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intercourse between the students themselves in the day to and dilute sulphuric acid, even in the cold, gives the day common life, the day to day interchange of ideas and internal anhydride tetramethyl-tetramethylene oxide, the friendships, of commentary on men and things, and on all physical and chemical properties of which are given. Dry the great problems which an opening world naturally distillation gives an unsaturated tertiary alcohol.—The suggests to the young. A university which is deficient in nature of the virtual sugar of the blood : R. Lépine and that is but half a university, and no mere scholastic equip- M. Boulud.—The perpetual secretary announced the death ment can satisfy the void which is thus left. Mr: Haldane of M. Etienne Georges Sire, correspondant of the academy delivered an address before opening the new Union build- for the section of mechanics.-Contribution to the study of ings, and spoke of the value of the corporate life at the the calorific emission of the sun : Ch. Féry and G. Cniversity. "No university, he remarked, does its work Millochau. A thermocouple of the same type as those adequately if it does it only by training in the paths of used in the commercial Féry pyrometers is placed at the learning. What is wanted is the moulding influence of focus of a silvered mirror, a total reflection prism and the spirit of the placema universitas which is a universitas, i eye-piece being added so that readings can be made as in not of the arts, not of the sciences merely, but one which, Newtonian reflecting telescope. Observations like the State, moulds the individualities of those who carried out in two ways: placing the centre of the sun belong to it. It is the spirit of the university as much as in coincidence with the cross wires of the telescope at the abstract theories that are discoursed of there that tell different hours of the day, and observations of the effects in the composition of character; and what a significance produced at different points of the solar disc. Measurethe university has for the moulding of character. Leaders, ments were carried out at four stations at different altihe continued, are wanted in the great struggle of the tudes, Meudon (150 metres), Chamonix (1030 metres), nations to-day, and there is no school for training in leader- Grands-Mulets (3050 metres), and the Janssen Observatory ship so fruitful, so complete, as that training of the at the summit of Mt. Blanc (4810 metres). Details regarduniversity which bases science and art alike on the found- ing the standardisation of the apparatus and discussion ation of the widest culture. It is science and learning of the results will be given in a later communication.that form the true function of the professor ; and it is the Observations of the sun made at the Lyons Observatory spirit of the men who are penetrated with the desire to during the first quarter of 1906: J. Guillaume. Observabsorb science and learning as things in themselves that ations were possible during forty-three days in this quarter, communicates itself to those who come in contact and who the results of which are summed up in three tables showlive with them. That is why it always will be that the ing the number sun-spots, their distribution in latitude, Spirit of a university, the contact of its fellow-students, and the distribution of the faculæ in latitude.-Observthe influences which the corporate whole of university life ation of the total eclipse of the moon on August 4, 1906, exercises, will be the dominating influence in moulding the and remarks on the subject of a squall at Phu-Lien, Indocharacter and the quality of the students.

China : G. Le Cadet.—The liquefaction of wheat starch and seeds : A. Boidin.—The detection of adulteration of butter with

cocoa-butter and oleo-margarine : Lucien

Robin. Details of a method of analysis based on the SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

difference in the solubilities of the fatty acids of butter

and cocoa-fat in dilute alcohol.--The complexes of pure Paris.

albumen : André Mayer.—The direct action of light on Academy of Sciences, October 8. -M. II. Poincaré in the transformation of the sugars absorbed by the young the chair.—The synthesis of amethyst quartz : researches plants of Pinus pinea : W. Lubimenko. Some new views, on the natural or artificial colouring of some precious morphological and biological, on the stinging Diptera : E.

