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The natural history of horses, camels, oxen, and mules, which are also kept in the royal ftables, contains nothing materially different from the common accounts.
The next chapter, describing the manner in which the emperor spent his time, may amuse the generality of our readers.
• It is his majesty's constant endeavour to gain and secure the hearts of all men. Amidst a thousand cares, and perplexing avocations, he suffers not his temper to be in any degree disturbed, but is always cheerful. He is ever striving to do that which may be moft acceptable to the Deity, and employs his mind on profound and abAtracted speculations. From his thirst after wisdom, he is continually labouring to benefit by the knowledge of others, while he makes no account of his own sagacious administration. He liftens to what every one hath to say, because it may happen that his heart may be enlightened by the communication of a juft sentiment, or by the relation of a laudable action. But although a long period bas elaps. ed in this practice, he has never met with a person whose judgment he could prefer to his own. Nay, the most experienced statesmen, on beholding this ornament of the throne, blush at their own infufficiency, and study anew the arts of government. Nevertheless, out of the abundance of his fagacity, he will not suffer himself to quit the paths of enquiry. Although he be surrounded with power and splendour, yet he never suffers himself to be led away by anger or wrath. Others employ story-tellers to lull them to fleep, but his majesty, on the contrary, listens to them to keep him awake. From the excess of his righteousness, he exercises on himself both inward and outward austerities; and pays some regard to external forms, in order that those who are attached to eftablished customs, may not have any cause for reproach. His life is an uninterrupted series of virtue and sound morality. God is witness, that the wise of all ranks are unanimous in this declaration.
• He never laughs at nor ridicules any religion or feat. He never wastes his time, nor omits the performance of any doty; so thar, through the blessings of his upright intentions, every action of his life may be considered as an adoration of the Deity. He is conting. ally returning thanks unto Providence, and scrutinizing his own conduct. But he molt especially fo employs himself at the following ftated times : at day-break, when the sun begins to diffuse his rays; at noon, when that graod illuminator of the universe shines in full resplendence; in the evening, when he disappears from the in. habitants of the earth; and again at midnight, when he recommences his ascent. All these grand mysteries are in honour of God ; and if dark-minded ignorant people cannot comprehend their fig. nification, who is to be blamed ?" Every one is sensible, that it is indispensably our daty to praise our benefactor, and consequently, it is incumbent on us to praise this diffuser of bounty, the fountain of light! And more especially behoveth it princes so to do, seeing that this sovereign of the heavens sheddech his beniga influence upon the monarchs of the earth. His majesty has also great veneration for fire in general, and for lamps; since they are to be accounted rays of the greater light.
• He spends the whole day and night in the performance of his necessary avocations, excepting the small portion required for sleep. He takes a little repose in the evening, and again for a short time in the morning. The greatest part of the night is employed in the transaction of business. To the royal privacy are then admitted phi. losophers, and virtuous fofees, who feat themselves, and entertain his majefty with wife discourses on these occasions his majesty fathoms the depths of knowledge, examines the value of ancient institutions, and forms new regulations; that the aged may ítand corrected in their errors, and that the rising generation be provided with fit sules for governing their conduct. There are also present at these assemblies learned historians, who relate the annals of past times, just as the events occurred, without addition or diminution. A considerable part of the night is spent in hearing representations of the Itate of the empire, and giving orders for whatever is necessary to be done in every department. Three hours before day, there are introduced to the presence, musicians of all nations, who recreate the afembly with vocal and instrumental melody. But when it wants only about an hour of day, his majesty prefers filence, and employs himself at his devotions. Just before the appearance of day, people of all ranks are in waiting, and, soon after day-break, are permitted to make the Koornish *. Next the haram are admitted to pay their compliments. During this time various other affairs are tranfacted, and when those are finished he retires to rest for a short time.'
