of a Moorish soldier, siveness on our part to the violation of the cost of which escort is from four to our treaty rights by the Moorish Governeight shillings a day! That England, ment, as well as our complacent attitude through her representatives, should towards slavery and slave traffic in this meekly submit to such flagrant violation part of Africa, is not far to seek, and is of the rights of her subjects as this, shows a very mean one when found. The fact a spirit of gentleness and long-suffering is that we keep up an enormous garrison for which, judging from her ordinary at Gibraltar, which we feed chiefly and dealings with African potentates, few cheaply from Tangier ; so in order to would have been inclined to give her save a few pounds yearly in butcher's credit.

meat for our soldiers wé sacrifice our In another matter, that of slavery, gen- honour and our principles, and make erally supposed to arouse the deepest “peace at any price” our motto in Mofeelings of horror in the English mind, rocco. So long as our government can we have shown ourselves equally com- get as much cheap beef as it wants for placent and forbearing in Morocco. Gibraltar, our merchants may be thwart

There negro slavery is one of the most ed, and bullied, and cheated in their cherished of domestic institutions, the commercial transactions as much as the slaves being mostly brought from Tim- Moorish Sultan pleases; and not even buctoo and Soudan, but sometimes from by a frown or a shake of the head will the East, and sold in open market in the we infer that we see anything to disaptowns. Now it might not be possible, prove of in the good old custom of nor if it were would it probably be ex-slavery. To show the importance - over pedient, for any European Power to get all else - which is attached to this matthe Sultan of Morocco to suppress the ter of buying cheap meat for Gibraltar, traffic in slaves throughout his domin- it is enough to say that at Tangier — the ions. But England has quite sufficient port from which the meat is shipped — power and influence - if she chose to we have a Minister Plenipotentiary and a exercise it — with the Maroquine Court Consul, both receiving high salaries and to obtain the introduction of many salu- each with his staff of paid assistants ; tary restrictions in this trade, the only whilst at all the other ports of the Empire one which at present appears to be quite there are only unpaid vice-Consuls, or free in Morocco. The sale of slaves in Consular agents; and at Mogador the open market in those towns where Eng- British Consular business has been translish diplomatic establishments are main- acted since last August by the French tained, might be prohibited. A firm in- Consul, nor up to a recent date had the sistance on such a restriction as this Foreign Office taken steps to appoint would only be consistent from a nation any one to relieve him of the duties. like ours, which has lavished millions for And yet Mogador is the most important the suppression of the slave trade in trading station on the Coast, both on acother parts of Africa. But so far from count of the number of English merany attempt of the kind having yet been chants resident there, and also because it made, it would appear as if as regards is the chief port for the exportation of all Morocco we took a different view of the native produce - other than fresh promatter, and rather approved of slavery visions. That such a state of things is than otherwise. The efforts of the late not creditable to England will be readily Mr. Richardson, who was commissioned admitted ; and that the sooner it is remby the Anti-Slavery Society to present edied the better will be the natural cona memorial on the subject to the Sultan, clusion. But the remedy must consist received neither assistance nor sympa- not only in a new treaty — though the thy from our chief representative ; on need for that is imperative too — but the contrary, the project was speedily in such an unflinching insistance on the drowned in the profusion of cold water observance of its stipulations on the part thrown on it. But worse than this, slaves of our chief representative as will inspire have actually been brought into Morocco the Moorish Government with respect, in English vessels. Mr. Richardson, in instead of, as now, contempt for our



Government, with also, as regards such | Gone in an instant like a breath of wind, matters as slavery, a course of conduct Leaving the dead dumb instrument behind on our part which, while not disputing Through which the spirit, with such wondrous the rights of other nations to their own

art, social and domestic arrangements, shall Thrilled its fine harmonies of sense and mind. not make it appear that our own muchvaunted moral professions are nothing Gone ? - what is gone, and whither has it fled? more than shams.

What means this dreadful utterance he is

dead ! What is this strange mysterious tie called


That bindeth soul to sense by such slight From Blackwood's Magazine.

thread? Love's grasp is strong, and yet it could not

hold For years, dear friend, but rarely had we met, The somewhat that it loved ; and thought is Fate in a different path our feet had set,

bold, Space stretched between us, yet you still were Yet strove in vain to follow where it fled, near,

And sank to earth, the secret all untold. And friendship had no shadows of regret.

Where and what are you now? what do you The ocean drear divided us, but nought

know, Obscured the interchange of word and thought; See, feel? Is all that was so dark below The unbroken line of sympathy still throbbed, Cleared up at last? Does memory still reAnd unto both its constant message brought. main, And so I felt you were not far away,

And do you long for us who loved you so ? The mere material distance seemed to lay Brief barrier to our meeting, and I dreamed In this new life does human feeling last? That some day we should meet; ay, any day – Or has oblivion blotted out the Past,

All the glad joys of this warm life of sense,
That we again should clasp each other's hand, And all the lights and shadows o'er it cast ?
Speak as of old, and face to face should stand;
Renew the past, and plot and plan again,
As in years past we plotted and we planned.