under radio-active influences : M. Berthelot. Roubaud.-A hitherto undescribed organ in the thorax of Salural amethyst was decolorised by heating to a tempera

flying ants : Charles Janet. An account, with a diagram, fure of 300° C., and then exposed to the action of radium of a mesonotal diaphragm and metanotal diaphragm in chloride, the experiment being arranged so that the speci- ants after the nuptial flight.--The distribution of the Trias was not in actual contact with the radium salt, and

in Greece: Fritz Frech and Carl Renz.—The earthquake not exposed to its emanations. The violet colour in Chili of August 16, 1906: A. Obrecht.—The amount slowly returned. Similar results were obtained with violet of carbonic acid in sea air : R. Legendre. The average Huor-spar, and the effects produced are attributed by the result from thirteen localities was 3.35 parts of carbonic author to the reduction and oxidation of manganese com- acid per 10,000 of air. pounds. Ordinary fused quartz tubes are also slowly October 15.-M. H. Poincaré in the chair.-A new and coloured violet by the radium radiations. The bearing of rapid method for the determination of the errors of division these experiments on the coloration of minerals in nature of a meridian circle: M. Lewy. The author gives an is discussed.-The work done at the observatory at the outline of a method, fuller details of which will be comsummit of Mt. Blanc : M, Janssen. The season of 1906 municated later, for increasing the accuracy of calibration was an exceptionally favourable one, and the work done of a meridian circle. The method has the great additional included biological researches on rabbits and guinea-pigs advantage of much reducing the time necessary for the D MM. Moog and Guillemard, heliometric researches by work. Fixing a probable error for the position of each MM. Millochau and Féry, magnetic studies at different graduation at 10".02, the time required to fix the position altitudes by M. Senonque, and studies of the surfaces of of each degree is about 100 hours, for half degrees 170 Venus and Jupiter by MM. Hansky and Stefanik. The hours, and for quarter degrees 330 hours.—The principle results of these various researches will be communicated of correspondence for algebraic surface : H. G. later to the academy.-The red colour of certain leaves Zeuthen.—The dialysis of the sugar of the blood : and the colour of autumn leaves : Armand Gautier. The R. Lepine and M. Boulud. Under the conditions of the red colour developed in leaves which have been wounded, experiments described, the sugar in normal blood serum or in the autumn foliage, is not one and the same in all is not dialysable, but in abnormal cases dialysis takes plants, as has been too hastily assumed. Anthocyanine place, notably when the serum contains newly-formed has been regarded by botanists as the cause of the sugar.

These facts are in favour of the idea that in the autumnal red in foliage, and as a uniform product derived normal state the sugar is not free in the blood.—The from chlorophyll ; in the case of the vine this is certainly transformation of M. Darboux and the fundamental equanot the case, since the colouring matter contains neither tion of isothermal surfaces : Rudolf Rothe.-The uniform nitrogen nor phosphorus, two essential constituents of solutions of certain functional equations : M. Fatou.rhlorophyll. The principle of correspondence for The mechanism of ionisation by solution : Gustave D. algebraic surface : H. G. Zeuthen.--Succinic pinacone : Hinrichs.--The chemical functions of textiles : Léo Louis Henry. This bi-tertiary alcohol is obtained in good Vignon. Quite apart from their fibrous structure and vield by the action of methylbromide of magnesium on resulting development of surface, textiles behave as specifiethyl levulate. Both hydrochloric acid and acetyl chloride cally active chemical molecules. The animal textiles (silk,

the dichlorhydrin (CH),C.C-(CH.);-CCI(CH,,, wool) possess both basic and acid functions; the vegetable

stones

men was

an

an

gire

6;3

textiles are deprived of basic functions, and possess feebly

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 1. acid functions comparable to those of the alcohols. Porous ROYAL Society, at 4.30.- Probable Papers: Nitrification of Sewage: De. substances, such as animal charcoal, are inert from the

G. Reid.-A General Consideration of the Subačrial and Freshwater

Algal Flora of Ceylon : Dr. F. E. Fritsch.-The Anasthetic and Lethal chemical point of view.—The condensation of acetylenic

