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when I obliged them to mess all together, though my order was ndt obeyed without much grumbling and discontent.
Another time, a patron of one of the Canary fishing-boats came aboard our ship, on the coast of Barbary, and breakfaited with us; besides ourselves, there were theri ac table a Jew (our interpreter) and a Moor; when the patron (or master of the bark) took me afide, and gravely reprimanded me for bringing him into such bad company; “ For (added he) although I am obliged by necessity to earn my bread by the fishery on this coast, yet I am an old Christian of clean blood, and scorn to fit in company with many in Sancta Cruz who are called gentlemen, yet cannot clear themselves from the charge of having a mixture of Jewish and Moorish blood in their veins,"
« The gentry of these islands are commonly poor, yet extremely polite and well bred. The peasants and labouring poor are not without a considerable share of good manners, and have little of that surly rufticity which is so common among the lower kind of people in England; yet they do not seem to be abashed or ashamed in presence of their superiorse
· The servants and common people are excessively addicted to pilfering, for which they are feldom otherwise punished than by being turned off, beaten' when detected, or imprisoned for a short time. Robberies * are seldom or ever committed here; but murder is more common than in England, the natives of these islands being addicted to revenge. I do not remember to have heard of any duels among them, for they cannot comprehend how a man's having courage to fight, can atone for the injury he hath done his antagonist. The consequence of killing a man here, is that the murderer flies to a church for refuge, until he can find an opportunity to escape out of the country: if he had been greatly provoked or injured by the deceased, and did not kill him premeditately, or in cold blood, he will find every body ready to assist him in his endeavours to escape, except the near relations of the murdered person. Nevertheless quarrels are not so frequent here as in England; which may in part be owing to the fatal consequences they are attended with, or the want of coffee-houses, taverns, or other public houses; and also by reason of the temperance of the gentry in drinking, and their polite behaviour, with the little intercourse there is among them.
• The common people do not fight together in public like the English ; but if one person offends another, so as to put him in a violent passion, the injured party, if he is able, takes vengeance on the aggreffor in the best manner he can, without regard to what we call fair play, until such time as he thinks he
This is Arange, if as Mr. Glass says, the common people are so addicted to pilfering. Rev. July, 1764.
has got sufficient satisfaction equal to the injury received: but quarrelling in publick is looked on as highly indecent, and therefore does not often happen.
- The natives of these islands are temperate in their eating and drinking. If a gentleman was to be seen drunk in public, it would be a lasting Itain on his reputation. I am informed, that the evidence of a man who can be proved a drunkard, will not be taken in a court of justice; therefore all people here, who have a strong inclination to wine, shut themselves up in their bed-chambers, drink their fill there, then get into bed and sleep it off.
" The gentry are extremely litigious, and generally entangled in intricate and endless law-suits. I happened to be in a notary's office, in the ifland of Gomera, where observing huge bundles of papers piled upon the shelves, I enquired of the notary if it was poffible that all the law business of that little island could swell to such-a quantity of writings ? he replied, that he had almost twice as much piled up in two cellars; and said there was another of his profession in the same place, who had as much if not more business than himself.
< People of all ranks in these islands are of an amorous disposition; their notions of love are somewhat romantic, which may be owing to the want of innocent freedom between the sexes'; yet I never could observe that the natives here are more jealous
than the English or French, although they have been so reprefented by these nations. The truth of the matter is, that in every country, custom has established between the sexes certain bounds of decency and decórum, beyond which no person will go, without a bad intention : for instance, freedoms are taken with women in France, which are there reckoned innocent; but would not be suffered by ladies in England, who have any regard for their virtue or reputation : again, in England viituous women allow men to ufé such freedoms with them, as no virtuous woman in these islands could bear with : yet in France there are no more loose wothen, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, than in the Canary Islands.
· Young people here fall in love at fight, without having the least acquaintance with the beloved object. When the parties agree to marry, and find their parents averse to their union, they inform the curate of the parish of the affair, who goes to the house where the girl lives, demands her of her parents or guardians, and endeavours to bring them to agree to her marriage ; but if they will not be persuaded to give their confent, he takes her away before their faces, without their being able to hinder him, and deposites her in a nunnery, or with some of her relatons, until he marries them,
"I am informed that it is not uncommon for a lady here to send to a man, and make him an offer of her person in an honourable way; if he does not think proper to accept of her offer, he keeps it secret till death; if he fhould do otherwise, he would be looked upon, by all people, in the most detestable and despicable light. Young men are not permitted to court young girls when they have no intention to marry them; for if a woman can prove the man has, in the least instance, endeavoured to win her affections, she can oblige hiin to marry her.
I do not remember to have ever failed from the Canary inands without being strongly importuned to allow young fellows to embark with me, who were under promise of marriage, and wanted to forsake their Mistresses. I saw a man of Orotava, who, fome years before, had lived at Gomera, where he courted a girl, and gained her consent to be his wife ; but suddenly repenting of what he had done, and finding no other means of getting away from her, he took the advantage of the first westerly wind, and boldly embarked in an open boat, without oars, fails, or rudder, and launched into the ocean; he was driven before the wind and feas for two days and nights, when at last he drew near the rocky shore adjacent to Adehe in Tenerife, where he must have perished, had it not been for fome fishermen, who, perceiving his boat, went off, and brought her to a safe harbour.