Or are you nothing now? - gone like a tone
That dies to silence- - or a light that shone

One gleaming moment, swift to disappear,
That hope is vanished now — a sudden change By death's cold breath to utter darkness
Hath borne you from me far beyond the range blown?
Of that familiar life that here we knew
Into a region dim and far and strange.

To all these questions comes a silence drear ;

Stretched o'er Life's utmost verge with longA vaster sea divides us now- a stretch

ing ear Across whose space we vainly strive to reach, The still soul listens, but no answer comes Whose deeps man passes never to return,

Save the low heart-beats of its hope or fear. Fron, whose far shores there comes no human speech.

So we return to earth — we laugh and weep, In one swift moment you have passed and Love, hope, despair. Time in its silent sweep gone

Bears us along — till, tired out at last, Out on the blind way all must tread alone, Gladly we lay us down in death's deep sleep. Uncompanied, unfriended, none knows where, Gone out into the vague and vast unknown. No matter what it brings — at least it wears

A peaceful charm of xest from all our cares. Gone where no mortal sense can track your Why should we wish to toil and struggle more? flight

Is not sleep sweet if no dark dreams it bears? Gone where Faith casts a weak and wavering light,

Look at this face where death has laid its hand, Where trembling Hope and Fear bewildered How calm it looks !- how sorrowless, how stray,

grand ! Lost in the pathless silent shades of night. Life's fever over, all the passions fled,

All the lines smoothed they burned as with a Vanished forever from this world away,

brand. From all the accidents of Night and Day, The season's chance or change, the voice of Not Joy's glad smile in happiest hours it bore, man,

Not Love's enchanted look that once it wore, And all Life's passion, joy, hope, pain, and Could lend a grace so noble, so refined, play.

As now it wears when Joy and Love are o'er.

And yet - that peace will never soothe our And if 'tis all a dream - so let it be ; pain;

Who shall decide when all is mystery? He whom we loved is lost. Come back again, And yet I rather choose this heavenly dream Come back, we cry: no, never ! - all our love Than death's dark horror of inanity. And all our grief cry out for him in vain.

At least your noble thoughts can never die -That pictured memory graced with treasures They live to stir and lift humanity – fair,

They live to sweeten life and cheer us on : That stored experience rich with learning rare, If they are with us, surely you are nigh. Those garnered thoughts and those affections fine

Yes, in our memory, long as sense remains, Are they all squandered, lost, dispersed in air ? That stalwart frame shall live, that voice

whose strains Seek as you will — blind creature — never eye To lofty purpose pitched, struck like a fire Of mortal man shall pierce this mystery. Into our blood, and thrilled through all our This, this alone we know, that nought we veins.

know; And yet we feel — life surely cannot die. That full sonorous voice, whose high-strung

key Change it may suffer - vanish from us here, Was tuned to Justice and to Liberty In forms beyond our ken to reappear. That sounded like a charge to rouse the world Pass up the finite scale of seed, stalk, flower, From the deep slumber of its apathy. To odour - then exhale beyond this sphere.

Nor these alone ;- we shall remember too But death – blank nothing! at the very The kind familiar tones of love we knew, thought

The genial converse and the storied lore, Reason recoils — Faith shudders — Hope, dis- The cultured charm that every listener drew.

traught, Reels back aghast ; no wild imagining

The gladsome smile, the gleam of quick surCan shape a shapeless empty void of naught. prise,

That thrilled the face and lightened through To somewhat, vague and dim howe'er it be,

the eyes ; The soul must cling — mere blank inanity The uplifting brow, the utterance frank and Defies our utmost stretch of wildest thought, clear, And here at least Hope, Reason, Faith agree. And all that sullen death to sight denies. Then why with nightmare dreams our spirits How poor the tribute on your grave we lay!

Alas ! how idle are the words we say ! scare? If we will dream — how sweeter and more fair Nor praise nor blame shall cheer or trouble

more Hope's promise of a loftier life beyond, With larger loving and an ampler air !

The parted spirit or the insensate clay.

Vain friendship's voice, and vain the loud Of vaster regions lifted from the sphere

lament Of doubt and struggle that harass us here, A nation breathed as o'er your bier it bent; Where the freed spirit, moving ever on, Vain unto you, that as you passed away Breathes a diviner, purer atmosphere. A shadow darkened down a continent. So will I dream, since nothing we can know,

Rest, then, brave soldier, from the well-fought Your soul, enfranchised, wanders to and fro

fight! On some Elysian plain beyond our sense, Rest, genial scholar, from the dear delight Communing with great spirits as you go. Of arts and books! Rest, steadfast, stainless

friend ! That oft a tender memory, turning, strays Forever ours — though lost to sense and To us who tread below these earthly ways,

sight. Not mourning for us as we mourn for you, But seeing clear above this cloudy maze. Stern Duty's champion, at thy bier we bow !

Brave, honest, faithful to the end - thy vow That, purged of Time, your spirit larger grows To God and Freedom kept - unbribed, unIn that new being – asking not repose,

bought : But with new aims and more expanded powers, Rest thee or rise to loftier labours now. On, on, forever with glad purpose goes.


« PreviousContinue »