Quantity of Chloroform in the Blood of Animals : Dr. G. A. Buckmaster nitriles with the amines. A general method of synthesis and Dr. J. A. Gardner. of B-substituted B-amino-acrylic nitriles : Ch. Moureu and Chemical Society, at 8.30.-A Development of the Atomic Theory which I. Lazennec. Acetylenic nitriles of the type R-CEC-CN

correlates Chemical and Crystalline Structure and leads to a Democ

stration of the Nature of Valency: W. Barlow and w. J. Pope. - The unite directly with primary and secondary amines, giving

Explosive Combustion of Hydrocarbons, ii. : W. A. Bone, J. Drugnas substituted acrylic nitriles of the type

and G. W. Andrew.-Contributions to the Theory of Solutions : (1) The

Nature of the Molecular Arrangement in Aqueous Mixtures of the Lower R-C(NX,X,)=CH-CN.

Alcohols aad Acids of the Paraffin Series ; (2) Molecular Complexity in These are neutral bodies, easily hydrolysable by acids,

the Liquid State; (3) Theory of the Intermiscibility of Liquids : ,

Holmes.- The Hydrolysis of Nitro-cellulose and Nitro-glycerol : 0 regenerating the amines, and forming ketones of the Silberrad and R. C. Farmer.-The Determination of the Rate of Chemical general formula R-CO-CH,-CN. Examples are given Change by Measurement of Gases Evolved : F. E. E. Lamplough. showing the generality of the reaction.—Helicoidal arrange

Experiments on the Synthesis of the Terpenes Part IX., The Preparatio ment in crystallised bodies : Fred. Wallerant.-A third

of 8-Ketohexahydrobenzoic Acid (8- Ketocyclohexanecarboxylic Aci)

and of y. Ketocyclopentanecarboxylic Acid : F. W. Kay and W. H mandibular canal in the infant : R. Robinson. This third

Perkin, jun.-Experiments on the Synthesis of the Terpenes, Part X, dental duct, which has not hitherto been noted, is always Synthesis of j'-m-Menthenol (8) and of Carvestrene : W. H. Perkia. jer,

and G. Tattersall. --Some Derivatives of Catechol, Pyrogallol, Beso found in young children. From about eight years of age it

phenone and of Other Substances allied to the Natural Colouring appears to atrophy, and leaves as the only trace of its Matters : W. H. Perkin, jun., and C. Weizmann. existence a more or less marked depression, corresponding LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8. - The Structure of Bamboo Leaves : Sir Dietrich to its outlet. This depression has been noted by other

Brandis, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.-On a Collection of Crustacea Decapoda zad anatomists, and has been regarded as a rudimentary

Stomatopoda, chiefly from the Inland Sea of Japan, with Descriptions of

New Species : Dr. J. G. de Man.-On Hectoreila causpitosa, Hook f. alveole. - The penetration of Treponema pallidum in the with Remarks on its Systematic Position : Prof. A. J. Ewart - Era taping ovule : MM. Levaditi and Sauvage. A contribution to tions: Young Plaice Hatched and Reared in Captivity: the President --the study of the hereditary transmission of syphilis.

Abnormal Specimens of Equisetum Telmatria, chrh.: George Talbot.

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 8.-Bridge Work New South Wales.

Design: P. J. Waldram. Linnean Society, August 29.-Mr. Thos. Steel, president, in the chair.-Notes on the native flora of New South

CONTENTS.

PAGE Wales, part v., Bowral to the Wombeyan Caves : R. H.

The Geological History of Sea-level. By J. W. G.. 629 Cambage. This paper deals with the vegetation over a

Refuse Destructors .

630 distance of about fifty miles westerly from Bowral, special reference being made to the changes which take place on

Some Recent Works on Physiology

631 the different geological formations. The fora of the Matter and Radio-Activity. By F. S.