The second part of this first volume contains, chiefly, the regulations for the military department. Toward the end of it, we have the following curious accounts of the modes of hunting. For catching the lion,
They make a large cage, strengthened with iron, into which they put a kid, in such a situation, that the lion cannot come at ic without entering by the door which is left open. The cage is put in the place which the lion frequents, and when he enters to seize the kid the door Muts on him, and he is taken ; or an arrow is set in a bow of a green colour which is fallened to a bough of a tree, and when the lion passes under it, the motion discharges the arrow and kills him. Or they faften a sheep to the spot which he frequents, and surround it with straw, worked up with some glutinous substance, so that when the lion attempts to seize the sheep, his claws become entangled in the straw; on which the hunters, issuing from their covert, either kill him, or take him alive and came him. Sometimes a bold reso. luie fellow seats himself on the back of a male buffaloe, and makes him attack the lion, and toss him with his horns till he kills him. It is not possible for any one, who has not seen this fight, to form an adequate idea of the sport it affords, nor to conceive the boldness of the man, who feats himself erect like a pillar, notwithstanding the violent motions of the buffaloe during the bloody conflict.'
The Author describes the leopards as animals remarkable for their provident and circumspect conduct. They are taken in
traps, and are afterward tamed, and one species of them are trained for hunting *. As the method of hunting with them is described by many European writers in nearly the same manner as by this Author, we shall pass it over, and give our readers the following fingular method of hunting deer with deer.
• They faften a snare about a came deer, so that when a wild one engages him, he is entangled by the horns or ears; on which the hunters issue from their coverts and seize him. If the tame deer is overpowered, or the fnare breaks, he returns to his keeper. SULTAN Firoze Kuljie had some idea of this manner of hunting; but it is only now brought to perfection. They will now hunt in the night, and if the wild deer runs away, or the snare breaks, the tame one obeys the orders of his keeper, and comes or goes just as he directs. - Formerly, only two or three people partook of this sport, and for fear of frightening the wild deer, used to disguise their persons or hide themselves in the grass, but his majesty has introduced a method whereby upwards of four hundred people may go together. Forty oxen are taught to move slowly and in such a manner as to conceal the people who are behind them.'
The third part of this volume relates wholly to the revenue, excepting the introduction, which is a learned account of the reveral æras used by different chronologers and different nations ; and the conclusion, which contains inftru&ions for the several great officers of state. The chronological part admits not of abridgment, and the others would afford no entertainment to our readers, in general.
In the fortieth year of Akber's reign, his dominions confifted of 105 provinces and 2737 townships. The empire was then parcelled into twelve grand divisions, and each was committed to the government of a Soobahdar or viceroy.
The second volume contains a fuccină description of each Sog'bah + or viceroyalty, with its biftory, and the lives of their reIpective viceroys; and as it cannot much interest the European reader, we shall enter into no detail of its contents, but proceed to the confideration of the laft volume, -which contains, as we mentioned in the beginning of this article, an account of the religion and philosophy of the Hindoos.
The intrinsic merit of the introduction, which is truly philosophical, will be a sufficient apology for our transcribing it, more especially as it gives an account of the contents of the volume.
- I had long fet my heart (says the historian) on writing something of the history of Hindoftan, together with an account of the religious opinions of the Hindoos. I know not if my anxiety herein proceeds
* This, as we learn from other accounts, is a smaller kind of leopard, named the chetab.
+ Europeans often confound Soobah for Soobahdar; and the title of the viceroy is commonly written Subab.
from the love of my native country, or whether I am impelled by the defire of searching after truth, and relating matter of fact.
. At first my head was filled with the idle tales of BenAGUTTY, Hafez Abroo, and other ancient authors, who have written stories of things that never exifted but in their own imaginations; but at length, becoming sensible of the ignorance of mankind, and of their evil dirposition toward one another, I resolved to endeavour to establish peace and amity. However, multiplicity of bufiness occafioned delay, until I undertook to write this work, which has run out to great length; and having finished the history of the Soobahs (including a good part of the history of Hindoftan), I thought this a fit time for carrying into execacion my long.concealed intention.
Before this period I had acquired some knowledge of the subject, but deeming that insufficient, I had again recourse to those who were capable of instructing me, and renewed my former ftudies. From my ignorance of the signification of the Hindoo terms, and the want of an able interpreter, my researches became painful; as I was obliged to make repeated enquiries after the same thing. At length, by the will of heaven, unremitted affiduity has obtained the object of my wishes.