· This law, obliging people to adhere to their love engagements, like many other good laws, is abused; for by means of it, loose women, who have not lost their reputation, often lay snares to entrap the fimple and unwary; and worthless ambitious young men, form designs upon Ladies fortunes, without having the least regard for their persons: although it must be owned, there are few mercenary Lovers in this part of the world, their notions of that paffion being too refined and romantic, to admit the idea of making it subfervient to interest or ambition.
A young Lady in one of these islands, fell deeply in love with a Gentleman, and used every art she was mistress of, to captivate his heart; but in vain ; at last, being hurried on by the violence of her passion, which rendered her quite desperate, The made use of the following stratagem, to obiige him to marry her. She prosecuted him upon a promise of marriage, which sne pretended he had made to her, and suborned witn lles, who (wore they had seen him in bed with her. The evidence ap
peared so clear to the Court, that, without the leaft hclitation, • it gave sentence for the Plaintiff, compelling the Deiendant to
marry her. With this unjust sentence he was obliged to comply, though with the utmost regret; for as the Lady had shewn fo little regard for her reputation, as to swear falsely to her own shame, he could look upon her in no other light, than that of a loose and abandoned woman: however, he was agreeably disappointed, and had all possible reason to believe she was a virgin. Being amazed at her strange conduct, he entreated her to unravel the mystery of her unaccountable behaviour; “ For (faid he) you must be sensible that I am innocent of what you have sworn against me.” She frankly owned the whole affair; and added, for an excuse, that she would rather have lived in hell, than not to have obtained the object of her love. Upan this declaration, he generously forgave her, and they afterwards lived happily together.
Generally speaking, there are more unhappy marriages here, than in those countries where young people have more access to be acquainted with one another's difpofitions, before they agrec to live together for life. In countries where innocent freedonis subfist between the sexes, Lovers are generally not so blinded with passion, that they cannot perceive their Mistresses are mortal, and partake of human frailty; consequently refolve to put up with some failings : but this thought never enters into the imagination of a romantic Lover.
< Gentlemen here get up by day-break, or at sun-rising, and commonly go to church soon after, to hear mass ; at eight or nine in the morning they breakfast on chocolate. The Ladies seidom go to mafs before ten o'clock in the forenoon; but the women servants generally attend it about fun-rising. At the elevation of the Host, which is commonly a little before noon, the bells toll, when all the men who happen to be in the streets, or within hearing of them, take off their hats, and say, “I adore thee, and praise thce, body and blood of our Lord Jesus Chrift, shed on the tree of the cross, to wash the fins of the world.”
• At noon every body goes home to dinner, when all the street-doors are shut, until three in the afternoon. In Gentlemen's houses, the first dish which is put on the table, contains foup, made of beef, mutton, pork, bacon, carrors, turneps, potatoes, peas, onions, faffron, &c. all stewed together : when it is poured into the dish, they put in it thin slices of bread. The second course consists of roasted meat, &c. The third is the olio, or ingredients of which the foup was made. After which comes the desert, consisting of fruit and sweetmeats. The company drink freely of wine, or wine and water, all the time of dinner ; but no wine after the cloth is removed. When
they they drink to one another, they say, Your health, Sir; or Madam, your health. The answer is, May you live a thousand years ; and sometimes, Much good may it do you. Immediately after dinner, a large heavy, shallow, silver dish, filled with water, is put upon the table, when the whole company, all at once, put their hands into the water, and wash; after which a servant stands at the lower end of the table, and repeats the folJowing berediction: Blessed and praised be the most holy Sacrament of the altar, and the clear and pure Conception of the most holy Virgin, conceived in Grace from the first instant of her natural exisence.
Ladies and Gentlemen, much good may it do you. So making a low bow to the company, he retires; when they rile, and each goes to his apartment, to take a nap for about an hour; this is called the Siesto, and is very beneficial in a warm climate; for after one awakes from it, he finds himself refreshed, and fit to go about his affairs with spirit: yet the medical Gentlemen here condemn this custom, and say it is pernicious to the conftitution; but how can a thing be prejudicial to health, that Nature compels a man to? for in hot countries there is no avoiding a short nap after dinner, without doing violence to Nature, especially where people get up by day-break.
• The Gentry feldom give an entertainment without having a Friar for one of the guests, who is generally the Confessor to some of the family. Some of these people, on these occasions, take much upon them, and behave with great freedom, or rather ill-manners; yet the Master of the house, and his Guests, do not choose to rebuke them, but let them have their own way. I happened once to go to dine at a Gentleman's house in one of the islands, when a Franciscan Friar was one of the Guests. We had scarce began to eat, when the Friar asked me, if I was a Christian? I replied, I hope so. Then he defired me to repeat the Apostles Creed. I answered, that I knew nothing about it. Upon this he stared me full in the face, and said, “ Othou black ass !”. I asked him what he meant by treating me in that manner? He answered only by repeating the abuse. The Master of the house endeavoured, but in vain, to persuade him to give over. As at that time I did not under1tand Spanish so well as to express myself fluently, I rofe up, and told the Master of the house, I saw he was not able to protect me from insults at his own table; then taking my hat, I went away.'
The foregoing extracts may fuffice to give our Readers fome idea of the manner in which Mr. Glas's performance is written; but the work contains a much greater variety of curious and
er.tertaining particulars, especially with regard to the state of • literature in the Canaries, than we have room to enumerate :