632 basaltic area is shown to differ from that of the sand- Our Book Shelf:stone, while that of the syenite hill known as The Gib Rodet : "Résistance, Inductance el Capacité" . 633 comprises species common to both.- The Mollusca of

Black: “Natural Phenomena. A Collection of De. Masthead Reef, Capricorn Group, Queensland, part i. :

scriptive and Speculative Essays on some of the C. Hedley. On the east coast of Australia the best

By-paths of Nature” known points, from the view of a marine zoologist,

Linville and Kelly :

"A Text book of General are Torres Strait and the neighbourhood of Sydney. To

Zoology" investigate an intermediate station, the author organised

Murché: “Science Readers. Book vil”; Murché : an expedition to the south end of the Barrier Reef. Mast

“Object Lessons in Elementary Science. blage head Island, just outside the tropic of Capricorn, was selected

VII." for examination. The island and surrounding reef are de

Letters to the Editor :scribed and compared with the coral islands of the Central Pacific. The zonal distribution of coral-haunting mollusca is Absorption of the Radio-active Emanations by Char. reviewed.—New Australian species of the family Libellulidæ

coal.-Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S. (Neuroptera : Odonata): R. J. Tillyard. In this paper The Recent Radium Controversy.-Prof. E. Ruther. eleven new species are added to the list of Australian

ford, F.R.S.

634 Libellulidæ, bringing the total up from fifty to sixty-one.

Radium and Geology.-Prof. J. Joly, F.R.S.; T. All the new species were taken in the Cairns district of

Mellard Reade; Rev. O. Fisher North Queensland during the summer of 1904-5. Of

Meteorological Data.-Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S.. 035 these, three only are new to science. The remainder are The Breeding Habits of the Tsetse.fly.-Prof. E. A. species already known in other parts of the world, but

Minchin far unobserved in Australia.-Note on the cerebral Suspended Germination of Seeds. – Sir Archibald localisation in the bandicoot (Perameles) : H. G.

Buchan-Hepburn . Chapman. The positions of the cortical motor centres in Biometry and Biology.-Prof. Karl Pearson, the brains of marsupials have been described in the

F.R.S.

6zó opossum (Didelphys virginiana) by Ziehen, and by R. Speed and Stability in Railway Travelling. (With Cunningham, and in the native cat (Dasyurus viverrinus) Diagram.) By G. R. Dunell

630 by Flashman. The results of an investigation of the motor Estimation of Blood pressure. (Illustrated.). 6;$ areas observed in Perameles nasuta and P. obesula are

Mendel's Correspondence with Nägeli. By A. D. D. 6.40 communicated in the present paper. The centres described

Notes. have been found regularly in each animal and on both sides of the brain.

Our Astronomical Column :

A New Form of Photometer

A Novel Planisphere
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

The Oxford University Observatory

The Ponca Sun Dance. (Illustrated.) By N. W. T. 04 FRIDAY, OCTOBER 26.

Geological Studies in South Africa. (Illustrated.) PHYSICAL Society, at 5.—The Strength and Behaviour of Ductile Mate.

By Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole
rials under Combined Stress : W. A. Scoble. - The Behaviour of Iron
under Small Periodic Magnetising Forces : J. M. Baldwin.-Fluorescence Aëronautics and Meteorology
and Magnetic Rotation Spectra of Sodium Vapour, and their Analysis: Modern Needs in Universities
Prof. R. W. Wood.
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 27.

Agricultural Notes ...
Essex Field CLUB (at the Essex Museum of Natural History, Stratford), University and Educational Intelligence

65 at 6.30.-On the Salinity of the Sea water along the Coast of Essex: Dr.

Societies and Academies .
H. Č. Sorby, F.R.S.-Sponges : their Life-history and Development:
M. Y. Wolle.

Diary of Societies

05:

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Floral Biology, by F. D.-Single-phase Commutator
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Bonney, F.R.S.
Our Book Shelf :

The Birds of the British Islands.--The Manufacture of
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- Elementary Electrical Calculations. Letters to the Editor :

Biometry and Biology: A Rejoinder, by Prof. KARL
PEARSON, F.R.S.-Radium and Geology, by Hon. R. J.
STRUTT, F.R.S. -The Rusting of Iron, by J. NEWTON

FRIEND.-Optical Illusions, by DOUGLAS CARNEGIE.
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