• It is now come to light that the generally-received opinion of the Hindoos being polytheists, has no foundation in truth; for although their tenets admit many positions that are difficult to be defended, yet that they are worshippers of God, and ONLY ONE God, are incontrovertible points.
• In order to establish what I have here advanced, I Mall set forth the various faiths and ceremonies of this immense multitude, that the necessary proofs may be found collected together, and strife and animoficy be thereby moderated.
. Although there have never been wancing in the world men of upright and honest intentions, yet from the following causes there have always been diffenfions regarding this religion.
· Firft. The difference of language, which has prevented the Hindoos and those of other nations from comprehending the meaning of each other, and occafioned much strise.
Secondly. The remoteness of fituation, which has prevented the Hindoos' from having any intercourse with the learned of other countries. Or if it happened that one of each met together, no communication of ideas could be effected, for want of an intermediate person, it being very difficult to find an interpreter so well acquainted with the depths of science and the various philosophical doctrines, as to be able to explain himself thereon in a satisfactory manner. Even now, notwithstanding his majesty has caken such pains to assemble the learned of all nations, who aid and assist each other in their researches after truth, the inconvenience still remains unremedied. Where then is a person to be found poffeffed of the qualifications requisite for this task i
• Thirdly. The subjection of mankind to their corporeal senses, infomuch that they will not allow any thing to exist, which they them. felves have not felt.
Fourthly. The indolence of mankind, which induces them to prefer the little they actually poffefs to the prospect of increasing it by
the fatigues of commerce, which inclines them to adopt case and re. ject labour, and forego the pains required in searching after knowledge; contenting themselves with disputes about appearances only, regardless how far they are consonant with truth and reality.
Fifthly. The habit of imitation, which people of all nations fall into, without asking why or wherefore. Whatever they have received from their father, tutor, acquaintance, or neighbour, they consider as the rule of conduct molt acceptable to the Deity, and itamp those who differ from them with the name of INFIDEL.
Sixthly. The reserve which prevents a candid communication be. tween persons of different persuasions, and to this it is owing that no instance can be produced of two or three persons meeting for the pure pose of discussing the tenets of their respective creeds, and of alcer. taining the principles on which they are founded.-Even monarchs, deeming the investigation unimportant, have either treated it with indifference, or, actuated by the pride and self-conceit of sectaries, have prohibited free difcuffion and enquiry. A regard for self-preservation, therefore, induces men either to be filent, or to express themselves in obscure language; or com pels them to conform to the temper of the times. But if princes had evinced a disposition to promote the search after truth, many illustrious men, having no grounds for fear or apprehension, would have published to the world, with freedom, their sentiments and opinions. The monarch's example is a law to all; and thus every sect becomes infatuated with its particular doctrines; animosity and dissension prevail, and each man, deeming the tenets of his own feet to be the dictates of truth itself,
aims at the destruction of all others, vilifies reputation, stains the · earth with blood, and has the vanity to imagine he is performing me.
ritorious actions. If the voice of reason was attended to, mankind would be sensible of their error, and lament the weakness which mirled them to interfere in the concerns of each other. Persecution, after all, defeats its own ends; and obliges men to conceal their own opinions, but produces no change in them.
• Seventhly: The success which too often attends the wicked and ill-disposed, from the facility with which the professions of virtue and rectitude gain belief. Hence a variety of evils are derived, and truth lies buried under a load of errors. Enough, ABUL FAZEL, enough: the various forms of divine vengeance are inexplicable; the biftory of them is long and intricate : proceed to execute your original defign of attempting to establish peace and unanimity.
• Although some will be disturbed with the information they re. ceive, others will embrace it with satisfaction.
· Thanks be unto God, who hath no equal, I am neither of the number of those who are ready to condemn the ignorant, nor averse to praise chose who know better.'
What a noble-minded man was this historian of the East !
After giving a succinct view of their religion, the excellent Author proceeds to describe the state of science among the Hindoos. He more particularly enlarges on their knowlege of aftronomy and geography; and in these parts of the work, the Translator has received much asistance from our ingenious coun